Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 84: 101974, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014824

RESUMO

Mutations in Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) are among the most common aberrations in cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The lack of an ideal small molecule binding pocket in the KRAS protein and its high affinity towards the abundance of cellular guanosine triphosphate (GTP) renders the design of specific small molecule drugs challenging. Despite efforts, KRAS remains a challenging therapeutic target. Among the different known mutations; the KRASG12C (glycine 12 to cysteine) mutation has been considered potentially druggable. Several novel covalent direct inhibitors targeting KRASG12C with similar covalent binding mechanisms are now in clinical trials. Both AMG 510 from Amgen and MRTX849 from Mirati Therapeutics covalently binds to KRASG12C at the cysteine at residue 12, keeping KRASG12C in its inactive GDP-bound state and inhibiting KRAS-dependent signaling. Both inhibitors are being studied as a single agent or as combination with other targets. In addition, two novel KRAS G12C inhibitors JNJ-74699157 and LY3499446 will have entered phase 1 studies by the end of 2019. Given the rapid clinical development of 4 direct covalent KRAS G12C inhibitors within a short period of time, understanding the similarities and differences among these will be important to determine the best treatment option based on tumor specific response (NSCLC versus colorectal carcinoma), potential resistance mechanisms (i.e. anticipated acquired mutation at the cysteine 12 residue) and central nervous system (CNS) activity. Additionally, further investigation evaluating the efficacy and safety of combination therapies with agents such as immune checkpoint inhibitors will be important next steps.

2.
Lung Cancer ; 141: 78-81, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in both men and women in the United States. COPD is associated with lung cancer independently of cigarette smoking, but remains understudied in women. Utilizing data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS), this report investigates the association between COPD and development of lung cancer, with a focus on ethnicity and cancer subtype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The WHI-OS, part of the larger Women's Health Initiative (WHI), is comprised of postmenopausal women between ages 50 and 79 years old at enrollment. Self-administered questionnaires were utilized to gather baseline demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral information from participants. For this analysis, COPD status was determined at study entry (baseline) and on annual survey (incident). Information on the primary outcome of interest, diagnosis of lung cancer, was also collected annually. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 92,789 women examined, 1,536 developed lung cancer. Overall, women with COPD were 1.64 times more likely to develop lung cancer than those without COPD, after adjusting for smoking status and intensity, ethnicity, education, body mass index, and income (HR = 1.64, 95 % CI: 1.43, 1.89). The relationship between COPD and lung cancer was not found to be significantly different between ethnic groups (p-value = 0.697). The associations between COPD and lung cancer was similar across subtypes (HR range 1.31-2.16), after adjusting for smoking status and intensity. COPD increases risk of lung cancer in women, thus they may benefit from more intensive surveillance compared to similar women without COPD.

3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 145: 102841, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884204

RESUMO

The gut microbiome is a collection of diverse bacteria that normally reside within the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, the relationship between the gut microbiome, and fluctuations in it, and overall health has been an intense area of interest in medical research. In addition to having a barrier role in the gastrointestinal tract, there appears to be an immune function of gut microbiota, with a correlation between dysbiosis of gut microbiota and certain inflammatory and malignant disease states of the gastrointestinal system. We have also seen evidence that the gut microbiome can impact response to immunotherapy in melanoma patients. Evidence has also emerged to show that the lung has a microbiome of its own. In this review we will explore the relationship between the gut and lung microbiomes, known as the gut-lung axis, and the potential effects of this axis on anticancer therapy in lung cancer, including checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Microbiota , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/microbiologia , Disbiose , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia
4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurotrophin receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusions (NTRK+) are rare but actionable oncogenic drivers present in a wide variety of solid tumors. However, the clinicopathologic characteristics of NTRK1 fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer are largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lung cancer tissue specimens and/or circulating cell-free DNA from patients with lung cancer who had undergone molecular profiling at a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified genomics laboratory in China were retrospectively reviewed. The laboratory performed NTRK1 fusion detection using hybridization-based targeted next-generation sequencing. The patients' clinical characteristics and treatment history were retrieved from the database for further evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 21,155 Chinese lung cancer cases had undergone molecular profiling from April 2016 to March 2019, including 13,630 adenocarcinoma cases. Of these cases, 12 were positive for NTRK1 fusion, including 10 cases of adenocarcinoma (0.073%), 1 primary sarcomatoid carcinoma, and 1 with an unknown histologic classification. Seven fusion partners (CD74, interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 [IRF2BP2], lamin A/C [LMNA], PHD finger protein 20 [PHF20], sequestosome 1 [SQSTM1], tropomyosin 3 [TPM3], TPR) were identified. Additionally, 1 unique rearrangement occurred upstream of the transcription start site of BCL9 fused to exon 12 of NTRK1 (intragenic region, BCL9-NTRK1). Of the 12 cases of NTRK1+ lung cancer, 6 had had concurrent activating EGFR mutations and/or had received previous treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with 2 having concurrent EGFR T790M and 1 additional EGFR C797S. CONCLUSIONS: NTRK1+ lung cancer cases are extremely rare with multiple fusion partners. Additionally, emergence of NTRK1+ fusion might act as a resistance mechanism to EGFR TKIs. When performing comprehensive analysis of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, the ability to detect NTRK1 fusions will be important.

