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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3173, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542437

RESUMO

In the ANRS 12174 trial, HIV-exposed uninfected African neonates who received lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) prophylaxis for 1 year exhibited slower growth from birth to week 50 compared with those receiving lamivudine (3TC). We assessed whether this difference in growth persisted over time, and was accompanied by differences in neuropsychological and clinical outcomes. Between February 2017 and February 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional clinical evaluation among former trial participants who completed the 50-week follow-up and who were not HIV-infected. In addition to clinical examination, neuropsychological outcomes were assessed using the tests Kaufman-ABCII, Test of Variables of Attention, Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire, parent version. Of 1101 eligible children, aged 5-7 years, 553 could be traced and analysed (274 in the LPV/r and 279 in the 3TC groups). Growth, clinical and neuropsychological outcomes did not differ between treatment groups. At school age, children exposed to LPV/r and 3TC at birth for 1 year had comparable growth and neuropsychological outcomes without evidence of long-term side-effects of LPV/r. It provides reassuring data on clinical outcomes for all HIV-infected children treated with this antiretroviral drug in early life.

2.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633072

RESUMO

Background & Objectives.Benin has a long-standing history of HIV prevention programs aimed at female sex workers (FSWs). We used data from a national survey among FSWs (2017) to assess the prevention and care cascades in this population. METHODS: FSWs were recruited through cluster sampling of sex work sites. A questionnaire was administered, and HIV tested. HIV-positive participants were asked to provide dried-blood spots (DBS), tested for ARV and viral load. We assessed two prevention cascades (HIV testing and safer sex) and the treatment cascade, using a combination of self-reported and biological variables. RESULTS: Mean age of the 1086 FSWs was 30 years. Half of them were Beninese and two-thirds had a primary school education level or less. Almost all FSWs had ever heard of HIV/AIDS. 79.1% had ever been tested, and 84.1% of the latter had been tested in the last year. In the previous six months, 90.1% were exposed to prevention messages. Women exposed to any HIV prevention message reported a higher level of consistent condom use in the last month (69.0%) than those who were not (48.5%, p<0.0001). HIV prevalence was 7.7%. Among HIV-positive women, 60.6% knew their status; among those, 90.5% were on ARV and 81.8% of them had a suppressed viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Despite long-standing HIV prevention programs for FSWs, the prevention indicators were often low. Linkage to care was good, viral suppression was sub-optimal, but knowledge of HIV-positive status was low. Exposing women to prevention messages is necessary, as to increase HIV testing.

3.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 62, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a significant problem in patients on ICU. Its commonest cause, iron deficiency (ID), is difficult to diagnose in the context of inflammation. Hepcidin is a new marker of ID. We aimed to assess whether hepcidin levels would accurately guide treatment of ID in critically ill anemic patients after a prolonged ICU stay and affect the post-ICU outcomes. METHODS: In a controlled, single-blinded, multicenter study, anemic (WHO definition) critically ill patients with an ICU stay ≥ 5 days were randomized when discharge was expected to either intervention by hepcidin treatment protocol or control. In the intervention arm, patients were treated with intravenous iron (1 g of ferric carboxymaltose) when hepcidin was < 20 µg/l and with intravenous iron and erythropoietin for 20 ≤ hepcidin < 41 µg/l. Control patients were treated according to standard care (hepcidin quantification remained blinded). Primary endpoint was the number of days spent in hospital 90 days after ICU discharge (post-ICU LOS). Secondary endpoints were day 15 anemia, day 30 fatigue, day 90 mortality and 1-year survival. RESULTS: Of 405 randomized patients, 399 were analyzed (201 in intervention and 198 in control arm). A total of 220 patients (55%) had ID at discharge (i.e., a hepcidin < 41 µg/l). Primary endpoint was not different (medians (IQR) post-ICU LOS 33(13;90) vs. 33(11;90) days for intervention and control, respectively, median difference - 1(- 3;1) days, p = 0.78). D90 mortality was significantly lower in intervention arm (16(8%) vs 33(16.6%) deaths, absolute risk difference - 8.7 (- 15.1 to - 2.3)%, p = 0.008, OR 95% IC, 0.46, 0.22-0.94, p = 0.035), and one-year survival was improved (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Treatment of ID diagnosed according to hepcidin levels did not reduce the post-ICU LOS, but was associated with a significant reduction in D90 mortality and with improved 1-year survival in critically ill patients about to be discharged after a prolonged stay. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrial.gov NCT02276690 (October 28, 2014; retrospectively registered).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594740

