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2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the major process by which some cancer cells convert from an epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal one, has been suggested to drive chemo-resistance and/or metastasis in cancer patients. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the presence of CD45/CD326 doubly-positive cells (CD45/CD326 DPC) in cancer. We deployed a combination of cell surface markers to elucidate the phenotypic heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer cells and identified a new subpopulation that is doubly-positive for epithelial and non-epithelial cell-surface markers in both NSCLC cells and patients' malignant pleural effusions. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We procured a total of 39 patients' samples, solid fresh lung cancer tissues from 21 patients and malignant pleural effusion samples from 18 others, and used FACS and fluorescence microscopy to check their surface markers. We also examined the EGFR mutations in patients with known acquired EGFR mutations. RESULTS: Our data revealed that 0.4-17.9% of the solid tumor tissue cells and a higher percentage of malignant pleural effusion cells harbored CD45/CD326 DPC expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal surface markers. We selected 3 EGFR mutation patients and genetically confirmed that the newly identified cell population really originated from cancer cells. We also found that higher proportions of CD45/CD326 DPC are significantly associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, varying percentages of CD45/CD326 DPC exist in both solid cancer tissue and malignant pleural effusion in patients with NSCLC. This CD45/CD326 doubly-positive subpopulation can be an important key to clinical management of NSCLC patients.

3.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 34, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis which may be associated with coronary artery aneurysms. A notable risk factor for the development of coronary artery aneurysms is resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which comprises standard treatment for the acute phase of KD. The cause of IVIG resistance in KD is largely unknown; however, the contribution of genetic factors, especially variants in immune-related genes, has been suspected. METHODS: To explore genetic variants related to IVIG-unresponsiveness, we designated KD patients who did not respond to both first and second courses of IVIG therapy as IVIG-unresponsive patients. Using genomic DNA from 30 IVIG-unresponsive KD patients, we performed pooled genome sequencing targeting 39 immune-related cytokine receptor genes. RESULTS: The single nucleotide variant (SNV), rs563535954 (located in the IL4R locus), was concentrated in IVIG-unresponsive KD patients. Individual genotyping showed that the minor allele of rs563535954 was present in 4/33 patients with IVIG-unresponsive KD, compared with 20/1063 individuals in the Japanese genome variation database (odds ratio = 7.19, 95% confidence interval 2.43-21.47). Furthermore, the minor allele of rs563535954 was absent in 42 KD patients who responded to IVIG treatment (P = 0.0337), indicating that a low-frequency variant, rs563535954, is associated with IVIG-unresponsiveness in KD patients. Although rs563535954 is located in the 3'-untranslated region of IL4R, there was no alternation in IL4R expression associated with the mior allele of rs563535954. However, IVIG-unresponsive patients that exhibited the minor allele of rs563535954 tended to be classified into the low-risk group (based on previously reported risk scores) for prediction of IVIG-resistance. Therefore, IVIG-unresponsiveness associated with the minor allele of rs563535954 might differ from IVIG-unresponsiveness associated with previous risk factors used to evaluate IVIG-unresponsiveness in KD. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the SNV rs563535954 could serve as a predictive indicator of IVIG-unresponsiveness, thereby improving the sensitivity of risk scoring systems, and may aid in prevention of coronary artery lesions in KD patients.

4.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 389-409, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887117

RESUMO

Incidence rates of Mendelian diseases vary among ethnic groups, and frequencies of variant types of causative genes also vary among human populations. In this study, we examined to what extent we can predict population frequencies of recessive disorders from genomic data, and explored better strategies for variant interpretation and classification. We used a whole-genome reference panel from 3552 general Japanese individuals constructed by the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo). Focusing on 32 genes for 17 congenital metabolic disorders included in newborn screening (NBS) in Japan, we identified reported and predicted pathogenic variants through variant annotation, interpretation, and multiple ways of classifications. The estimated carrier frequencies were compared with those from the Japanese NBS data based on 1,949,987 newborns from a previous study. The estimated carrier frequency based on genomic data with a recent guideline of variant interpretation for the PAH gene, in which defects cause hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and phenylketonuria (PKU), provided a closer estimate to that by the observed incidence than the other methods. In contrast, the estimated carrier frequencies for SLC25A13, which causes citrin deficiency, were much higher compared with the incidence rate. The results varied greatly among the 11 NBS diseases with single responsible genes; the possible reasons for departures from the carrier frequencies by reported incidence rates were discussed. Of note, (1) the number of pathogenic variants increases by including additional lines of evidence, (2) common variants with mild effects also contribute to the actual frequency of patients, and (3) penetrance of each variant remains unclear.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/genética , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Padrões de Referência
5.
J Hum Genet ; 64(5): 359-368, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760880

