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1.
Lancet Haematol ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of donors other than HLA-matched siblings has been a pivotal change in stem cell transplantation. We aimed to assess the evolution of outcomes within donor groups over time and explore whether donor-recipient HLA disparity might be advantageous in patients with aggressive disease. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre study, we assessed the outcomes for adult patients (≥18 years) with haematological malignancies who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between Jan 3, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The donor types studied were matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and cord blood donors. Unrelated non-cord-blood donors and recipients were typed at the allelic level for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. We evaluated trends in overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, progression-free survival, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD-free and relapse-free survival following transplantation from various donor types (matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and umbilical cord blood), and compared transplantation outcomes across three epochs (epoch 1: 2001-05; epoch 2: 2006-10; and epoch 3: 2011-15). We used Kaplan-Meier estimators for survival probabilities and cumulative incidence functions accounting for competing risks for probabilities of GHVD, relapse, and non-relapse mortality, using multiple imputations by chained equations to deal with missing data. In epoch 3, we directly compared outcomes by donor group, stratified by a novel three-level disease-risk scheme. FINDINGS: We included 106 188 patients in our analysis. The median follow-up was 4·1 years (IQR 1·7-7·7). Overall survival at 3 years increased with all donor groups between epochs 2 and 3 (matched sibling: 54·0% [95% CI 53·1-54·8] to 54·6% [53·6-55·6]; matched unrelated: 49·1% [48·0-50·2] to 51·6% [50·7-52·6]; mismatched unrelated: 37·4% [35·7-39·2] to 41·3% [39·5-43·1]; haploidentical: 34·5% [31·4-37·9] to 44·2% [42·1-46·3]; and cord blood 36·3% [33·9-39] to 43·7% [40·8-46·8]). Improvement in overall survival seems to be driven by a reduction in non-relapse mortality, except in cord blood HSCT recipients, who had a lower relapse incidence. Comparing donor groups across disease-risk strata using the novel disease-risk scheme, overall survival among recipients of matched sibling transplantations remained better than other donor groups except in high-risk disease, where overall survival with matched unrelated transplantations was not different. INTERPRETATION: Overall survival following allogeneic stem cell transplantation is improving with substantial progress among recipients of haploidentical and cord blood HSCT. Nonetheless, the traditional donor hierarchy of matched sibling donors followed by matched unrelated donors and then other donors holds. Our findings warrant further investigation and could inform decision making and the development of donor-selection algorithms. FUNDING: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center in Haemato-Oncology, Tel Aviv University, and the Shalvi Foundation for Research.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462682

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a curative therapy for myelofibrosis. The optimal conditioning regimen has not been well defined. We retrospectively compared transplantation outcomes in patients with myelofibrosis (n = 67) conditioned with myeloablative (MAC, 36%) and reduced-intensity (RIC, 46%) regimens, and more recently with the combination of thiotepa, busulfan, and fludarabine (TBF, 18%). Patients were transplanted from HLA-matched sibling (n = 26) or unrelated donors (n = 41) between the years 2003 and 2018. The median follow-up was 2.9 years for all patients but shorter in the TBF group (1.1 years). The probability of 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 43%. At 1 year, the rate of PFS was 80%, 54%, and 45% with TBF, MAC, and RIC, respectively (p = 0.031). In a multivariable model, there was a greater risk for death with MAC (hazard ratio [HR] 12.26, p = 0.026) and lower PFS with both MAC (hazard ratio [HR] 7.78, p = 0.017) and RIC (HR 5.43, p = 0.027) compared with TBF. Relapse was higher with RIC (HR 8.20, p = 0.043) while nonrelapse mortality was increased with MAC (HR 9.63 p = 0.049). Our results indicate that TBF is a promising preparative regimen in myelofibrosis patients transplanted from matched sibling or unrelated donors, and should be further explored.

