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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(4): 1974-1982, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932822

RESUMO

Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and dissociative photoionization of NO2 in the 10.0-15.5 eV energy range have been investigated in detail by using high-resolution double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i2PEPICO) at synchrotron SOLEIL. Five low-lying electronic states of the NO2+ cation, X1Σg+, a3B2, b3A2, A1A2 and B1B2, are prepared with well-resolved vibronic structures and their state-specific dissociation mechanisms are unraveled and discussed. The present experimental results clarify that except the X1Σg+ ground electronic state and the first three vibrational levels of the a3B2 electronic state, the other cationic states of NO2+ within the present energy range are totally dissociative towards the NO+(X1Σ+) + O(3P) and/or NO+(X1Σ+) + O(1D) dissociation limits. An energy barrier exists along the direct dissociation route of the a3B2 state, and the b3A2 electronic state is a quasi-bound state with a very shallow well, both of which adiabatically correlate to the NO+(X1Σ+) + O(3P) dissociation limit. The a3B2 state mainly with bending vibration excitations undergoes a non-adiabatic transition to the 23A''(3B1) repulsive state along its bending potential energy curve and then predissociates into the NO+(X1Σ+) + O(3P) products. Our experimental results firstly demonstrate that the NO+(X1Σ+, v) fragment ions produced from individual vibronic levels of the dissociative NO2+(a3B2, b3A2) states are produced at the v = 0 ground vibrational level with a high rotational population due to the excitation of the vibrational bending mode of NO2+ and the associated imparted torque upon dissociation. The slower predissociations of the A1A2 and B1B2 electronic states via their spin-orbit couplings with the repulsive 23A''(3B1) state produce the NO+(X1Σ+) and O(3P) fragments with a long vibrational progression. In addition, the B1B2 state can also undergo a radiationless transition such as internal conversion into the hot X1Σg+ state and then dissociate into the second dissociation channel correlated to the NO+(X1Σ+) and O(1D) products.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(3): 1222-1241, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850421

RESUMO

Through the use of tunable vacuum ultraviolet light generated by the DESIRS VUV synchrotron beamline, a jet-stirred reactor was coupled for the first time to an advanced photoionization mass spectrometer based upon a double imaging PhotoElectron PhotoIon COincidence (i2PEPICO) scheme. This new coupling was used to investigate the low-temperature oxidation of n-pentane, a prototype molecule for gasoline or diesel fuels. Experiments were performed under quasi-atmospheric pressure (1.1 bar) with a residence time of 3 s for two equivalence ratios (1/3 and 0.5) with a fuel initial mole fraction of 0.01. The measured time-of-flight mass spectra are in good agreement with those previously obtained with other photoionization mass spectrometers and, like those previous ones, display several m/z peaks for which the related species assignation is ambiguous. This paper shows how the analysis of the coincident mass-tagged Threshold PhotoElectron Spectra (TPES) together with first principle computations, consisting of the determination of the adiabatic ionization energies and the spectra of some products, may assist products' identification. The results mostly confirm those previously obtained by photoionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography, but also allow a more accurate estimation of the 1-pentene/2-pentene mole fraction ratio. Our data also indicate a higher formation of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone than what is predicted by current models, as well as the presence of products that were not previously taken into account, such as methoxyacetylene, methyl vinyl ketone or furanone. The formation of three, four and five membered ring cyclic ethers is confirmed along with linear ketones: 2- and 3-pentanone. A significant general trend in indicating higher amounts of ketones than are indicated by gas chromatography is noted. Finally, TPES of alkenylhydroperoxides are also provided for the first time and constrains on the isomers identification are provided.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(46): 25907-25915, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742264

RESUMO

We present the absolute photoionization cross-section of the mercapto radical, SH, recorded from its first ionization energy at 10.4 eV up to a photon energy of 15 eV. The absolute scale was calibrated at the fixed photon energy of 11.2 eV using the known values of H2S and S as references. SH and S were produced in a microwave discharge flow-tube reactor by hydrogen abstraction of the H2S precursor. The measured photoionization cross-section of SH dramatically differs from the one currently employed to model the presence of this species in a number of astronomical environments, where SH along with its ionic counterpart SH+ have been detected. The cation spectroscopy and fragmentation of H2S, SH and S in the 9.2-15.0 eV energy range obtained using threshold photoelectron techniques is also presented and discussed in the context of existing literature.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(42): 9193-9198, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556614

RESUMO

We report on the photoionization of the resonance-stabilized anilino radical (C6H5NH) formed by H atom abstraction from aniline by F atoms in a flow tube. The spectra were recorded from 7.8 to 9.7 eV by using a double-imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectrometer with VUV radiation provided by the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron. The vibrationally resolved recorded threshold photoelectron spectrum of the anilino radical showed transitions to the ground X+1A' ← X2A″ and first excited states a+3A″ ← X2A″ of the cation, which were assigned through comparison with theoretically simulated spectra, yielding an adiabatic ionization energy of 8.02 ± 0.02 eV. These results are discussed in light of existing data on the picolyl structural isomers and are of interest for the analytical applications of coincidence techniques in real-time combustion analysis where these intermediates are found.

