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1.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
2.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1489-1497, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inverse observational association between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk remains unclear. We assessed whether the association is explained by metabolic aberrations, residual confounding, and within-person variability in smoking, and compared against other smoking-related cancers. METHODS: We investigated the association between BMI, and its combination with a metabolic score (MS) of mid-blood pressure, glucose, and triglycerides, with lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers in 778,828 individuals. We used Cox regression, adjusted and corrected for within-person variability in smoking (status/pack-years), calculated from 600,201 measurements in 221,958 participants. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 20 years, 20,242 smoking-related cancers (6,735 lung cancers) were recorded. Despite adjustment and correction for substantial within-person variability in smoking, BMI remained inversely associated with lung cancer [HR per standard deviation increase, 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.89)]. Individuals with BMI less than 25 kg/m2 and high MS had the highest risk [HR 1.52 (1.44-1.60) vs. BMI ≥25 with low MS]. These associations were weaker and nonsignificant among nonsmokers. Similar associations were observed for head and neck cancers and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, whereas for other smoking-related cancers, we generally observed positive associations with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The increased lung cancer risk with low BMI and high MS is unlikely due to residual confounding and within-person variability in smoking. However, similar results for other cancers strongly related to smoking suggest a remaining, unknown, effect of smoking. IMPACT: Extensive smoking-adjustments may not capture all the effects of smoking on the relationship between obesity-related factors and risk of smoking-related cancers.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
7.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103371, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic implications of blood cholesterol may differ at different stages of life. This cohort study compares the value of total cholesterol (TC) readings earlier versus later in life for the prediction of coronary atherosclerosis, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular death. METHODS: In a cardiovascular observation study (CVOS) we performed coronary angiography and prospectively recorded cardiovascular events in 1090 patients over up to 19 years. These patients had participated in a health survey (HS) 15 years prior to the CVOS baseline. TC was measured twice, first at the earlier HS and then later at CVOS recruiting. FINDINGS: Patients in the highest versus the lowest TC-category of the HS had an OR of 4.30 [2.41-7.65] for significant CAD at angiography, a HR of 1.74 [1.10-2.76] for cardiovascular events, and a HR of 7.55 [1.05-54.49] for cardiovascular death after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, TC as measured at the baseline of the CVOS was neither significantly associated with significant CAD (OR= 0.75 [0.49-1.13]) nor with cardiovascular events or death during follow-up (HR= 0.86 [0.62-1.18] and 0.79 [0.41-1.53], respectively). Moreover, the ESC/EAS-SCORE was found to be more powerful in predicting cardiovascular mortality when using earlier instead of later TC, with a continuous net reclassification improvement of 0.301 (p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: Early measurement not only enables early intervention in keeping with the concept of lifelong exposure to atherogenic lipoproteins. These data also suggest that cardiovascular risk prediction is more accurate if using earlier in life TC readings. FUNDING: The present study did not receive any particular funding.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.

9.
Maturitas ; 148: 46-53, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Serum markers that can be used to estimate the risk of bone fractures are rare, and findings for one candidate marker, uric acid, are heterogeneous. Our aim was to investigate the potential of serum uric acid (SUA) to predict hip fractures occurring in people aged 50 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: During a medical prevention program over the period 1985-2005 in Vorarlberg, baseline data were collected on SUA levels and covariates (age, BMI, blood pressure, smoking status, diabetes, triglycerides and cholesterol) from 185,397 individuals, of whom 42,488 women and 35,908 men met the inclusion criteria of this population-based cohort study. Information on incident cancer and end-stage kidney disease was acquired from registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident hip fracture occurring in participants aged 50 years and over during the observation period 2003-2013. RESULTS: SUA was associated with a rise in female hip fracture risk by 6% per unit increase (HR 1.06, 95 %-CI 1.01-1.10), and risk in the highest vs. lowest SUA quartile was significantly increased (HR 1.17, 95 %-CI 1.01-1.35), but not at hyperuricemic (>5.7 mg/dl) vs. normouricemic (≤5.7 mg/dl) levels. In men, hip fracture risk rose by 15 % per unit increase (HR 1.15, 95 %-CI 1.08-1.22), and risk was significantly higher in the highest vs. lowest SUA quartile (HR 1.50, 95 %-CI 1.17-1.91) as well as at hyperuricemic (>7.0 mg/dl) vs. normouricemic (≤7.0 mg/dl) levels (HR 1.48, 95 %-CI 1.19-1.84). CONCLUSIONS: Our results link SUA with increased risk of hip fractures, particularly in men.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/fisiopatologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ácido Úrico/sangue
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e212612, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787913