5.
Oral Oncol ; : 104435, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635973

RESUMO

In recent years, cancer immunotherapy has emerged as the fourth pillar of cancer therapy alongside surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We here report an unusual scenario of a patient with advanced metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who was lost to follow up after two cycles of chemo-immunotherapy who later returned to clinic with complete response; suggesting that in some, all that was needed may have been just a few doses of therapy to "release the breaks."

6.
Lung Cancer (Auckl) ; 10: 95-105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572037

RESUMO

Introduction of hypothesis: Little information is available regarding the imaging characteristics that assist in differentiating responders from non-responders. We hypothesized that patients with higher pretreatment tumor volume (PTV) would have lower response rates and shorter overall survival (OS). Methods: Data from patients who received at least one dose of program death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors before August 31, 2016 were captured from our institution's pharmacy database. The primary objective was to determine the association of PTV with best response, evaluated utilizing RECIST v1.1 criteria. Secondary objectives were estimation of progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. PTV was measured using the Philips Intellispace Multi-Modality Tumor Tracking application. Results: 116 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were evaluated. 66% patients had adenocarcinoma, 28% had squamous cell carcinoma and 5% had poorly differentiated NSCLC. Median PTV was 53.7 cm3 (95% CI: 13.3-107.9). Only one individual had no metastases and the remainder had M1 disease; 38% M1a, 10% M1b, 51% M1c. Most (79%) were previously treated. There were no complete responses; among those followed for at least 6 weeks, 26% had a partial response, 39% stable disease and 34% PD; 4% had no recorded response. There were no strong associations of PTV with any of the demographic or clinical characteristics. There was no association between PTV and OS (HR 1.2, P=0.26) or PFS (HR 1.1, P=0.47). Liver metastasis was associated with shorter survival (HR=2.8, P=0.05). Conclusion: PTV in NSCLC did not prove to be a predictor of response to PD-1 inhibitors but having liver metastasis was associated with significantly shorter survival.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572323