RESUMO

As breastfeeding is of utmost importance for child development and survival, identifying whether breast milk is a route of transmission for human viruses is critical. Based on the principle of Koch's postulate, we propose an analytical framework to determine the plausibility of viral transmission by breast milk. This framework is based on five criteria: viral infection in children receiving breastmilk from infected mothers; the presence of virus, viral antigen or viral genome in the breast milk of infected mothers; the evidence for the virus in breast milk being infectious; the attempts to rule out other transmission modalities; and the reproduction of viral transmission by oral inoculation in an animal model. We searched for evidence in published reports to determine whether the 5 criteria are fulfilled for 16 human viruses that are suspected to be transmissible by breast milk. We considered breast milk transmission is proven if all 5 criteria are fulfilled, as probable if 4 of the 5 criteria are met, as possible if 3 of the 5 criteria are fulfilled and as unlikely if less than 3 criteria are met. Only five viruses have proven transmission through breast milk: human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1, human immunodeficiency virus, human cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and Zika virus. The other 11 viruses fulfilled some but not all criteria and were categorized accordingly. Our framework analysis is useful for guiding public health recommendations and for identifying knowledge gaps amenable to original experiments.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207772

RESUMO

Infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis given to children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) to prevent HIV transmission through breastfeeding previously proved its efficacy in the fight against the pediatric epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the short- and long-term safety of prophylactic regimens. We previously reported a decrease of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content among CHEU who received one year of lamivudine (3TC) or lopinavir-boosted ritonavir (LPV/r) as infant prophylaxis. We aimed to describe mtDNA content at six years of age among these CHEU, including those for whom we identified mtDNA depletion at week 50 (decrease superior or equal to 50% from baseline), and to compare the two prophylactic drugs. We also addressed the association between mtDNA depletion at week 50 with growth, clinical, and neuropsychological outcomes at year 6. Quantitative PCR was used to measure mtDNA content in whole blood of CHEU seven days after birth, at week 50, and at year 6. Among CHEU with identified mtDNA depletion at week 50 (n = 17), only one had a persistent mtDNA content decrease at year 6. No difference between prophylactic drugs was observed. mtDNA depletion was not associated with growth, clinical, or neuropsychological outcomes at year 6. This study brought reassuring data concerning the safety of infant 3TC or LPV/r prophylaxis.

6.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e039234, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208326

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Vietnam, people who inject drugs (PWID), who are the major population infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV), remain largely undiagnosed and unlinked to HCV prevention and care despite recommended universal hepatitis C treatment. The data on the outcomes of HCV treatment among PWID also remain limited in resource-limited settings. The DRug use & Infections in ViEtnam-hepatitis C (DRIVE-C) study examines the effectiveness of a model of hepatitis C screening and integrated care targeting PWID that largely uses community-based organisations (CBO) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. In a wider perspective, this model may have the potential to eliminate HCV among PWID in this city. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The model of care comprises large community-based mass screening, simplified treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and major involvement of CBO for PWID reaching out, linkage to care, treatment adherence and prevention of reinfection. The effectiveness of DAA care strategy among PWID, the potential obstacles to widespread implementation and its impact at population level will be assessed. A cost-effectiveness analysis is planned to further inform policy-makers. The enrolment target is 1050 PWID, recruited from the DRIVE study in Hai Phong. After initiation of pan-genotypic treatment consisting of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir administrated for 12 weeks, with ribavirin added in cases of cirrhosis, participants are followed-up for 48 weeks. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with sustained virological response at week 48, that will be compared with a theoretical expected rate of 70%. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by Haiphong University of Medicine and Pharmacy's Ethics Review Board and the Vietnamese Ministry of Health. The sponsor and the investigators are committed to conducting this study in accordance with ethics principles contained in the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki (Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects). Informed consent is obtained before study enrolment. The data are anonymised and stored in a secure database. The study is ongoing. Results will be presented at international conferences and submitted to international peer-review journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03537196.