RESUMO

We report a family with progressive myoclonic epilepsy who underwent whole-exome sequencing but was negative for pathogenic variants. Similar clinical courses of a devastating neurodegenerative phenotype of two affected siblings were highly suggestive of a genetic etiology, which indicates that the survey of genetic variation by whole-exome sequencing was not comprehensive. To investigate the presence of a variant that remained unrecognized by standard genetic testing, PacBio long-read sequencing was performed. Structural variant (SV) detection using low-coverage (6×) whole-genome sequencing called 17,165 SVs (7,216 deletions and 9,949 insertions). Our SV selection narrowed down potential candidates to only five SVs (two deletions and three insertions) on the genes tagged with autosomal recessive phenotypes. Among them, a 12.4-kb deletion involving the CLN6 gene was the top candidate because its homozygous abnormalities cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. This deletion included the initiation codon and was found in a GC-rich region containing multiple repetitive elements. These results indicate the presence of a causal variant in a difficult-to-sequence region and suggest that such variants that remain enigmatic after the application of current whole-exome sequencing technology could be uncovered by unbiased application of long-read whole-genome sequencing.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Códon de Iniciação , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutagênese Insercional , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e025939, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782942

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A prospective cohort study for pregnant women, the Maternity Log study, was designed to construct a time-course high-resolution reference catalogue of bioinformatic data in pregnancy and explore the associations between genomic and environmental factors and the onset of pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus and preterm labour, using continuous lifestyle monitoring combined with multiomics data on the genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and microbiome. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women were recruited at the timing of first routine antenatal visits at Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan, between September 2015 and November 2016. Of the eligible women who were invited, 65.4% agreed to participate, and a total of 302 women were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were age ≥20 years and the ability to access the internet using a smartphone in the Japanese language. FINDINGS TO DATE: Study participants uploaded daily general health information including quality of sleep, condition of bowel movements and the presence of nausea, pain and uterine contractions. Participants also collected physiological data, such as body weight, blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature, using multiple home healthcare devices. The mean upload rate for each lifelog item was ranging from 67.4% (fetal movement) to 85.3% (physical activity), and the total number of data points was over 6 million. Biospecimens, including maternal plasma, serum, urine, saliva, dental plaque and cord blood, were collected for multiomics analysis. FUTURE PLANS: Lifelog and multiomics data will be used to construct a time-course high-resolution reference catalogue of pregnancy. The reference catalogue will allow us to discover relationships among multidimensional phenotypes and novel risk markers in pregnancy for the future personalised early prediction of pregnancy complications.

8.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.

10.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(3): 515-532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and cholestatic liver disease that eventually leads to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. We recently identified several susceptibility genes included NFKB1 and MANBA for PBC in the Japanese population by genome-wide association study. However, the primary functional variants in the NFKB1/MANBA region and the molecular mechanism for conferring disease susceptibility to PBC have not yet been clarified. METHODS: We performed high-density association mapping based on a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation analysis, using data from a whole-genome sequence reference panel of 1070 Japanese individuals and the previous genome-wide association study (1389 PBC patients, 1508 healthy controls). Among SNPs (P < 5.0 × 10-7) in the NFKB1/MANBA region, putative primary functional variants and the molecular mechanism for conferring disease susceptibility to PBC were identified by in silico/in vitro functional analysis. RESULTS: Among the SNPs in the NFKB1/MANBA region, rs17032850 and rs227361, which changed the binding of transcription factors lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1) and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), respectively, were identified as putative primary functional variants that regulate gene expression. In addition, expression-quantitative trait locus data and gene editing using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system supported the potential role of rs17032850 and rs227361 in regulating NFKB1 and MANBA expression, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We identified independent putative primary functional variants in NFKB1/MANBA and showed the distinct molecular mechanism by which each putative primary functional variant conferred susceptibility to PBC. Our approach was useful to dissect the pathogenesis not only of PBC, but also other digestive diseases in which NFKB1/MANBA has been reported as a susceptibility locus.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/genética , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , beta-Manosidase/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500874