RESUMO

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a debilitating, progressive disease without effective treatment; therefore, development of disease modifying therapy that improves long-term functional outcomes is an unmet need for patients. However, it is virtually impossible to consider this as a primary endpoint in clinical trials owing to the prolonged disease course. Therefore, development of surrogate markers that help predict the effectiveness of new interventions is essential. Currently, several candidate surrogate markers have been identified for HAM/TSP. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) is involved in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP and was shown to correlate with disease progression. However, it remains unclear whether changes in CSF CXCL10 levels are observed in response to treatment and whether these correlate with prognosis. Here we investigated several markers, including CSF CXCL10, in this respect. Data pertaining to patient characteristics and results of motor function evaluation and CSF examination of 13 HAM/TSP patients who received steroid treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Osame motor disability scores (OMDS), 10 m walking time, and CSF levels of CXCL10, neopterin, total protein, cell counts, and anti-HTLV-1 antibody titer were compared before and after steroid therapy. Levels of all CSF markers, with the exception of cell count, were significantly decreased after treatment. Nine of the 13 patients (69.2%) showed improvement in OMDS and were considered responders. Pre-treatment CSF levels of CXCL10 and anti-HTLV-1 antibody titer in responders were higher than those in non-responders (p = 0.020 and p = 0.045, respectively). Patients who continued low-dose oral prednisolone maintenance therapy after methylprednisolone pulse therapy showed sustained improvement in OMDS and CSF CXCL10 and neopterin levels lasting for 2 years. In contrast, OMDS and the CSF marker levels in patients who discontinued treatment returned to pre-treatment levels. This rebound phenomenon was also observed in patients who discontinued oral prednisolone therapy independently of pulse therapy. Our findings suggest that CSF CXCL10 may serve as a therapy-response and therapy-predictive marker for HAM/TSP. In addition, since decrease in CSF CXCL10 level was associated with good functional prognosis, CSF CXCL10 is a potential surrogate marker for treatment of HAM/TSP.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 227, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neurological disease, large scale studies to collect continuous clinical data have been difficult to conduct. Therefore, the incidence of comorbidities and drug utilization data remain unknown. When conducting trials to develop new drugs in rare disease such as HAM/TSP, historical control data obtained from registry studies would be useful, as cohorts in rare disease tend to be small. Long-term follow-up of patients with a chronic disease can also be challenging. In this study, we addressed the following two goals using registry data on patients (n = 486) enrolled in the Japanese HAM/TSP patient registry "HAM-net" from 2012 to 2016: 1) to clarify the epidemiological information of HAM/TSP such as the incidence of comorbidities and drug utilization and 2) to provide the real-world data on changes in lower limb motor dysfunction. RESULTS: In HAM-net-registered patients, common comorbidities were fractures, herpes zoster, and uveitis, with incidences of 55.5, 10.4, and 6.5, respectively, per 1000 person-years. Every year, oral steroid treatment was administered in 48.2-50.7% of the HAM-net-registered patients and interferon-α treatment was used in 2.6-3.5% of patients. The median dose of oral prednisolone was low at 5.0 mg/day. The incidence of fractures and herpes zoster tended to be higher in the steroid-treated group than in the untreated group (fractures: 61.0 vs. 48.3, herpes zoster: 12.7 vs. 8.8, per 1000 person-years). The analysis of chronological change in Osame motor disability score (OMDS) indicated that the mean change in OMDS was + 0.20 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.14-0.25] per year in the one-year observation group (n = 346) and + 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42-0.73) over four years in the four-year observation group (n = 148). Significant deterioration of OMDS was noted in all subgroups with varying steroid use status. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the incidence of comorbidities and drug utilization data in patients with HAM/TSP using registry data. Furthermore, this study provided real-world data on chronological changes in lower limb motor dysfunction in patients with HAM/TSP, indicating the utility of these data as historical controls.

10.
Oral Oncol ; 992019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277904

RESUMO

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive neuroendocrine skin malignancy. We report here a case of localized MCC achieving pathologic complete response upon treatment with avelumab in the neoadjuvant setting. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed a close relationship between MCC and the immune system, thus supporting a role for PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in MCC. This neoadjuvant use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors can avoid potentially disfiguring surgery in MCC. As the incidence of MCC is rising, clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in resectable disease.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1354-1359, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128291
12.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 136: 1-12, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878123