7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 216: 108334, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent among people who inject drugs, they are associated with a poorer prognosis and need to be addressed. Their interaction with daily heroin injection requires clarification. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among PWID recruited in the city of Haiphong, Vietnam, by respondent-driven sampling. The inclusion criteria were age 18 or older and current injection drug use, verified by skin marks and positive urine tests for heroin or methamphetamine. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, drug use, sexual behaviour and access to treatment were collected using face-to-face questionnaires by trained interviewers. PWID were screened by trained psychiatrists for depression, psychotic disorder and suicidality, using the MINI questionnaire. RESULTS: 418 participants were included in the analyses. All were injected heroin users, 21 % were diagnosed with a current major depressive disorder, 15 % with a current psychotic disorder and 12 % presented a suicide risk. In the bivariate analyses, regular meth use, cannabis use and ketamine use were positively associated with presenting at least one psychiatric condition while daily heroin injection and being currently treated with methadone were negatively associated. In the multivariate model, poly-substance use was positively associated with depression (methamphetamine and drinking in addition to heroin) and psychotic disorder (methamphetamine and/or hazardous drinking in addition to heroin) while daily heroin injection and current methadone treatment were negatively and independently associated with depression and psychotic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey confirms the burden of methamphetamine use and the protective effect of methadone but also a possible protective effect of daily heroin injection.

8.
AIDS ; 34(15): 2305-2311, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether it is possible to 'end an HIV epidemic' among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a low/middle income country. DESIGN: Serial cross-sectional surveys with a cohort of HIV seronegative participants with 6-month follow-up visits recruited from surveys. METHODS: Surveys of PWID using respondent driven and snowball sampling were conducted in 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 (N = 1383, 1451, 1444, and 1268). HIV recency testing was used to identify possible seroconversions in the window period prior to study entry. Structured interviews covering drug use histories, current drug use, and use of HIV-related services were administered by trained interviewers. Urinalysis was used to confirm current drug use. HIV and hepatitis C virus testing were conducted. Electronic fingerprint readers were used to avoid multiple participation in each survey and to link participants across surveys. A cohort of HIV seronegative participants with 6-month follow-up visits was recruited from the surveys, 480 from 2016, 233 from 2017, and 213 from 2018. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly male (95%), mean age approximately 40, all reported injecting heroin, HIV prevalence ranged between 26 and 30%. We had three seroconversions in 1483 person-years at risk (PYAR) in the cohort study, and 0 in 696 PYAR among repeat survey participants, and 0 seroconversions in 1344 PYAR in recency testing. Overall HIV incidence was 0.085/100 PYAR, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.25/100 PYAR. CONCLUSION: The data from Hai Phong clearly demonstrate that it is possible to achieve very low HIV incidence - 'end an HIV epidemic' - among PWID in a middle-income country.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 546189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102251

RESUMO

Human milk is a significant source of different CD133+ and/or CD34+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets in healthy women but their cell distribution and percentages in this compartment of HIV-positive women have not been explored. To date, a decrease of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell frequencies in peripheral blood and bone marrow of HIV-positive patients has been reported. Herein, human milk and peripheral blood samples were collected between day 2-15 post-partum from HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and cells were stained with stem cell markers and analyzed by flow cytometry. We report that the median percentage of CD45+/highCD34-CD133+ cell subset from milk and blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women. The percentage of CD45dimCD34-CD133+ cell subset from blood was significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. Moreover, percentages of CD45dimCD34+, CD45dimCD34+CD133-, and CD45+highCD34+CD133- cell subsets from blood were significantly lower in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women. The CD133+ stem/progenitor-like cell subsets are increased in early human milk and blood of HIV-positive women and are differentially distributed to CD34+ cell subset frequencies which are decreased in blood.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8037193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964044