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of European populations have identified numerous susceptibility loci for Crohn's disease (CD). Susceptibility genes differ by ethnicity, however, so GWASs specific for Asian populations are required. This study aimed to clarify the Japanese-specific genetic background for CD by a GWAS using the Japonica array (JPA) and subsequent imputation with the 1KJPN reference panel. Methods: Two independent Japanese case/control sets (Tohoku region [379 CD patients, 1621 controls] and Kyushu region [334 CD patients, 462 controls]) were included. GWASs were performed separately for each population followed by a meta-analysis. Two additional replication sets (254 + 516 CD patients and 287 + 565 controls) were analysed for top hit SNPs from novel genomic regions. Results: Genotype data of 4,335,144 SNPs from 713 Japanese CD patients and 2083 controls were analysed. SNPs located in TNFSF15 (rs78898421, Pmeta = 2.59 × 10-26, odds ratio [OR] = 2.10), HLA-DQB1 (rs184950714, Pmeta = 3.56 × 10-19, OR = 2.05), ZNF365 and 4p14 loci were significantly associated with CD in Japanese individuals. Replication analyses were performed for four novel candidate loci (P < 1 × 10-6), and rs488200 located upstream of RAP1A was significantly associated with CD (Pcombined = 4.36 × 10-8, OR = 1.31). Transcriptome analysis of CD4+ effector memory T cells from lamina propria mononuclear cells of CD patients revealed a significant association of rs488200 with RAP1A expression. Conclusion: RAP1A is a novel susceptibility locus for CD in the Japanese population.

12.
J Biochem ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452759

RESUMO

Personalized healthcare (PHC) based on an individual's genetic make-up is one of the most advanced, yet feasible, forms of medical care. The Tohoku Medical Megabank (TMM) Project aims to combine population genomics, medical genetics, and prospective cohort studies to develop a critical infrastructure for the establishment of PHC. To date, a TMM-CommCohort (adult general population) and a TMM-BirThree Cohort (birth+three-generation families) have conducted recruitments and baseline surveys. Genome analyses as part of the TMM Project will aid in the development of a high-fidelity whole-genome Japanese reference panel, in designing custom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays specific to Japanese, and in estimation of the biological significance of genetic variations through linked investigations of the cohorts. Whole-genome sequencing from >3,500 unrelated Japanese and establishment of a Japanese reference genome sequence from long-read data have been done. We next aim to obtain genotype data for all TMM cohort participants (>150,000) using our custom SNP arrays. These data will help identify disease-associated genomic signatures in the Japanese population, while genomic data from TMM-BirThree Cohort participants will be used to improve the reference genome panel. Follow-up of the cohort participants will allow us to test the genetic markers and, consequently, contribute to the realization of PHC.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15576, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349113

RESUMO

The associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1, as well as HLA-DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotype with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is well known. However, the primary associations of these loci still need to be determined. We used Japanese-specific SNP genotyping array and imputation using 2,048 sequenced Japanese samples to fine-map PLA2R1 region in 98 patients and 413 controls. The most significant SNPs were replicated in a separate sample set of 130 patients and 288 controls. A two-SNP haplotype of intronic and missense SNPs showed the strongest association. The intronic SNP is strongly associated with PLA2R1 expression in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database, and the missense SNP is predicted to alter peptide binding with HLA-DRB1*15:01 by the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB). In HLA region, we performed relative predispositional effect (RPE) tests and identified additional risk alleles in both HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1. We collapsed the risk alleles in each of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 into single risk alleles. Reciprocal conditioning of these collapsed risk alleles showed more residual significance for HLA-DRB1 collapsed risk than HLA-DQB1 collapsed risk. These results indicate that changes in the expression levels of structurally different PLA2R protein confer risk for IMN in the presence of risk HLA-DRB1 alleles.

14.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 33(6): 258-263, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269962

RESUMO

Genetic polymorphisms contribute to inter-individual variability in the metabolism of multiple clinical drugs, including warfarin, thiopurines, primaquine, and aminoglycosides. A rapid and sensitive clinical assessment of various genome biomarkers is, therefore, required to predict the individual responsiveness of each patient to these drugs. In this study, we developed a novel genotyping method for the detection of nine pharmacogene variants that are important in the prediction of drug efficiency and toxicity. This genotyping method uses competitive allele-specific PCR and a single-stranded tag hybridization chromatographic printed-array strip (STH-PAS) that can unambiguously determine the presence or absence of the gene variant by displaying visible blue lines on the chromatographic printed-array strip. Notably, the results of our STH-PAS method were in 100% agreement with those obtained using standard Sanger sequencing and KASP assay genotyping methods for CYP4F2 gene deletion. Moreover, the results were obtained within 90 min, including the PCR amplification and signal detection processes. The sensitive and rapid nature of this novel method make it ideal for clinical genetic testing to predict drug efficacy and toxicity, and in doing so will aid in the development of individualized medicine and better patient care.

15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 156: 420-430, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201214

RESUMO

Genetic variations within cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) contribute to inter-individual variation in the metabolism of clinically important drugs, including cyclophosphamide, bupropion, methadone and efavirenz (EFZ). In this study, we performed an in vitro analysis of 40 CYP2B6 allelic variant proteins including seven novel variants identified in 1070 Japanese individuals. Wild-type and 39 variant proteins were heterologously expressed in 293FT cells to estimate the kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax, and CLint) of EFZ 8-hydroxylation and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (7-ETC) O-deethylation activities. The concentrations of CYP2B6 variant holo-enzymes were measured by using carbon monoxide (CO)-reduced difference spectroscopy, and the wild-type and 28 variants showed a peak at 450 nm. The kinetic parameters were measured for the wild-type and 24 variant proteins. The values for the remaining 15 variants could not be determined because the enzymatic activity was not detected at the highest substrate concentration used. Compared to wild-type, six variants showed significantly decreased EFZ 8-hydroxylation CLint values, while these values were significantly increased in another six variants, including CYP2B6.6. Although 7-ETC O-deethylation CLint values of CYP2B6 variants did not differ significantly from that of CYP2B6.1, the CLint ratios obtained for 7-ETC O-deethylation were highly correlated with EFZ 8-hydroxylation. Furthermore, three-dimensional structural modeling analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism of changes in the kinetics of CYP2B6 variants. Our findings could provide evidence of the specific metabolic activities of the CYP2B6 proteins encoded by these variant alleles.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 551, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genotype imputation from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data using a haplotype reference panel consisting of thousands of unrelated individuals from populations of interest can help to identify strongly associated variants in genome-wide association studies. The Tohoku Medical Megabank (TMM) project was established to support the development of precision medicine, together with the whole-genome sequencing of 1070 human genomes from individuals in the Miyagi region (Northeast Japan) and the construction of the 1070 Japanese genome reference panel (1KJPN). Here, we investigated the performance of 1KJPN for genotype imputation of Japanese samples not included in the TMM project and compared it with other population reference panels. RESULTS: We found that the 1KJPN population was more similar to other Japanese populations, Nagahama (south-central Japan) and Aki (Shikoku Island), than to East Asian populations in the 1000 Genomes Project other than JPT, suggesting that the large-scale collection (more than 1000) of Japanese genomes from the Miyagi region covered many of the genetic variations of Japanese in mainland Japan. Moreover, 1KJPN outperformed the phase 3 reference panel of the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGPp3) for Japanese samples, and IKJPN showed similar imputation rates for the TMM and other Japanese samples for SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) higher than 1%. CONCLUSIONS: 1KJPN covered most of the variants found in the samples from areas of the Japanese mainland outside the Miyagi region, implying 1KJPN is representative of the Japanese population's genomes. 1KJPN and successive reference panels are useful genome reference panels for the mainland Japanese population. Importantly, the addition of whole genome sequences not included in the 1KJPN panel improved imputation efficiencies for SNPs with MAFs under 1% for samples from most regions of the Japanese archipelago.

17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(8): 2189-2199, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012571

RESUMO

Background Nephrotic syndrome is the most common cause of chronic glomerular disease in children. Most of these patients develop steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), but the loci conferring susceptibility to childhood SSNS are mainly unknown.Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Japanese population; 224 patients with childhood SSNS and 419 adult healthy controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix Japonica Array in the discovery stage. Imputation for six HLA genes (HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1) was conducted on the basis of Japanese-specific references. We performed genotyping for HLA-DRB1/-DQB1 using a sequence-specific oligonucleotide-probing method on a Luminex platform. Whole-genome imputation was conducted using a phased reference panel of 2049 healthy Japanese individuals. Replication was performed in an independent Japanese sample set including 216 patients and 719 healthy controls. We genotyped candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms using the DigiTag2 assay.Results The most significant association was detected in the HLA-DR/DQ region and replicated (rs4642516 [minor allele G], combined Pallelic=7.84×10-23; odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.26 to 0.41; rs3134996 [minor allele A], combined Pallelic=1.72×10-25; OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.37). HLA-DRB1*08:02 (Pc=1.82×10-9; OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.94 to 3.54) and HLA-DQB1*06:04 (Pc=2.09×10-12; OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.21) were considered primary HLA alleles associated with childhood SSNS. HLA-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*03:02 (Pc=7.01×10-11; OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.46 to 5.29) was identified as the most significant genetic susceptibility factor.Conclusions The most significant association with childhood SSNS was detected in the HLA-DR/DQ region. Further HLA allele/haplotype analyses should enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying SSNS.

18.
Heliyon ; 4(5): e00625, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872759

RESUMO

Forensic DNA typing is widely used to identify missing persons and plays a central role in forensic profiling. DNA typing usually uses capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of PCR amplification products to detect the length of short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Here, we analyzed whole genome data from 1,070 Japanese individuals generated using massively parallel short-read sequencing of 162 paired-end bases. We have analyzed 843,473 STR loci with two to six basepair repeat units and cataloged highly polymorphic STR loci in the Japanese population. To evaluate the performance of the cataloged STR loci, we compared 23 STR loci, widely used in forensic DNA typing, with capillary electrophoresis based STR genotyping results in the Japanese population. Seventeen loci had high correlations and high call rates. The other six loci had low call rates or low correlations due to either the limitations of short-read sequencing technology, the bioinformatics tool used, or the complexity of repeat patterns. With these analyses, we have also purified the suitable 218 STR loci with four basepair repeat units and 53 loci with five basepair repeat units both for short read sequencing and PCR based technologies, which would be candidates to the actual forensic DNA typing in Japanese population.

19.
J Gastroenterol ; 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite NUDT15 variants showing significant association with thiopurine-induced adverse events (AEs) in Asians, it remains unclear which variants of NUDT15 or whether additional genetic variants should be tested to predict AEs. To clarify the best pharmacogenetic test to be used clinically, we performed association studies of NUDT15 variants and haplotypes with AEs, genome-wide association study (GWAS) to discover additional variants, and ROC analysis to select the model to predict severe AEs. METHODS: Overall, 2630 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were enrolled and genotyped for NUDT15 codon 139; 1291 patients were treated with thiopurines. diplotypes were analyzed in 970 patients, and GWASs of AEs were performed with 1221 patients using population-optimized genotyping array and imputation. RESULTS: We confirmed the association of NUDT15 p.Arg139Cys with leukopenia and alopecia (p = 2.20E-63, 1.32E-69, OR = 6.59, 12.1, respectively), and found a novel association with digestive symptoms (p = 6.39E-04, OR = 1.89). Time to leukopenia was significantly shorter, and when leukopenia was diagnosed, thiopurine doses were significantly lower in Arg/Cys and Cys/Cys than in Arg/Arg. In GWASs, no additional variants were found to be associated with thiopurine-induced AEs. Despite strong correlation of leukopenia frequency with estimated enzyme activities based on the diplotypes (r2 = 0.926, p = 0.0087), there were no significant differences in the AUCs of diplotypes from those of codon 139 to predict severe AEs (AUC = 0.916, 0.921, for acute severe leukopenia, AUC = 0.990, 0.991, for severe alopecia, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Genotyping of NUDT15 codon 139 was sufficient to predict acute severe leukopenia and alopecia in Japanese patients with IBD.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8946, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880864

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

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