RESUMO

Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is an immunotherapy which involves the passive transfer of lymphocytes into a lymphodepleted host after ex vivo stimulation and expansion. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have shown objective tumor responses mainly restricted to melanoma and rely on a laborious manufacturing process. These limitations led to emergence of engineered cells, where normal peripheral blood lymphocytes are modified to express T cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). To date, CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells have been the most extensively studied, showing complete and durable responses in B-cell malignancies. Antitumor responses with engineered T cells have often been accompanied by undesired toxicities in clinical trials including cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. In this review, we provide an overview of adoptive cellular strategies, early and ongoing clinical trials, adverse events and strategies to mitigate side effects and overcome limitations.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos T/transplante , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/transplante , Melanoma/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia
14.
Anticancer Res ; 39(2): 781-790, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the characteristics of patients who are likely to experience adverse events, both immune-related and non-immune-related, from programmed cell death-1 (PD1) inhibitors are limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from patients who received ≥1 dose of single-agent PD1 inhibitor between August 3, 2011 and August 31, 2016 were obtained from our Institution's pharmacy database. AEs were graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-two patients received at least one dose of single-agent PD1 inhibitor prior to data cut-off. After excluding 14 patients with uncommon malignancies, the total number of patients were 168. The median age was 63 (range=24-92) years. There were 87 (52%) cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 35 (21%) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 12 (7%) of melanoma, 18 (11%) of Hodgkin's lymphomas, eight (5%) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and eight (5%) of small cell lung cancer. Considering grade 2 or more AEs, 30 (18%) patients had kidney injury, 34 (20%) hypothyroidism, 36 (21%) transaminitis, 20 (12%) pneumonitis, and 18 (11%) colitis. Patients with RCC had higher odds of experiencing grade 2 or more kidney injury than patients with other primary tumor types (adjusted p=0.025), whereas patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and HNSCC had higher odds of grade 2 hypothyroidism (adjusted p=0.005). Patients with NSCLC had higher risk of death with pneumonitis than those whose primary cancer was not NSCLC (adjusted p=0.005). DISCUSSION: The increased odds of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and HNSCC experiencing grade 2 or more hypothyroidism may be related to previous radiation exposure. Most patients with RCC had undergone nephrectomy, making them more susceptible to acute kidney injury. When pneumonitis occurred in patients with primary NSCLC, the overall survival was significantly worse. The duration of PD1 therapy was significantly associated with onset of pneumonitis (p=0.007). CONCLUSION: The site of primary tumor or metastasis may help predict the most common AEs in patients treated with PD1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Sistema Imunitário , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905765

RESUMO

Lenvatinib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that shows improved median progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with thyroid carcinomas. However, virtually all patients ultimately progress, indicating the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of resistance. Here, we examined the molecular profile of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells (8505C) exposed to lenvatinib and found that long-term exposure to lenvatinib caused phenotypic changes. Consistent with change toward mesenchymal morphology, activation of pro-survival signaling, nuclear exporter protein exportin 1 (XPO1) and Rho GTPase effector p21 activated kinases (PAK) was also observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that prolonged lenvatinib treatment caused alterations in numerous cellular pathways and several oncogenes such as CEACAM (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule) and NUPR1 (Nuclear protein 1) were also upregulated. Further, we evaluated the impact of XPO1 and PAK4 inhibition in the presence or absence of lenvatinib. Targeted inhibition of XPO1 and PAK4 could sensitize the 8505C cells to lenvatinib. Both XPO1 and PAK4 inhibitors, when combined with lenvatinib, showed superior anti-tumor activity in 8505C sub-cutaneous xenograft. These studies bring forward novel drug combinations to complement lenvatinib for treating anaplastic thyroid cancer. Such combinations may possibly reduce the chances of lenvatinib resistance in thyroid cancer patients.

16.
Lung Cancer (Auckl) ; 9: 85-90, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498383

RESUMO

Introduction: Histologic transformation from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a well-recognized mechanism of resistance in EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma upon treatment with TKIs, but rarely reported with programmed death1 (PD-1) inhibitors. We report two cases of potential transformation during treatment with PD-1 inhibitors. Case presentations: Case 1, a 65-year-old man was diagnosed with stage IVa lung adenocarcinoma on pleural fluid cytology. He received six cycles of carboplatin and pemetrexed, then maintained on pemetrexed. He had disease progression after nine cycles of pemetrexed and was switched to nivolumab. He progressed after five cycles of nivolumab. Core biopsy of the lung mass revealed SCLC. Case 2, a 68-year-old man was diagnosed with two primary NSCLCs and underwent resection. He had recurrence after several months and was treated with four cycles of carboplatin, paclitaxel, and pembrolizumab on clinical trial, with partial response. He was continued on pembrolizumab and had disease progression after 30 cycles. Biopsy of the new lesions showed SCLC. Discussion: Histologic transformation from NSCLC to SCLC can be explained by the presence of a common cell precursor. Proposed molecular mechanisms include loss of RB1, TP53 mutations, and MYC amplification. The distinction between transformation and mixed histology tumors is challenging, especially when pathologic material used for the initial diagnosis is limited. The possibility of a second metachronous primary lung cancer cannot be excluded in our cases. Conclusion: Histologic transformation with PD-1 inhibitors could be under-recognized. Disease progression should prompt re-biopsy to uncover new histology and change in treatment. Future studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms and predictors of transformation.