RESUMO

People who inject drugs (PWID) are a dominant risk group afflicted by blood-borne viruses, mental health disorders, and social precariousness. Risk reduction interventions are administered to PWID regardless of their characteristics or specific risks. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to empirically identify profiles of PWID regarding their drug use, risk behaviors, and mental health in order to tailor adapted interventions taking into account limited access to comprehensive care in middle-income countries. PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. PWID with urine testing positive for heroin or methamphetamine and manifesting recent skin injection marks were enrolled. Classification of participants was based on drug use, injection, risky sexual behavior, and mental health data. This was subjected to multiple correspondence analysis followed by hierarchical cluster analysis combined with K-means methodology. From October 2016 to January 2017, 1490 participants were recruited of which 1383 were eligible and enrolled. HCV prevalence was 70.5% and HIV prevalence 29.4%. The cluster analysis identified five distinct profiles: profile 1: recent injection practices and high alcohol consumption, profile 2: at-risk injection and sexual behaviors with precarious situations, profile 3: no sexual activity and older age, profile 4: frequent injections with high methamphetamine use, and profile 5: stable partnerships and less frequent injections. Our study has identified profiles of PWID at particularly high risks, and they should thus be targeted for interventions tailored to their specific risks.

11.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937988

RESUMO

Children who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed but uninfected (CHEU) accumulate maternal HIV and antiretroviral exposures through pregnancy, postnatal prophylaxis, and breastfeeding. Here, we compared the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) parameters in African breastfed CHEU receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or lamivudine (3TC) pre-exposure prophylaxis during the first year of life. The number of mtDNA copies per cell (MCN) and the proportion of deleted mtDNA (MDD) were assessed at day 7 and at week 50 post-delivery (PrEP group). mtDNA depletion was defined as a 50% or more decrease from the initial value, and mtDNA deletions was the detection of mtDNA molecules with large DNA fragment loss. We also performed a sub-analysis with CHEU who did not receive a prophylactic treatment in South Africa (control group). From day seven to week 50, MCN decreased with a median of 41.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 12.1; 64.4) in the PrEP group. The proportion of children with mtDNA depletion was not significantly different between the two prophylactic regimens. Poisson regressions showed that LPV/r and 3TC were associated with mtDNA depletion (reference: control group; LPV/r: PR = 1.75 (CI95%: 1.15-2.68), p < 0.01; 3TC: PR = 1.54 (CI95%: 1.00-2.37), p = 0.05). Moreover, the proportion of children with MDD was unexpectedly high before randomisation in both groups. Long-term health impacts of these mitochondrial DNA parameters should be investigated further for both CHEU and HIV-infected children receiving LPV/r- or 3TC- based regimens.

12.
AIDS ; 34(13): 1875-1882, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between methamphetamine use and lack of viral suppression among a cohort of HIV-seropositive persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. DESIGN: Cohort study with random effects logit modeling and mediation analysis for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. METHODS: PWID were recruited from October 2016 to October 2017; HIV-seropositive PWID were enrolled in a cohort to assess HIV viral loads, changes in drug use, risk behaviors, and ART adherence during 24-month follow-up. Methamphetamine use in last 30 days was divided into three categories: 0 days (no use), 1-19 days (intermediate), and 20 or more days (heavy). Bivariate and a multivariable random effects logit models were used to assess the relationship between methamphetamine use and not being virally suppressed. We also assessed self-reported ART adherence as a mediating factor. RESULTS: A total of 645 HIV-seropositive PWID were included at baseline; 95% male, average age 40 (SD = 6.4). At baseline, methamphetamine use in last 30 days was 64% no use, 32% intermediate use, 4% heavy use. Approximately 74% of PWID reported high/complete adherence; 76% were at viral suppression. In random effects analysis, recent methamphetamine use was associated with not being virally suppressed during follow-up (adjusted odds ratio: 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 3.17); the effect was not explained by a mediating effect of self-reported adherence to ART. CONCLUSION: Recent methamphetamine use is associated with not being virally suppressed among PWID. The results of this study indicate the need for targeted interventions for methamphetamine use with special focus on those with HIV infection.