5.
Front Chem ; 7: 222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032247

RESUMO

Photoelectron/photoion imaging spectrometry employing dispersed VUV radiation from the SOLEIL synchrotron has been used to study the predissociation of N2 + states located up to 1.3 eV above the ion's first dissociation limit. Branching ratios for unimolecular decay into either N2 + or N+ were obtained by measuring coincidences between threshold electrons and mass-selected product ions, using a supersonic beam of either 14N2 or 15N2 as photoionization target. The results confirm that predissociation of the C 2 Σ u + state of 14N2 + is faster than emission to the electronic ground-state by a factor 10 or more for all vibrational levels v' ≥ 3, while for 15N2 + the two decay modes have comparable probabilities for the levels v' = 3, 4, and 5. In contrast, no significant isotope effect could be observed for the other states of N2 + identified in the photoelectron spectrum. For both 14N2 + and 15N2 + isotopologues all vibrational levels of these other states decay to an extent of at least 95% by predissociation.

6.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(16): 3551-3557, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943036

RESUMO

Action spectroscopy using photon excitation in the VUV range (photon energy 4.5-9 eV) was performed on protonated uracil (UraH+) and uridine (UrdH+). The precursor ions with m/ z 113 and m/ z 245, respectively, were produced by an electrospray ionization source and accumulated inside a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. After irradiation with tunable synchrotron radiation, product ion mass spectra were obtained. Fragment yields as a function of excitation energy show several maxima that can be attributed to the photoexcitation into different electronic states. For uracil, vertically excited states were calculated using the equation-of-motion coupled cluster approach and compared to the observed maxima. This allows to establish correlations between electronic states and the resulting fragment masses and can thus help to disentangle the complex de-excitation and fragmentation pathways of nucleic acid building blocks. Photofragmentation of the nucleoside uridine shows a significantly lower variety of fragments, indicating stabilization of the nucleobase by the attached sugar.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(37): 24263-24286, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211409

RESUMO

Atmospheric pressure plasmas are sources of biologically active oxygen and nitrogen species, which makes them potentially suitable for the use as biomedical devices. Here, experiments and simulations are combined to investigate the formation of the key reactive oxygen species, atomic oxygen (O) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), in a radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated in humidified helium. Vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy and ultra-violet broad-band absorption spectroscopy are used to measure absolute densities of O and OH. These densities increase with increasing H2O content in the feed gas, and approach saturation values at higher admixtures on the order of 3 × 1014 cm-3 for OH and 3 × 1013 cm-3 for O. Experimental results are used to benchmark densities obtained from zero-dimensional plasma chemical kinetics simulations, which reveal the dominant formation pathways. At low humidity content, O is formed from OH+ by proton transfer to H2O, which also initiates the formation of large cluster ions. At higher humidity content, O is created by reactions between OH radicals, and lost by recombination with OH. OH is produced mainly from H2O+ by proton transfer to H2O and by electron impact dissociation of H2O. It is lost by reactions with other OH molecules to form either H2O + O or H2O2. Formation pathways change as a function of humidity content and position in the plasma channel. The understanding of the chemical kinetics of O and OH gained in this work will help in the development of plasma tailoring strategies to optimise their densities in applications.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(32): 20756-20765, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989120

RESUMO

Adenine, a DNA base, exists as several tautomers and isomers that are closely lying in energy and that may form a mixture upon vaporization of solid adenine. Indeed, it is challenging to bring adenine into the gas phase, especially as a unique tautomer. The experimental conditions were tuned to prepare a jet-cooled canonical adenine (9H-adenine). This isolated DNA base was ionized by single VUV photons from a synchrotron beamline and the corresponding slow photoelectron spectrum was compared to ab initio computations of the neutral and ionic species. We report the vibronic structure of the X+ 2A'' (D0), A+ 2A' (D1) and B+ 2A'' (D2) electronic states of the 9H adenine cation, from the adiabatic ionization energy (AIE) up to AIE + 1.8 eV. Accurate AIEs are derived for the 9H-adenine (X[combining tilde] 1A') + hν → 9H-adenine+ (X+ 2A'', A+ 2A', B+ 2A'') + e- transitions. Close to the AIE, we fully assign the rich vibronic structure solely to the 9H-adenine (X 1A') + hν → 9H-adenine+ (X+ 2A'') transition. Importantly, we show that the lowest cationic electronic states of canonical adenine are coupled vibronically. The present findings are important for understanding the effects of ionizing radiation and the charge distribution on this elementary building block of life, at ultrafast, short, and long timescales.