3.
Ann Hematol ; 98(10): 2389-2398, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392462

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is considered an effective way to prevent relapse in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study aimed to assess general trends in the use of various types of HSCTs performed between 2001 and 2015 in Europe, based on data reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. We also evaluated HSCT rates with respect to ALL incidence in selected countries. Altogether, 15,346 first allogeneic (n = 13,460) or autologous (n = 1886) HSCTs were performed in the study period. Comparing 2013-2015 and 2001-2003, the number of allogeneic HSCTs performed in first complete remission increased by 136%, most prominently for transplantations from unrelated (272%) and mismatched related donors (339%). The number of HSCTs from matched sibling donors increased by 42%, while the total number of autologous HSCTs decreased by 70%. Increased use of allogeneic HSCT was stronger for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive (166%) than for Ph-negative ALL (38%) and for patients aged > 55 years (599%) than for younger adults (59%). The proportion of allogeneic HSCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) increased from 6 to 27%. The age-standardized rates of allogeneic HSCT per ALL incidence varied strongly among countries. Our analysis showed a continued trend toward increased allogeneic HSCT use for adults with ALL, which may be attributed to increasing availability of unrelated donors, wider use of RIC regimens, and improving efficacy of pretransplant therapy, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors for Ph-positive ALL. Allogeneic HSCT remains a major tool in the fight against ALL in adults.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435032

RESUMO

The efficacy of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been investigated by many clinical studies over the past decade, including some randomized controlled trials. Intriguingly, although ATG is commonly used as prophylaxis for GVHD, there is still controversy about the optimal dose of ATG for prophylaxis of GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Indeed, the dose and formulation of ATG, as well as the degree of clinical benefit, has varied among studies, which makes it difficult to fully determine the clinical benefit of ATG. The aim of this review is to summarize the information regarding the optimal ATG dose of each formulation according to stem cell source, and to discuss how best to determine the personalized optimal dose of ATG in each allo-HCT recipient.

5.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409921

RESUMO

Large differences in patient and transplant backgrounds make it difficult to identify consistent prognostic factors of unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) among different populations. Thus, we performed a collaborative study between Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT and JSHCT/JDCHCT. Adults with acute leukaemia who underwent a single UCBT were eligible. In total, 3764 and 1027 patients of the JSHCT/JDCHCT and Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT registries, respectively, were included. The median ages of the Japanese and European cohorts were 51 and 38 years, respectively. Three or more HLA mismatches were more frequently observed in the Japanese cohort. The median total nucleated cell (TNC) counts were 2.58 and 3.51 × 107/kg in the Japanese and European cohorts, respectively. Anti-thymocyte globulin was used in only 2% of the Japanese cohort compared with 65% of the European cohort. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 41% in JSHCT/JDCHCT and 33% in Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT. In the multivariate analysis, TNC dose and HLA matching had no significant effect on OS in either cohort, whereas year of transplantation, age, and refined disease risk index affected OS in both cohorts. Despite considerable differences in characteristics between the Japanese and European cohorts, we observed similar prognostic factors affecting UCBT outcomes in adult patients with acute leukaemia in both registries.

6.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(Suppl 2): 713-718, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431696

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantations (alloSCT) from haploidentical (>2 HLA mismatch) donors (HaploSCT) are constantly increasing in Europe. From 2005 to 2015 numbers of HaploSCT increased by close to 300%. In parallel, there is a major shift from T deplete (CD34+ megadose) to T replete (non-T deplete) HaploSCT. Graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis also changed from CD34+ cell purifications to anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and lately to post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy). Novel conditioning regimens have been developed incorporating novel drugs and innovative approaches. Results are persistently improving and currently, registry-based and single-center studies showed no statistical significance difference in transplantation outcome between HaploSCT to alloSCT from unrelated donors and even from HLA-matched sibling donors, although the numbers of those studies are small and the lack of randomized studies available so far. HaploSCT have several advantages and such as the possibility to choose between different potential donors. Parameters to consider in the Haplo donor selection are age, gender, kinship, ABO blood group, CMV status, non-shared HLA Haplotypes and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR). Future goals are to further decrease transplant-related mortality currently mainly due to infection complications and reduce relapse rates especially in patients with high-risk acute leukemia.