RESUMO

Importance: It is unknown whether the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index as a measure of insulin resistance is associated with the risk of developing end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Because individuals who are overweight or obese often develop insulin resistance, mediation of the association between body mass index (BMI) and ESKD risk through the TyG index seems plausible but has not been investigated. Objective: To evaluate whether the TyG index is associated with ESKD risk and, if so, to what extent the TyG index mediates the association between BMI and ESKD. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 176 420 individuals were recruited during routine health examinations to participate in the Austrian Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Promotion Program (VHM&PP), a prospective, population-based cohort study with participant enrollment between January 1, 1988, and June 30, 2005, and a mean follow-up of 22.7 years. Data analysis was conducted from March 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. Exposures: Body mass index and the logarithmized product of fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations (TyG index), as determined during the baseline health examination. Main Outcomes and Measures: End-stage kidney disease, as indicated by initiation of kidney replacement therapy, either dialysis or kidney transplantation. Results: Of the 176 420 participants, 94 885 were women (53.8%); mean (SD) age was 42.5 (15.4) years. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 22.7 (6.9) years, 454 (0.3%) participants developed ESKD and 35 234 (20.0%) died. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the TyG index was significantly associated with the risk of ESKD, both with (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increase, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.56-1.82) and without (HR per 1-SD increase, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.66-1.93) the inclusion of BMI as a covariate. Mediation analysis using a newly proposed 2-stage regression method for survival data showed that a 5-point increase in BMI increased the risk of ESKD by 58% (HR [total association], 1.58; 95% CI, 1.43-1.75), and that 41.7% of the total association (95% CI, 31.6%-51.8%) was mediated through the TyG index (HR [indirect association], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.25). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the TyG index appeared to be associated with ESKD risk and mediates nearly half of the total association between BMI and ESKD in the general population. Public health efforts aiming at the reduction of body weight might decrease the kidney sequelae of insulin resistance and the burden of ESKD.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Previsões , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 66-74, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634882

RESUMO

To explore the largely unknown etiology of small intestine cancer, we examined metabolic factors and risk of small intestine cancer overall and by subtypes. Among 404 220 women and 403 265 men in six European cohorts, we applied Cox regression with adjustment for smoking and body mass index (BMI), to calculate sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of small intestine cancer by levels of BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. We also calculated HRs for these factors combined (metabolic score; MetS) and used Wald test statistics to investigate pairwise interactions between metabolic factors on risk. We also performed analyses separately per subtype (neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] and adenocarcinomas). During a median follow-up of 16.9 years, 144 women and 195 men were diagnosed with small intestine cancer, including 184 NETs and 99 adenocarcinomas. Among men, no main associations or interactions between metabolic factors were observed in relation to the risk of small intestine cancer. Among women, triglycerides were positively and linearly associated with risk (HR per standard deviation [SD]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.46), and a positive association was also observed for the MetS (HR per SD: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.52). Positive interactions were observed among women between triglycerides and cholesterol (P = .0005), and between MAP and glucose (P = .009), on risk. Glucose was positively associated with adenocarcinomas among women. This large, prospective study suggests that elevated triglycerides, and metabolic factors in interaction, confer an increased risk of small intestine cancer among women, but not among men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Environ Int ; 147: 106371, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated methods for the analysis of multi-level survival data using a pooled dataset of 14 cohorts participating in the ELAPSE project investigating associations between residential exposure to low levels of air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and health (natural-cause mortality and cerebrovascular, coronary and lung cancer incidence). METHODS: We applied five approaches in a multivariable Cox model to account for the first level of clustering corresponding to cohort specification: (1) not accounting for the cohort or using (2) indicator variables, (3) strata, (4) a frailty term in frailty Cox models, (5) a random intercept under a mixed Cox, for cohort identification. We accounted for the second level of clustering due to common characteristics in the residential area by (1) a random intercept per small area or (2) applying variance correction. We assessed the stratified, frailty and mixed Cox approach through simulations under different scenarios for heterogeneity in the underlying hazards and the air pollution effects. RESULTS: Effect estimates were stable under approaches used to adjust for cohort but substantially differed when no adjustment was applied. Further adjustment for the small area grouping increased the effect estimates' standard errors. Simulations confirmed identical results between the stratified and frailty models. In ELAPSE we selected a stratified multivariable Cox model to account for between-cohort heterogeneity without adjustment for small area level, due to the small number of subjects and events in the latter. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the need to account for between-cohort heterogeneity in multi-center collaborations using pooled individual level data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Environ Res ; 193: 110568, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m3 PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Environ Int ; 146: 106249, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: The "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines. RESULTS: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 (warm season) were 24.2 µg/m3 (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 µg/m3 (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10-5m-1 (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 µg/m3 (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 µg/m3). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 µg/m3. We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O3 and lung cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Environ Int ; 146: 106267, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but evidence is sparse and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and COPD incidence. METHODS: Within the 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE) study, we pooled data from three cohorts, from Denmark and Sweden, with information on COPD hospital discharge diagnoses. Hybrid land use regression models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) in 2010 at participants' baseline residential addresses, which were analysed in relation to COPD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Of 98,058 participants, 4,928 developed COPD during 16.6 years mean follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations with COPD incidence were 1.17 (1.06, 1.29) per 5 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.11 (1.06, 1.16) per 10 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.11 (1.06, 1.15) per 0.5 10-5m-1 for BC. Associations persisted in subset participants with PM2.5 or NO2 levels below current EU and US limit values and WHO guidelines, with no evidence for a threshold. HRs for NO2 and BC remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas the HR for PM2.5 was attenuated to unity with NO2 or BC. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution is associated with the development of COPD, even below current EU and US limit values and possibly WHO guidelines. Traffic-related pollutants NO2 and BC may be the most relevant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Suécia
16.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, while evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project "Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with diameter<2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a 16.6 years mean follow-up. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.22 (1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2, and 1.15 (1.08-1.23) per 0.5 10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the EU and US limit values and possibly WHO guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.