13.
Liver Int ; 40(10): 2367-2376, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is a challenge for controlling the hepatitis B epidemic. In Sub-Saharan countries, pilot interventions including the screening of pregnant women for HBsAg, implementation of anti-HBV therapy and infant immunization within 24 hours of life are initiated and need to be evaluated. This pilot study aimed to describe the cascade of care for hepatitis B PMTCT in a real life situation, and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with adequate management of pregnant women and infants. METHOD: The study was conducted from October 1st, 2014 to February 28th, 2016 in the antenatal clinics (ANCV) of Baskuy district which comprises nine first-level public health centres. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with the likelihood of retention in the cohort, HBV DNA testing, birth dose delivery and HBsAg testing of the children at 6 months of age; P ˂ .05 was selected as cut off for significance. RESULTS: In this prospective cohort study, of 5200 pregnant women consulting for the antenatal visit, 2261 (43.5%) were proposed pre-test counselling and HBsAg screening and 2220 (98.2%) have agreed to screening. Among 1580 (71.2%) women that came back for the post-counselling interview, 75 were positive for HBsAg (4.8%), 73 (97.3% of the women provided HBsAg result) consented to medical consultation with hepatogastroenterologists and 53 (72.6%); performed the HBV DNA testing. Forty-seven out of 60 (78.3%; 65.8-87.9) children born alive were immunized for HBV within 24 hours of life. Retention in care was associated with the level of education of the infant's father, secondary school or higher was associated with a better retention in care of the women (OR: 6.6; P = .03). CONCLUSION: Our study shows large gaps in HBV PMTCT. Resources for hepatitis B screening, care and prevention including universal access to the vaccine birth dose should be allocated to reduce infection in HBV exposed infants born in Burkina Faso.

14.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the Covid-19 pandemic, uses the angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), a physiological inhibitor of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), as a cellular receptor to infect cells. Since the RAAS can induce and modulate pro-inflammatory responses, it could play a key role in the pathophysiology of Covid-19. Thus, we aimed to determine the levels of plasma renin and aldosterone as indicators of RAAS activation in a series of consecutively admitted patients for Covid-19 in our clinic. METHODS: Plasma renin and aldosterone levels were measured, among the miscellaneous investigations needed for Covid-19 management, early after admission in our clinic. Disease severity was assessed using a seven-category ordinal scale. Primary outcome of interest was the severity of patients' clinical courses. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included. At inclusion, 12 patients had mild clinical status, 25 moderate clinical status and 7 severe clinical status. In univariate analyses, aldosterone and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at inclusion were significantly higher in patients with severe clinical course as compared to those with mild or moderate course (p < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). In multivariate analyses, only aldosterone and CRP levels remained positively associated with severity. We also observed a positive significant correlation between aldosterone and CRP levels among patients with an aldosterone level greater than 102.5 pmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Both plasmatic aldosterone and CRP levels at inclusion are associated with the clinical course of Covid-19. Our findings may open new perspectives in the understanding of the possible role of RAAS for Covid-19 outcome.