7.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427719

RESUMO

Unmanipulated haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) has become an attractive alternative for patients lacking HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donors. However, data of outcome in ALL is still scarce. The outcomes of 1234 adult patients with ALL in first complete remission (CR1) who underwent Allo-SCT between 2007 and 2016 were analyzed. Comparison was done between haploidentical donor (Haplo) (136 patients), matched unrelated donor (MUD 10/10) (809 patients), and mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD 9/10) (289 patients). Univariate analysis showed similar outcomes in Haplo, MUD, and MMUD, including OS, LFS, RI, NRM, AGVHD, and CGVHD. In multivariate analysis, Haplo was not associated with worse outcomes compared to MUD 10/10 and MMUD 9/10. Indeed, compared to Haplo, the hazard ratio (HR) for LFS, OS, RI, NRM, AGVHD, and CGVHD were 1.1 (p = 0.7), 0.9 (p = 0.4), 1.35 (p = 0.2), 0.7 (p = 0.2), 1.1 (p = 0.8), and 0.8 (p = 0.2) for MUD, respectively, and 1.1 (p = 0.8), 1.0 (p = 1.0), 1.2 (p = 0.3), 0.8 (p = 0.4), 1.2 (p = 0.3), and 0.9 (p = 0.6) for MMUD, respectively. In conclusion, outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR1 receiving Haplo Allo-SCT are comparable to MUD or MMUD transplants. Haplo should be considered as a clinically relevant option for patients lacking a matched sibling donor.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455899

RESUMO

Information on incidence, and factors associated with mortality is a prerequisite to improve outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, 55'668 deaths in 114'491 patients with HSCT (83.7% allogeneic) for leukemia were investigated in a landmark analysis for causes of death at day 30 (very early), day 100 (early), at 1 year (intermediate) and at 5 years (late). Mortality from all causes decreased from cohort 1 (1980-2001) to cohort 2 (2002-2015) in all post-transplant phases after autologous HSCT. After allogeneic HSCT, mortality from infections, GVHD, and toxicity decreased up to 1 year, increased at 5 years; deaths from relapse increased in all post-transplant phases. Infections of unknown origin were the main cause of infectious deaths. Lethal bacterial and fungal infections decreased from cohort 1 to cohort 2, not unknown or mixed infections. Infectious deaths were associated with patient-, disease-, donor type, stem cell source, center, and country- related factors. Their impact varied over the post-transplant phases. Transplant centres have successfully managed to reduce death after HSCT in the early and intermediate post-transplant phases, and have identified risk factors. Late post-transplant care could be improved by focus on groups at risk and better identification of infections of "unknown origin".

9.
Leukemia ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363160

RESUMO

Allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) may be curative in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in second complete remission (CR2) but the impact of reduced intensity (RIC) versus myeloablative conditioning (MAC) is uncertain. The Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation Registry studied an AML CR2 cohort characterised by age ≥ 18 years, first allo-HCT 2007-2016, available cytogenetic profile at diagnosis, donors who were matched family, volunteer unrelated with HLA antigen match 10/10 or 9/10 or haplo-identical. The 1879 eligible patients included 1010 (54%) MAC allo-HCT recipients. In patients <50 years (y), two year outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent with leukaemia-free survival (LFS) 54% for each, overall survival (OS), 61% vs 62%, non-relapse mortality (NRM) 18% vs 15% and graft versus host disease relapse-free survival (GRFS) 38% vs 42%. In patients ≥50 y, 2 y outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent for LFS 52% vs 49%, OS 58% vs 55% and GRFS 42.4% vs 36%. However, NRM was significantly inferior after MAC allo-HCT, 27% vs 19% (P = 0.01) despite worse cGVHD after RIC-allo (32% vs 39%). These data support the need for ongoing prospective study of conditioning intensity and GVHD mitigation in AML.

10.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413093

RESUMO

We compared severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival and other transplantation outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin, versus peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin after myeloablative conditioning. In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from a human-leukocyte-antigen matched sibling donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,021) and those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,633) presented comparable severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free (HR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.1, P=0.5) and overall (HR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.8-1.2, P=0.8) survival. They had however, a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9; P=0.01). In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from human-leukocyte-antigen matched unrelated donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=2,318) had better severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=303) (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.001). They also had a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8, P=0.0006) and better overall survival (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-1.0, P=0.04). In summary, these data suggest that peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin results in comparable (in the case of sibling donor) or significantly better (in the case of unrelated donor) severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission receiving grafts after myeloablative conditioning.

11.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439677

RESUMO

Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia comprises two subtypes with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22). Since long-term response to chemotherapy in those leukemias is relatively good, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered in patients who relapse and achieve second complete remission. To evaluate the outcomes of allogeneic transplantation in this indication, we studied 631 patients in reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry between the years 2000 and 2014. Leukemia-free survival probabilities at 2 and 5 years were 59.1% and 54.1%, while overall survival probabilities were 65% and 58.2% respectively. The incidence of relapse and risk of non-relapse mortality at the same time-points were 19.8% and 22.5% for relapse and 20.9% and 23.3% for non-relapse mortality respectively. The most important adverse factors influencing leukemia-free and overall survival were leukemia with t(8;21), presence of 3 or more additional chromosomal abnormalities and Karnofsky performance score <80. Relapse risk was increased in t(8;21) leukemia and associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities as well as reduced intensity conditioning. Measurable residual disease in molecular evaluation before transplantation was associated with increased risk of relapse and inferior leukemia-free survival.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446198

RESUMO

The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is reviewed and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the recommendations. A panel of ALL experts developed consensus on the treatment recommendations based upon the evidence. Allogeneic HCT offers a survival benefit in selected patients with ALL and this review summarizes the standard indications as well as the areas of controversy. There is now greater experience with pediatric-inspired chemotherapy regimens that has transformed upfront therapy for adult ALL, resulting in higher remission rates and overall survival. This in turn has increased the equipoise around decision-making for ALL in first complete remission (CR1) when there is no measurable residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction and/or consolidation. Randomized studies are needed for adults with ALL to compare allogeneic HCT in CR1 with pediatric-inspired chemotherapy alone. Studies to assess indications for transplant in the evolving landscape of MRD assessments and novel targeted and immune therapeutics remain important areas of investigation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446199

RESUMO

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (YESCARTA®, Kite Pharma, a Gilead Company) and tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH®, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp.) are two CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CD19 CAR T) products that are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan) and Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia) for treatment of specific subtypes of relapsed/ refractory aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). While this approval has been transformative in the use of cellular immunotherapy in lymphoma, there are concerns regarding appropriate utilization of this novel therapy, as well as short- and long-term toxicities. To address these issues, representatives of American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) convened to recognize and address key issues surrounding the clinical application of CD19 CAR T cell therapy in B cell lymphomas, in collaboration with worldwide experts and members of International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), American Society of Hematology (ASH), Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). The aim of this article is to provide consensus opinion from experts in the fields of hematopoietic cell transplantation, cellular immunotherapy, and lymphoma regarding key clinical questions pertinent to the utilization of CD19 CAR T for the treatment of NHL. As the clinical practice using CAR T cells grows worldwide, we anticipate that this guidance will be relevant for hematology/oncology physicians who care for patients with lymphomas.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271887

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is potentially curative therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Marked improvement has been achieved with SCT from matched unrelated donors (MUDs) in recent years. However, there are limited data comparing the long-term outcomes (beyond 10 years) after SCT from sibling donors and MUDs in older patients with AML. We analyzed these outcomes in a large cohort of patients with AML (n = 1134), age ≥50 years, who were alive and leukemia-free 2 years after SCT from matched siblings (n = 848) or MUDs (n = 286), with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. The median age was 56 and 58 years after SCT from siblings and MUDs, respectively (P = .005). In the sibling group, 77%, 12%, and 11% were in first complete remission (CR1), second complete remission (CR2), and active leukemia at SCT compared with 50%, 25%, and 25% in the MUD group, respectively (P < .001). Sixty-one percent of siblings and 62% of MUDs had reduced-intensity conditioning (P = .78). The 10-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) of patients surviving leukemia-free 2 years after SCT was 72% and 62%, respectively (P = .30). Multivariate analysis identified active leukemia at SCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; P = .0001) or CR2 (HR, 1.51; P = .02) compared with CR1, female recipients (HR, 0.71; P = .006), adverse cytogenetics (HR, 2.52; P = .01), and prior graft-versus-host disease (HR, 1.31; P = .04) as independent factors predicting LFS. Donor and conditioning type were not significant. The cumulative incidence was 15% and 17% (P = .97) for late relapse mortality and 13% and 21% for late nonrelapse mortality, respectively (P = .15). In conclusion, long-term LFS is similar, and patients who are leukemia-free 2 years after SCT can expect favorable outcomes with both donor types.

15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 168: 412-428, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325448

RESUMO

Although having promising anti-myeloma properties, the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) panobinostat lacks therapeutic activity as a single agent. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying multiple myeloma (MM) resistance to panobinostat monotherapy and to define strategies to overcome it. Sensitivity of MM cell lines and primary CD138+ cells from MM patients to panobinostat correlated with reduced expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, whereas overexpression of CXCR4 in MM cell lines increased their resistance to panobinostat. Decreased sensitivity to HDACi was associated with reversible G0/G1 cell growth arrest while response was characterized by apoptotic cell death. Analysis of intra-cellular signaling mediators revealed the pro-survival mTOR pathway to be regulated by CXCR4 overexpression. Combining panobinostat with mTOR inhibitor everolimus abrogated the resistance to HDACi and induced synergistic cell death. The combination of panobinostat/everolimus resulted in sustained DNA damage and irreversible suppression of proliferation accompanied by robust apoptosis. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct genetic profiles of single versus combined agent exposure. Whereas panobinostat increased the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21, co-treatment with everolimus abrogated the increase in p21 and synergistically downregulated the expression of DNA repair genes and mitotic checkpoint regulators. Importantly, the combination of panobinostat with everolimus effectively targeted CXCR4-expressing resistant MM cells in vivo in the BM niche. In summary, our results uncover the mechanism responsible for the strong synergistic anti-MM activity of dual HDAC and mTOR inhibition and provide the rationale for a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat MM.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271884

RESUMO

The prognosis of patients with blast crisis (BC) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is still dismal. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents the only curative treatment option, but data on transplant outcomes are scarce. We therefore conducted a retrospective, registry-based study of adult patients allografted for BC CML, focusing on patients with active disease at transplant and pretransplant prognostic factors. One hundred seventy patients allografted for BC CML after tyrosine kinase inhibitor pretreatment between 2004 and 2016 were analyzed. Before transplant, 95 patients were in remission, whereas 75 patients had active BC. In multivariable analysis of the entire cohort, active BC at transplant was the strongest factor associated with decreased overall survival (hazrd ratio, 1.87; P = .010) and shorter leukemia-free survival (LFS; hazard ratio, 1.69; P = .017). For patients with BC in remission at transplant, advanced age (≥45 years), lower performance status (≤80%), longer interval from diagnosis BC to transplant (>12 months), myeloablative conditioning, and unrelated donor (UD) transplant were risk factors for inferior survival. In patients with active BC, only UD transplant was significantly associated with prolonged LFS and trended toward improved overall survival. In summary, survival of patients allografted for BC CML was strongly dependent on pretransplant remission status. In patients with remission of BC, conventional prognostic factors remained the major determinants of outcome, whereas in those with active BC at transplant, UD transplant was associated with prolonged LFS in our study.

17.
Eur J Haematol ; 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common toxicity of stem cell transplantation (SCT). We sought to evaluate OM burden, risk factors, and implications in a cohort of allogeneic-SCT recipients. METHODS: This was a single-center study including 115 adult allogeneic-SCT transplanted between 2016 and 2018 for various hematological conditions. Conditioning intensity was categorized as myeloablative (MAC, 39%), reduced intensity (34%), or reduced toxicity (RTC, 27%) in patients conditioned with fludarabine-treosulfan. OM was prospectively graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (v.4.0) system. RESULTS: Moderate-to-severe OM (grade 2-4) was experienced by 60% of patients. In a univariate analysis, younger age (P = .023), lower body mass index (P = .01), recent smoking (P = .08), recent antibiotics exposure (P = .018), MAC (P < .001), and methotrexate (P = .009) were associated with moderate-to-severe OM. In a multivariable logistic regression model, conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis remained significant. OM risk was lowest with RTC (RTC vs MAC: odd ratio [OR] 0.05, P < .001), and recent antibiotic exposure trended toward increased risk (OR 1.88, P = .168). OM was associated with longer hospitalization, delayed neutrophil engraftment, and gastrointestinal-related infections. CONCLUSION: Oral mucositis remains a leading SCT complication. Treosulfan-based conditioning has low mucosal toxicity and is appealing given previous reports on its high efficacy.

18.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 68, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As information on incidence, risk factors, and outcome of acute leukemia (AL) relapse after unmanipulated haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) is scarce, a retrospective registry study was performed by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. METHODS: Among 1652 transplants performed for lymphoblastic and myeloid AL between 2007 and 2014, 587 patients (acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 131, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 456) with detailed information were analyzed aiming to identify risk factors for post-transplant relapse and for overall survival (OS) after relapse. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 44% (35-53%) for ALL and 32% (27-36%) for AML (p = 0.023). In ALL, risk factors for relapse were disease status different from the first complete remission (CR1) at haplo-SCT (CR2 vs CR1: HR 2.85, p = 0.011; advanced vs CR1: HR 14.28, p < 0.0001) and male donor gender (HR 3.64, p = 0.0002), while in AML, risk factors were advanced disease at haplo-SCT (advanced vs CR1: HR 3.95, p < 0.0001) and comorbidities (HCT-CI) ≥ 3 (HR 1.75, p = 0.014). Transplants performed in more recent years were associated with lower relapse incidence (RI) in AML, but not in ALL (HR 0.91, p = 0.042). After relapse, median follow-up was 13 months (mos). OS at 1-year post relapse was 18%. Prognostic factors for superior OS after relapse were remission at time of haplo-SCT (CR vs advanced: HR 0.71, p = 0.028), time from transplant to relapse (≥ 5 mos vs < 5 mos: HR 0.530, p < 0.0001), and bone marrow as a stem cell source (peripheral blood (PB) vs bone marrow (BM): HR 1.473, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for relapse after haploidentical transplantation were disease specific. Longer OS after relapse was achieved in particular by patients both in CR at haplo-SCT and relapsing more than 5 months after transplant (1-year OS 33%).

19.
Blood Adv ; 3(13): 1950-1960, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262738

RESUMO

The impact of the use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) following a total body irradiation (TBI)-based myeloablative conditioning regimen has been poorly explored. We retrospectively analyzed 724 patients who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) following a TBI-based conditioning regimen for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and compared the outcomes of 251 (35%) patients who received ATG (ATG group) with 473 (65%) patients who did not (non-ATG group). Median follow-up of surviving patients was 59 months (interquartile range, 28-83). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) for non-ATG and ATG groups in the first 100 days was 33% vs 24%, respectively (P = .0098). The 2-year cumulative incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was reduced significantly in the ATG group in comparison with the non-ATG group (46% vs 34%, P = .003). Using multivariate analysis, in vivo T-cell depletion (ATG group) was independently associated with a decreased incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28; P < .001), grade III-IV aGVHD (HR, 0.21; P < .001), cGVHD (HR, 0.63; P = .02), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (HR, 0.54; P = .02). Relapse risk, overall survival, and leukemia-free survival were similar between the 2 groups. Our results suggest that the addition of ATG to TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for allo-HCT in AML patients results in a significant reduction in aGVHD and cGVHD, translating into a significant reduction in NRM without increasing the relapse rate.

20.
Blood ; 134(11): 892-899, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270102

RESUMO

The use of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has represented the standard of care in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in patients undergoing a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) transplant. The safety and feasibility of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) in this setting have been reported recently, but no study has compared the outcomes of PTCY vs ATG in 9/10 MMUD transplants. Using the registry data of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we performed a matched-pair analysis comparing those 2 strategies in a 9/10 MMUD setting. Ninety-three patients receiving PTCY were matched with 179 patients receiving ATG. A significantly lower incidence of severe acute GVHD was observed with PTCY compared with ATG. Recipients of the former also showed higher leukemia-free survival and GVHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS). When performing a subgroup analysis including patients receiving peripheral blood stem cells, being in complete remission, or receiving the same associated immunosuppressive agents, superiority of PTCY over ATG was confirmed. Similar to the haploidentical setting, use of PTCY is an effective anti-GVHD prophylaxis in the 9/10 MMUD transplant. Use of PTCY may also provide better outcomes in long-term disease control. These results need confirmation in large prospective randomized trials.

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