17.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012774

RESUMO

Background Obesity and its health consequences will dominate health care systems in many countries during the next decades. However, the body mass index (BMI) optimum in relation to all-cause mortality is still a matter of debate.Material and Methods Data of the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program (VHM&PP, 1985-2005) and data provided by the Main Association of Austrian Social Security Institutions (MAASSI, 2005-2015) were analyzed. Information was available on age, sex, smoking status, measured height and weight, and mortality. Generalized additive models were used to model mortality as a function of BMI, calendar time, age, and follow-up.Results In MAASSI (N=282,216, 46.0% men), men and women were on average 2.7 years older than in VHM&PP (N=185,361, 46.1% men). Average BMI was slightly higher in men (26.1 vs. 25.7 kg/m2) but not in women (24.6 vs. 24.7 kg/m2).We found an interactive effect of age and follow-up on the BMI optimum. Over age 35 in men and 55 years in women, the BMI optimum decreased with length of follow-up. While keeping covariates fixed, BMI optimum increased slightly between 1985 and 2015 in men and women, 24.9 (95%-CI, 23.9-25.9) to 26.4 (25.3-27.3), and 22.4 (21.7-23.1) to 23.3 (22.6-24.5) kg/m2, respectively.Conclusion Age and length of follow-up have a pronounced effect on the BMI associated with the lowest all-cause mortality. After controlling for age and length of follow-up, the BMI optimum increased slightly over 30 years in this large study sample.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7578, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371883

RESUMO

Little is known about sex- and age-specific variations and temporal trends in serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations, the prevalence of hyperuricemia and its association with metabolic risk factors in the general population. Between January 1, 1985 and June 30, 2005 146,873 participants (42% women) were recruited. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was estimated applying a common (SUA > 360 µmol/L) and sex-specific cut-off points (women > 340 µmol/L, men > 420 µmol/L). At baseline, mean age was 41.2 years in men and 51.5 years in women, mean SUA concentration was 314.8 µmol/L and 243.6 µmol/L, respectively. Applying a common cut-off point, the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 18.5% in men and 4.4% in women and by sex-specific cut-off points it was 15.1% and 13.8%, respectively. SUA levels increased by 6.7 µmol/L per decade in men, but remained constant in women until the age of 50 years with a sharp increase by approximately 22 µmol/L per decade thereafter. In men and women, hyperuricemia was associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase. With increasing age SUA levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia rise in a sex-specific manner. Above the age of 65 years, the sex-specific prevalence of hyperuricemia in women outreaches that in men.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Áustria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 736, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959864

RESUMO

We investigated the associations of serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) with risk and prognosis of ALS in the ALS registry (October 2010-June 2014, median follow-up 67.6 months) in a case-control and cohort study, respectively. Serum samples were measured for IGF-1. Information on covariates was collected by standardized questionnaire. We applied conditional logistic regression to appraise the risk and Cox proportional hazards models to appraise the prognostic value of IGF-1. Data of 294 ALS patients (mean age 65.4 (SD 11.0) years, 60.2% men) and 504 controls were included in the case-control study. Median serum IGF-1 concentrations were slightly higher in ALS cases than in controls (101 vs. 99.5 ng/ml). IGF-1 concentrations were not associated with ALS risk in the fully adjusted model (top vs. bottom quartile: OR 1.16; 95%-CI 0.73-1.84, p for trend = 0.44). Among 293 ALS cases (mean age 65.5 (SD 10.5) years, 56.8% men) 243 died during follow-up. We found a statistically significant inverse association between continuous IGF-1 concentrations and survival (p = 0.01). Very high values IGF-1 were associated with a better prognosis of ALS suggesting that functions related to IGF-1 could be involved in survival.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
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