15.
Respirology ; 25(7): 766-768, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515049
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6999, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332986

RESUMO

In Vietnam, harm reduction programs to control HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) were implemented approximately 10 years ago. Since then, the HIV prevalence has declined in this population, however, the impact of these programs on the rate of new HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infections remains unknown as high mortality can exceed the rate of new infections. We evaluated HIV and HCV incidences in a cohort of active PWID in HaiPhong in 2014, who were recruited from a community-based respondent driven sampling (RDS) survey and followed for 1 year. Only HIV-negative or HCV-negative participants not on medication assisted treatment (MAT) were eligible. HIV/HCV serology was tested at enrollment and at 32- and 64-week follow-up visits. Among 603 RDS participants, 250 were enrolled in the cohort, including 199 HIV seronegative and 99 HCV seronegative PWID. No HIV seroconversion was reported during the 206 person-years (PY) of follow-up (HIV incidence of 0/100PY, one-sided 97.5%CI:0-1.8/100 PY). Eighteen HCV seroconversions were reported for an incidence of 19.4/100 PY (95%CI;11.5-30.7). In multivariate analysis, "Injecting more than twice daily" was associated with HCV seroconversion with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.8 (95%CI;1.8-18.1). In Hai Phong, in a context that demonstrates the effectiveness of HIV control programs, the HCV incidence remains high. New strategies such as mass access to HCV treatment should be evaluated in order to tackle HCV transmission among PWID.

17.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117842

RESUMO

Objectives: Abdominal distention is a common indicator of feeding intolerance in premature newborns. In the absence of a precise definition, abdominal distention and its degree are highly subjective. The aim of this study was to construct references and smoothed percentiles for abdominal circumference (AC) and AC to head circumference (HC) ratio (AC/HC) in infants born between 24 weeks and 34 weeks of gestational age. Methods: ACs and HCs were collected weekly in eutrophic premature infants without congenital abdominal or cerebral malformation. AC and HC charts were modeled using the LMS method, excluding measures associated with abdominal distention at clinical examination or intracranial abnormality at cerebral ultrasounds. Changes in AC and AC/HC over time were studied by repeated-measures analysis using mixed-effects linear models. Results: A total of 1,605 measurements were made in 373 newborns with a mean gestational age of 31 [29-33] weeks and mean birth weight of 1,540 [1,160-1,968] g. Of these measurements, 1,220 were performed in normal conditions. Gestational age, postnatal age, singleton status, and respiratory support were significantly associated with AC and AC/HC. LMS curves were generated according to gestational age groups and postnatal age, with coherent profiles. AC/HC was 0.91 [0.86-0.95] in absence of abdominal distention. It was higher in cases of abdominal distention (0.95 [0.89-1.00], p < 0.001) and necrotizing enterocolitis (0.98 [0.93-1.07], p < 0.001). Conclusions: References constructed for AC and AC/HC might be used to assess feeding tolerance in premature infants. AC/HC was more relevant than AC to rationalize the diagnosis of abdominal distention.

18.
Neurology ; 94(13): e1378-e1385, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess nonparoxysmal movement disorders in ATP1A3 mutation-positive patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients underwent neurologic examination with particular focus on movement phenomenology by a specialist in movement disorders. Video recordings were reviewed by another movement disorders specialist and data were correlated with patients' characteristics. RESULTS: Ten patients were diagnosed with chorea, 16 with dystonia (nonparoxysmal), 4 with myoclonus, and 2 with ataxia. Nine patients had more than one movement disorder and 8 patients had none. The degree of movement disorder was moderate to severe in 12/28 patients. At inclusion, dystonic patients (n = 16) were older (p = 0.007) than nondystonic patients. Moreover, patients (n = 18) with dystonia or chorea, or both, had earlier disease onset (p = 0.042) and more severe neurologic impairment (p = 0.012), but this did not correlate with genotype. All patients presented with hypotonia, which was characterized as moderate or severe in 16/28. Patients with dystonia or chorea (n = 18) had more pronounced hypotonia (p = 0.011). Bradykinesia (n = 16) was associated with an early age at assessment (p < 0.01). Significant dysarthria was diagnosed in 11/25 cases. A history of acute neurologic deterioration and further regression of motor function, typically after a stressful event, was reported in 7 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relatively limited number of patients and the cross-sectional nature of the study, this detailed categorization of movement disorders in patients with AHC offers valuable insight into their precise characterization. Further longitudinal studies on this topic are needed.