17.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 38: 978-997, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231331

RESUMO

Liquid biopsy has been used extensively in solid malignancies to detect actionable driver mutations, to monitor treatment response, to detect recurrence, to identify resistance mechanisms, and to prognosticate outcome. Although many liquid biopsy sequencing platforms are being used, only five test kits have received government approval. We review representative literature on these government-approved liquid biopsy kits, which are primarily used to detect EGFR mutation in lung cancer and RAS ( KRAS, NRAS, BRAF) mutations in colorectal carcinoma. Another emerging use of single-gene liquid biopsy is to detect PIK3CA mutations and to understand resistance to hormonal blockade in breast and prostate cancers. The two most commonly used next-generation sequencing (NGS) liquid biopsy tests (Guardant 360, Guardant Health; FoundationACT, Foundation Medicine Inc.) are discussed. The ability and the applicability of NGS platform to detect tumor mutation burden are also addressed. Finally, the use of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to detect minimal residual disease may be the most important use of ctDNA in the setting of tumor heterogeneity. The ability to identify "shedders" and "nonshedders" of ctDNA may provide important insight into the clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor and portend important prognostic significance regarding survival.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genômica , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia
18.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1651, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30090093

RESUMO

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. While the disease usually progresses slowly without remission, there is a subgroup of patients with rapid progression and another subgroup with very slow progression. However, there have been no reports to date that have successfully determined the criteria to differentiate these subgroups. Therefore, we initially conducted a statistical modeling analysis to explore representative patterns of disease progression using data from our nationwide HAM/TSP patient registration system ("HAM-net"). The latent class mixed model analysis on the retrospective data (n = 205) of disease progression measured by the change in Osame Motor Disability Score from the onset of the disease to diagnosis demonstrated three representative progression patterns of HAM/TSP. Next, to test the effect of the progression rate at the initial phase of the disease on long-term prognosis, we divided 312 "HAM-net" registered patients into three groups (rapid, slow, and very slow progressors) based on the progression rate, then analyzed long-term functional prognosis of each group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Our data clearly demonstrated that the rapid progression at the early phase of the disease is an important poor prognostic factor. Moreover, to determine the biomarkers capable of discriminating the difference in disease activity, we compared the value of potential biomarkers of HAM/TSP among rapid (n = 15), slow (n = 74), very slow (n = 7), and controls (non-HAM/TSP patients, n = 18). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neopterin and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) were the most valuable markers to discriminate among rapid, slow, and very slow progressors. To differentiate between rapid and slow progressors, the cut-off values of neopterin and CXCL10 were determined to be 44 pmol/mL and 4400 pg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, to differentiate between slow and very slow progressors, these values were determined to be 5.5 pmol/mL and 320 pg/mL, respectively. Notably, we found that CSF levels of these markers in very slow progressors were within the reference range. Thus, we propose a new classification criteria for disease activity of HAM/TSP that may contribute to improving the treatment algorithm for HAM/TSP.

19.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(7): 1278-1281, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988586

RESUMO

While immunotherapy with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) checkpoint inhibition has shown promising activity against many tumor types, adverse events are common. Hypophysitis is a rare but serious immune-related event known to occur with anti-PD1 inhibition. It will become more prevalent as the usage of checkpoint inhibitors increases.

20.
Oral Oncol ; 80: 100-102, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605290

RESUMO

This report describes highlights the dramatic responses seen in patients who were given paclitaxel post progression on immunotherapy. There are multiple mechanisms by which synergistic effects of immunotherapy and chemotherapy occur. Further prospective studies on chemotherapy and immunotherapy are eagerly awaited.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA