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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833419

RESUMO

While the advent of GWAS more than a decade ago has ushered in remarkable advances in our understanding of complex traits, the limitations of single-SNP analysis have also led to the development of several other approaches. Simulation studies have shown that the regional heritability mapping (RHM) method, which makes use of multiple adjacent SNPs jointly to estimate the genetic effect of a given region of the genome, generally has higher detection power than single-SNP GWAS. However, thus far its use has been mostly limited to agricultural settings, and its potential for the discovery of new genes in human diseases is yet to be fully exploited. In this study, by applying the RHM method to primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in the Japanese population, we identified three novel loci (STAT4, ULK4, and KCNH5) at the genome-wide significance level, two of which (ULK4 and KCNH5) have not been found associated with PBC in any population previously. Notably, these genes could not be detected by using conventional single-SNP GWAS, highlighting the potential of the RHM method for the detection of new susceptibility loci in human diseases. These findings thereby provide strong empirical evidence that RHM is an effective and practical complementary approach to GWAS in this context. Also, liver tissue mRNA microarray analysis revealed higher gene expression levels in ULK4 in PBC patients (P < 0.01). Lastly, we estimated the common SNP heritability of PBC in the Japanese population (0.210 ± 0.026).

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) have failed to find X chromosome (chrX) variants associated with the disease. Here, we specifically explore the chrX contribution to PBC, a sexually dimorphic complex autoimmune disease. METHODS: We performed a chrX-wide association study, including genotype data from 5 genome-wide association studies (from Italy, United Kingdom, Canada, China, and Japan; 5244 case patients and 11,875 control individuals). RESULTS: Single-marker association analyses found approximately 100 loci displaying P < 5 × 10-4, with the most significant being a signal within the OTUD5 gene (rs3027490; P = 4.80 × 10-6; odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.028-1.88; Japanese cohort). Although the transethnic meta-analysis evidenced only a suggestive signal (rs2239452, mapping within the PIM2 gene; OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26; P = 9.93 × 10-8), the population-specific meta-analysis showed a genome-wide significant locus in East Asian individuals pointing to the same region (rs7059064, mapping within the GRIPAP1 gene; P = 6.2 × 10-9; OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.21-1.46). Indeed, rs7059064 tags a unique linkage disequilibrium block including 7 genes: TIMM17B, PQBP1, PIM2, SLC35A2, OTUD5, KCND1, and GRIPAP1, as well as a superenhancer (GH0XJ048933 within OTUD5) targeting all these genes. GH0XJ048933 is also predicted to target FOXP3, the main T-regulatory cell lineage specification factor. Consistently, OTUD5 and FOXP3 RNA levels were up-regulated in PBC case patients (1.75- and 1.64-fold, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This work represents the first comprehensive study, to our knowledge, of the chrX contribution to the genetics of an autoimmune liver disease and shows a novel PBC-related genome-wide significant locus.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4557, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633225

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, progressive cholestatic liver disease in which intrahepatic bile ducts are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction. Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified chromosome 11q23.1 as a susceptibility gene locus for PBC in the Japanese population. Here, high-density association mapping based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation and in silico/in vitro functional analyses identified rs1944919 as the primary functional variant. Expression-quantitative trait loci analyses showed that the PBC susceptibility allele of rs1944919 was significantly associated with increased COLCA1/COLCA2 expression levels. Additionally, the effects of rs1944919 on COLCA1/COLCA2 expression levels were confirmed using genotype knock-in versions of cell lines constructed using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and differed between rs1944919-G/G clones and -T/T clones. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the contribution of COLCA1/COLCA2 to PBC susceptibility.

4.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were under mesalamine treatment develop adverse reactions called "mesalamine allergy," which includes high fever and worsening diarrhea. Currently, there is no method to predict mesalamine allergy. Pharmacogenomic approaches may help identify these patients. Here we analyzed the genetic background of mesalamine intolerance in the first genome-wide association study of Japanese patients with IBD. METHODS: Two independent pharmacogenetic IBD cohorts were analyzed: the MENDEL (n = 1523; as a discovery set) and the Tohoku (n = 788; as a replication set) cohorts. Genome-wide association studies were performed in each population, followed by a meta-analysis. In addition, we constructed a polygenic risk score model and combined genetic and clinical factors to model mesalamine intolerance. RESULTS: In the combined cohort, mesalamine-induced fever and/or diarrhea was significantly more frequent in ulcerative colitis vs Crohn's disease. The genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis identified one significant association between rs144384547 (upstream of RGS17) and mesalamine-induced fever and diarrhea (P = 7.21e-09; odds ratio = 11.2). The estimated heritability of mesalamine allergy was 25.4%, suggesting a significant correlation with the genetic background. Furthermore, a polygenic risk score model was built to predict mesalamine allergy (P = 2.95e-2). The combined genetic/clinical prediction model yielded a higher area under the curve than did the polygenic risk score or clinical model alone (area under the curve, 0.89; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 90.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mesalamine allergy was more common in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease. We identified a novel genetic association with and developed a combined clinical/genetic model for this adverse event.

5.
Biosystems ; 201: 104332, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359226

RESUMO

Dynamic simulation promises a deeper understanding of complex molecular mechanisms of biological pathways. How to determine the reaction kinetic parameters which govern the simulation results is still an open question in the field of systems biology. (1) Background: To execute simulation experiments, it is an essential first step to search effective values of model parameters. The complexity of biological systems and the experimental measurement technology severely limit the acquirement of accurate kinetic parameters. Previously proposed genomic data assimilation (GDA) approach enables users to handle parameter estimation using time-course information. However, it highly depends on successive time points and costs massive computational resource; (2) Methods: To address this problem, we present a new high-speed parameter search method for estimating the kinetic parameters of quantitative biological pathways using time-course transcriptomic profiles. The key idea of our method is to interactively prune the search space by introducing Probabilistic Linear-time Temporal Logic (PLTL) based model checking into GDA. (3) Results and conclusion: We demonstrated the effectiveness of our method by comparing with GDA on Mus musculus transcription circuits modelled by hybrid functional Petri net with extension. As a result, our method works faster and more accurate than GDA for both time-course datasets with dense and sparse observed values.

6.
J Hum Genet ; 66(1): 39-52, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097812

RESUMO

Studies in human genetics deal with a plethora of human genome sequencing data that are generated from specimens as well as available on public domains. With the development of various bioinformatics applications, maintaining the productivity of research, managing human genome data, and analyzing downstream data is essential. This review aims to guide struggling researchers to process and analyze these large-scale genomic data to extract relevant information for improved downstream analyses. Here, we discuss worldwide human genome projects that could be integrated into any data for improved analysis. Obtaining human whole-genome sequencing data from both data stores and processes is costly; therefore, we focus on the development of data format and software that manipulate whole-genome sequencing. Once the sequencing is complete and its format and data processing tools are selected, a computational platform is required. For the platform, we describe a multi-cloud strategy that balances between cost, performance, and customizability. A good quality published research relies on data reproducibility to ensure quality results, reusability for applications to other datasets, as well as scalability for the future increase of datasets. To solve these, we describe several key technologies developed in computer science, including workflow engine. We also discuss the ethical guidelines inevitable for human genomic data analysis that differ from model organisms. Finally, the future ideal perspective of data processing and analysis is summarized.

7.
Sci Adv ; 6(51)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355142

RESUMO

Rs671 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) is the cause of Asian alcohol flushing response after drinking. ALDH2 detoxifies endogenous aldehydes, which are the major source of DNA damage repaired by the Fanconi anemia pathway. Here, we show that the rs671 defective allele in combination with mutations in the alcohol dehydrogenase 5 gene, which encodes formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH5FDH ), causes a previously unidentified disorder, AMeD (aplastic anemia, mental retardation, and dwarfism) syndrome. Cellular studies revealed that a decrease in the formaldehyde tolerance underlies a loss of differentiation and proliferation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells. Moreover, Adh5-/-Aldh2 E506K/E506K double-deficient mice recapitulated key clinical features of AMeDS, showing short life span, dwarfism, and hematopoietic failure. Collectively, our results suggest that the combined deficiency of formaldehyde clearance mechanisms leads to the complex clinical features due to overload of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage, thereby saturation of DNA repair processes.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(21): e015902, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103541

RESUMO

Background Although chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and acute pulmonary embolism (APE) share some clinical manifestations, a limited proportion of patients with CTEPH have a history of APE. Moreover, in histopathologic studies, it has been revealed that pulmonary vasculature lesions similar to pulmonary arterial hypertension existed in patients with CTEPH. Thus, it remains unknown whether these 3 disorders also share genetic backgrounds. Methods and Results Whole exome screening was performed with DNA isolated from 51 unrelated patients with CTEPH of Japanese ancestry. The frequency of genetic variants associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension or APE in patients with CTEPH was compared with those in the integrative Japanese Genome Variation Database 3.5KJPN. Whole exome screening analysis showed 17 049 nonsynonymous variants in patients with CTEPH. Although we found 6 nonsynonymous variants that are associated with APE in patients with CTEPH, there was no nonsynonymous variant associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Patients with CTEPH with a history of APE had nonsynonymous variants of F5, which encodes factor V. In contrast, patients with CTEPH without a history of APE had a nonsynonymous variant of THBD, which encodes thrombomodulin. Moreover, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, which is one of the pathogenic proteins in CTEPH, was significantly more activated in those who had the variants of THBD compared with those without it. Conclusions These results provide the first evidence that patients with CTEPH have some variants associated with APE, regardless of the presence or absence of a history of APE. Furthermore, the variants might be different between patients with CTEPH with and without a history of APE.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5292, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087715

RESUMO

Recent advances have enabled the direct induction of human tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells from differentiated somatic cells. However, it is not known whether human hepatic progenitor cells (hHepPCs) can be generated from other cell types by direct lineage reprogramming with defined transcription factors. Here, we show that a set of three transcription factors, FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF6, can induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells to directly acquire the properties of hHepPCs. These induced hHepPCs (hiHepPCs) propagate in long-term monolayer culture and differentiate into functional hepatocytes and cholangiocytes by forming cell aggregates and cystic epithelial spheroids, respectively, under three-dimensional culture conditions. After transplantation, hiHepPC-derived hepatocytes and cholangiocytes reconstitute damaged liver tissues and support hepatic function. The defined transcription factors also induce hiHepPCs from endothelial cells circulating in adult human peripheral blood. These expandable and bipotential hiHepPCs may be useful in the study and treatment of human liver diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Hepatócitos/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/citologia , Ductos Biliares/fisiologia , Agregação Celular , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/fisiologia , Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/fisiologia , Fator 6 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 6 Nuclear de Hepatócito/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/transplante , Xenoenxertos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Esferoides Celulares/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
10.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 526, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968195

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive motor neuron disease that affects people of all ethnicities. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and thought to have multifactorial pathogenesis. To understand the genetics of sporadic ALS, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1,173 sporadic ALS cases and 8,925 controls in a Japanese population. A combined meta-analysis of our Japanese cohort with individuals of European ancestry revealed a significant association at the ACSL5 locus (top SNP p = 2.97 × 10-8). We validated the association with ACSL5 in a replication study with a Chinese population and an independent Japanese population (1941 ALS cases, 3821 controls; top SNP p = 1.82 × 10-4). In the combined meta-analysis, the intronic ACSL5 SNP rs3736947 showed the strongest association (p = 7.81 × 10-11). Using a gene-based analysis of the full multi-ethnic dataset, we uncovered additional genes significantly associated with ALS: ERGIC1, RAPGEF5, FNBP1, and ATXN3. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of sporadic ALS.

11.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 31, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a key role in the development of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, previous findings are not widely applicable to different populations because of population-specific genetic variation. We developed a Japanese-specific DNA microarray for high-throughput genotyping. The aim of the current study was to identify SNPs associated with PONV on a genome-wide scale using this microarray in a sample of Japanese surgical patients. METHODS: Associations between 659,636 SNPs and the incidence of PONV 24 h after surgery in a limited sample of 24 female patients were assessed using the microarray. After imputation of genotypes at 24,330,529 SNPs, 78 SNPs were found to be associated with the incidence of PONV. We chose 4 of the 78 SNPs to focus on by in silico functional annotation. Finally, we genotyped these 4 candidate SNPs in 255 patients using real-time PCR to verify association with the incidence of PONV. RESULTS: The T > C variant of rs11232965 in the long non-coding RNA MIR4300HG was significantly associated with reduced incidence of PONV among genotypes and between alleles (p = 0.01 and 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel SNP (rs11232965) in the long non-coding RNA MIR4300HG that is associated with PONV. The rs11232965-SNP variant (T > C) is protective against the incidence of PONV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (Identifier: UMIN000022903 , date of registration: June 27, 2016, retrospectively registered.

12.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(8): 1124-1135, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766473

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is supposed to manifest its metabolic phenotype in the liver, but it is common to have lean individuals diagnosed with NAFLD, known as lean NAFLD. We conducted a two-stage analysis to identify NAFLD-associated loci in Japanese patients. In stage I, 275 metabolically healthy normal-weight patients with NAFLD were compared with 1,411 non-NAFLD controls adjusted for age, sex, and alcohol consumption by a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In stage II, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in chromosome 6 (chr6) (P = 6.73E-08), microRNA (MIR) MIR548F3 in chr7 (P = 4.25E-07), myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) in chr12 (P = 4.39E-07), and glycoprotein precursor (GPC)6 in chr13 (P = 5.43E-07), as suggested by the GWAS, were assessed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association analysis of whole NAFLD against non-NAFLD in 9,726 members of the general population. A minor allele of the secondary lead SNP in chr6, rs2076529, was significantly associated (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.28; P = 2.10E-06) and the lead SNP in chr7 was weakly associated (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.27; P = 6.19E-03) with increased NAFLD risk. Imputation-based typing of HLA showed a significant difference in the distribution of HLA-B, HLA-DR-beta chain 1 (DRB1), and HLA-DQ-beta chain 1 (DQB1) alleles in lean NAFLD GWAS. Next-generation sequence-based typing of HLA in 5,649 members of the general population replicated the significant difference of HLA-B allele distribution and the significant increase of the HLA-B*54:01 allele in whole NAFLD. Fecal metagenomic analysis of 3,420 members of the general population showed significant dissimilarity in beta-diversity analysis of rs2076529 and HLA-B*54:01 allele carriers from noncarriers. Veillonellaceae was increased but Verrucomicrobia was decreased in rs2076529 minor allele and HLA-B*54:01 allele carriers as in NAFLD. Conclusion: HLA was identified as a novel locus associated with NAFLD susceptibility, which might be affected by the alteration of gut microbiota.

13.
Mol Cell ; 79(4): 660-676.e8, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755593

RESUMO

Specific combinations of two transcription factors (Hnf4α plus Foxa1, Foxa2, or Foxa3) can induce direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts into hepatocyte-like cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatic reprogramming are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Foxa protein family members and Hnf4α sequentially and cooperatively bind to chromatin to activate liver-specific gene expression. Although all Foxa proteins bind to and open regions of closed chromatin as pioneer factors, Foxa3 has the unique potential of transferring from the distal to proximal regions of the transcription start site of target genes, binding RNA polymerase II, and co-traversing target genes. These distinctive characteristics of Foxa3 are essential for inducing the hepatic fate in fibroblasts. Similar functional coupling of transcription factors to RNA polymerase II may occur in other contexts whereby transcriptional activation can induce cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase II/genética , DNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Domínios Proteicos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
14.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566746

RESUMO

Panel sequencing of susceptibility genes for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome has uncovered numerous germline variants; however, their pathogenic relevance and ethnic diversity remain unclear. Here, we examined the prevalence of germline variants among 568 Japanese patients with BRCA1/2-wildtype HBOC syndrome and a strong family history. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified on 12 causal genes for 37 cases (6.5%), with recurrence for 4 SNVs/indels and 1 CNV. Comparisons with non-cancer east-Asian populations and European familial breast cancer cohorts revealed significant enrichment of PALB2, BARD1, and BLM mutations. Younger onset was associated with but not predictive of these mutations. Significant somatic loss-of-function alterations were confirmed on the wildtype alleles of genes with germline mutations, including PALB2 additional somatic truncations. This study highlights Japanese-associated germline mutations among patients with BRCA1/2 wildtype HBOC syndrome and a strong family history, and provides evidence for the medical care of this high-risk population.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10236, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581322

RESUMO

Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses have enabled us to predict the function of disease susceptibility SNPs. However, eQTL for the effector memory T cells (TEM) located in the lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs), which play an important role in Crohn's disease (CD), are not yet available. Thus, we conducted RNA sequencing and eQTL analyses of TEM cells located in the LPMCs from IBD patients (n = 20). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using genotyping data of 713 Japanese CD patients and 2,063 controls. We compared the results of GWAS and eQTL of TEM, and also performed a transcriptome-wide association study using eQTL from Genotype Tissue Expression project. By eQTL analyses of TEM, correlations of possible candidates were confirmed in 22,632 pairs and 2,463 genes. Among these candidates, 19 SNPs which showed significant correlation with tenascin-XA (TNXA) expression were significantly associated with CD in GWAS. By TWAS, TNFSF15 (FDR = 1.35e-13) in whole blood, ERV3-1 (FDR = 2.18e-2) in lymphocytes, and ZNF713 (FDR = 3.04e-2) in the sigmoid colon was significantly associated with CD. By conducting integration analyses using GWAS and eQTL data, we confirmed multiple gene transcripts are involved in the development of CD.

16.
Kidney Int ; 98(5): 1308-1322, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554042

RESUMO

To understand the genetics of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), we conducted a genome-wide association study in 987 childhood SSNS patients and 3,206 healthy controls with Japanese ancestry. Beyond known associations in the HLA-DR/DQ region, common variants in NPHS1-KIRREL2 (rs56117924, P=4.94E-20, odds ratio (OR) =1.90) and TNFSF15 (rs6478109, P=2.54E-8, OR=0.72) regions achieved genome-wide significance and were replicated in Korean, South Asian and African populations. Trans-ethnic meta-analyses including Japanese, Korean, South Asian, African, European, Hispanic and Maghrebian populations confirmed the significant associations of variants in NPHS1-KIRREL2 (Pmeta=6.71E-28, OR=1.88) and TNFSF15 (Pmeta=5.40E-11, OR=1.33) loci. Analysis of the NPHS1 risk alleles with glomerular NPHS1 mRNA expression from the same person revealed allele specific expression with significantly lower expression of the transcript derived from the risk haplotype (Wilcox test p=9.3E-4). Because rare pathogenic variants in NPHS1 cause congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNSF), the present study provides further evidence that variation along the allele frequency spectrum in the same gene can cause or contribute to both a rare monogenic disease (CNSF) and a more complex, polygenic disease (SSNS).

17.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(5): 724-738, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363322

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European and East Asian populations have identified more than 40 disease-susceptibility genes in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). The aim of this study is to computationally identify disease pathways, upstream regulators, and therapeutic targets in PBC through integrated GWAS and messenger RNA (mRNA) microarray analysis. Disease pathways and upstream regulators were analyzed with ingenuity pathway analysis in data set 1 for GWASs (1,920 patients with PBC and 1,770 controls), which included 261 annotated genes derived from 6,760 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (P < 0.00001), and data set 2 for mRNA microarray analysis of liver biopsy specimens (36 patients with PBC and 5 normal controls), which included 1,574 genes with fold change >2 versus controls (P < 0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis and categorization of cell type-specific genes were performed for data set 2. There were 27 genes, 10 pathways, and 149 upstream regulators that overlapped between data sets 1 and 2. All 10 pathways were immune-related. The most significant common upstream regulators associated with PBC disease susceptibility identified were interferon-gamma (IFNG) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Hierarchical cluster analysis of data set 2 revealed two distinct groups of patients with PBC by disease activity. The most significant upstream regulators associated with disease activity were IFNG and CD40L. Several molecules expressed in B cells, T cells, Kupffer cells, and natural killer-like cells were identified as potential therapeutic targets in PBC with reference to a recently reported list of cell type-specific gene expression in the liver. Conclusion: Our integrated analysis using GWAS and mRNA microarray data sets predicted that IFNG and CD40L are the central upstream regulators in both disease susceptibility and activity of PBC and identified potential downstream therapeutic targets.

18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(7): 2221-2228, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345703

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, obesity has become a public health issue of global concern. Even though disparities exist between human populations, e.g., the higher liver fat content of the Japanese despite a lower body mass index (BMI), studies on the genetics of obesity still largely focus on populations of European descent, leading to a dearth of genetic data on non-European populations. In this context, this study aimed to establish a broad picture of the genetic attributes of the Japanese population, by examining a representative sample of 18,889 individuals participating in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project cohort. We applied linear mixed model methods to 17 traits related to obesity and associated diseases to estimate the heritabilities explained by common genetic variants and the genetic correlations between each pair of traits. These analyses allowed us to quantify the SNP heritability of health indicators such as BMI (0.248 ± 0.032) and HDL cholesterol (0.324 ± 0.031), and to provide one of the few estimates of the SNP heritability of cystatin C in unrelated individuals (0.260 ± 0.025). We discuss potential differences between the Japanese and people of European ancestry with respect to the genetic correlations between urinary biomarkers and adiposity traits, for which large estimates were obtained. For instance, the genetic correlations between urine potassium level and the values for weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio ranged from 0.290 to 0.559, much higher than the corresponding estimates in the UK Biobank.

19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(8): 1177-1187, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To clarify the genetic background of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a population-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. METHODS: We performed a GWAS and replication study including 1676 UC patients and 2381 healthy controls. The probability of colectomy was compared between genotypes of rs117506082, the top hit SNP at HLA loci, by the Kaplan-Meier method. We studied serum expression of miR-622, a newly identified candidate gene, from 32 UC patients and 8 healthy controls by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In the GWAS, only the HLA loci showed genome-wide significant associations with UC (rs117506082, P = 6.69E-28). Seven nominally significant regions included 2 known loci, IL23R (rs76418789, P = 6.29E-7) and IRF8 (rs16940202, P = 1.03E-6), and 5 novel loci: MIR622 (rs9560575, P = 8.23E-7), 14q31 (rs117618617, P = 1.53E-6), KAT6B (rs12260609, P = 1.81E-6), PAX3-CCDC140-SGPP2 (rs7589797, P = 2.87E-6), and KCNA2 (rs118020656, P = 4.01E-6). Combined analysis revealed that IL23R p.G149R (rs76418789, P = 9.03E-11; odds ratio [OR], 0.51) had genome-wide significant association with UC. Patients with GG genotype of rs117506082 had a significantly lower probability of total colectomy than those with the GA+AA genotype (P = 1.72E-2). Serum expression of miR-622 in patients with inactive UC tended to be higher than in healthy controls and patients with active UC (inactive UC vs healthy controls, P = 3.03E-02; inactive UC vs active UC, P = 6.44E-02). CONCLUSIONS: IL23R p.G149R is a susceptibility locus for UC in Japanese individuals. The GG genotype of rs117506082 at HLA loci may predict a better clinical course.

20.
Genetics ; 214(4): 1079-1090, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005656

RESUMO

Gout is a common arthritis caused by monosodium urate crystals. The heritability of serum urate levels is estimated to be 30-70%; however, common genetic variants account for only 7.9% of the variance in serum urate levels. This discrepancy is an example of "missing heritability." The "missing heritability" suggests that variants associated with uric acid levels are yet to be found. By using genomic sequences of the ToMMo cohort, we identified rare variants of the SLC22A12 gene that affect the urate transport activity of URAT1. URAT1 is a transporter protein encoded by the SLC22A12 gene. We grouped the participants with variants affecting urate uptake by URAT1 and analyzed the variance of serum urate levels. The results showed that the heritability explained by the SLC22A12 variants of men and women exceeds 10%, suggesting that rare variants underlie a substantial portion of the "missing heritability" of serum urate levels.

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