Assuntos
Hemiplegia/complicações , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(5): 594-602, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate device success of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) using new-generation balloon-expandable prostheses with or without balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV). BACKGROUND: Randomized studies are lacking comparing TAVR without BAV against the conventional technique of TAVR with BAV. METHODS: DIRECTAVI (Direct Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) was an open-label noninferiority study that randomized patients undergoing TAVR using the Edwards SAPIEN 3 valve with or without prior balloon valvuloplasty. The primary endpoint was the device success rate according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria, which was evaluated using a 7% noninferiority margin. The secondary endpoint included procedural and 30-day adverse events. RESULTS: Device success was recorded for 184 of 236 included patients (78.0%). The rate of device success in the direct implantation group (n = 97 [80.2%]) was noninferior to that in the BAV group (n = 87 [75.7%]) (mean difference 4.5%; 95% confidence interval: -4.4% to 13.4%; p = 0.02 for noninferiority). No severe prosthesis-patient mismatch or severe aortic regurgitation occurred in any group. In the direct implantation group, 7 patients (5.8%) required BAV to cross the valve. Adverse events were related mainly to pacemaker implantation (20.9% in the BAV group vs. 19.0% in the direct implantation group; p = 0.70). No significant difference was found between the 2 strategies in duration of procedure, contrast volume, radiation exposure, or rate of post-dilatation. CONCLUSIONS: Direct TAVR without prior BAV was noninferior to the conventional strategy using BAV with new-generation balloon-expandable valves, but without procedural simplification. BAV was needed to cross the valve in a few patients, suggesting a need for upstream selection on the basis of patient anatomy. (TAVI Without Balloon Predilatation [of the Aortic Valve] SAPIEN 3 [DIRECTAVI]; NCT02729519).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valvuloplastia com Balão , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valvuloplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Valvuloplastia com Balão/mortalidade , Feminino , França , Hemodinâmica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 13, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to identify the profiles of young people who use drugs (YPUD) and their exposure to HIV risks in the 3 main cities of Vietnam, Haiphong, Hanoi, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), in order to design a community-based intervention to prevent HIV. METHODS: A survey using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was conducted among YPUD aged 16-24. Participants were eligible if they reported drug use, confirmed by a urine test. After obtaining informed consent, they were screened for HIV/HCV and assessed using face-to-face questionnaires and self-report. A cluster analysis was conducted, taking into account risk behaviors and confirmed HIV-positive status. RESULTS: Seven hundred and three YPUD aged 16-24 were recruited between October 2016 and February 2017, 584 of whom were included in the final analysis. Median age was 21 (17.7, 23.0); 79% were male, 18% female, and 2% transgender. Methamphetamines use was reported by 77%, followed by cannabis (51%) and heroin (17%); polydrug use was common; 15% had "ever" injected drugs. HIV prevalence was 7%. Among all participants, 48% reported non-consistent condom use and 1% reported needle/syringe sharing during the previous month. Four distinct profiles of HIV risk behaviors were identified: The high multiple-risk group mixed unsafe drug use with unsafe sexual practices and had higher prevalence of HIV; the second group practiced high-risk sex with non-consistent condom combined with methamphetamine use; the third group was a moderate-risk group with limited unsafe sexual practices; and the fourth was considered at "low-risk" as reportedly, most never had sex and never injected. The highest risk group included more female YPUD, living in HCMC, who used heroin and had unsafe sex with their regular partners. The second high-risk group included most of the MSM and all transgender people and frequently reported mental health disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The profiles of YPUD who are at risk of HIV vary according to age, location, and population group. Injecting YPUD are the most exposed to risk and need immediate attention. Sexual exposure to HIV is very common. Mental health is a major concern. Interventions need to be integrated in a differentiated but holistic approach.

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