Assuntos
Adenina/química , Cátions , Isomerismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Transição de Fase , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fenômenos Físicos , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica
9.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 29(9): 1826-1834, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949057

RESUMO

The nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is used as a model sulfur-containing peptide to study the damage induced by vacuum UV (VUV) radiations. In particular, the effect of the presence (or absence in reduced OT) of oxytocin's internal disulfide bridge is evaluated in terms of photo-fragmentation yield and nature of the photo-fragments. Intact, as well as reduced, OT is studied as dianions and radical anions. Radical anions are prepared and photo-fragmented in two-color experiments (UV + VUV) in a linear ion trap. VUV photo-fragmentation patterns are analyzed and compared, and radical-induced mechanisms are proposed. The effect of VUV is principally to ionize but secondary fragmentation is also observed. This secondary fragmentation seems to be considerably enabled by the initial position of the radical on the molecule. In particular, the possibility to form a radical on free cysteines seems to increase the susceptibility to VUV fragmentation. Interestingly, disulfide bridges, which are fundamental for protein structure, could also be responsible for an increased resistance to ionizing radiations. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Ânions/química , Dissulfetos/química , Ocitocina/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Fotólise , Raios Ultravioleta , Vácuo
10.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(13): 3604-3611, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902010

RESUMO

We report an investigation of lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals and associated ligand molecules by combining several different state-of-the-art experimental techniques, including synchrotron radiation-based XPS and VUV PES of free-standing nanocrystals isolated in vacuum. By using this novel approach for perovskite materials, we could directly obtain complete band alignment to vacuum of both CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals and the ligands widely used in their preparation. We discuss the possible influence of the ligand molecules to apparent perovskite properties, and we compare the electronic properties of nanocrystals to those of bulk material. The experimental results were supported by DFT calculations.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(17): 11730-11739, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687125

RESUMO

A combined theoretical and experimental approach has been used to investigate the binding energy of a ruthenium metalloporphyrin ligated with CO, ruthenium tetraphenylporphyrin [RuII TPP], in the RuII oxidation degree. Measurements performed with VUV ionization using the DESIRS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL led to adiabatic ionization energies of [RuII TPP] and its complex with CO, [RuII TPP-CO], of 6.48 ± 0.03 eV and 6.60 ± 0.03 eV, respectively, while the ion dissociation threshold of [RuII TPP-CO]+ is measured to be 8.36 ± 0.03 eV using the ground-state neutral complex. These experimental data are used to derive the binding energies of the CO ligand in neutral and cationic complexes (1.88 ± 0.06 eV and 1.76 ± 0.06 eV, respectively) using a Born-Haber cycle. Density functional theory calculations, in very satisfactory agreement with the experimental results, help to get insights into the metal-ligand bond. Notably, the high ligation energies can be rationalized in terms of the ruthenium orbital structure, which is singular compared to that of the iron atom. Thus, beyond indications of a strengthening of the Ru-CO bond due to the decrease in the CO vibrational frequency in the complex as compared to the Fe-CO bond, high-level calculations are essential to accurately describe the metal ligand (CO) bond and show that the Ru-CO bond energy is strongly affected by the splitting of triplet and singlet spin states in uncomplexed [Ru TPP].

12.
J Chem Phys ; 148(12): 124309, 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604849

RESUMO

The double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence technique has been applied to investigate the dissociation of state-selected O2+(32Πu, c4Σu-) ions at hv = 25.4 eV. It is shown that the O2+ ions prepared in the 32Πu inner-valence state can dissociate toward two channels where a distinct changeover from the third dissociation limit O(3P) + O+(2D) to the fifth limit O(3P) + O+(2P) is observed at a binding energy of ∼23.8 eV. Up to four dissociation limits have been identified in the dissociation of the v = 0 vibrational level of the c4Σu- electronic state, and in particular, the products toward the third limit with a very weak intensity are definitely identified and assigned. In addition, the individual contributions of the two superimposed 32Πu and c4Σu- states to the fifth dissociation limit are clearly separated and determined for the first time. The anisotropy parameters of the O+ fragment ion toward different dissociation limits have also been measured and exhibit specific state-selected characteristics. The dissociation mechanisms of the 32Πu and c4Σu- states including predissociation and tunneling motion are proposed based on the present experimental results and the existing theoretical potential energy curves.

13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1866(7): 743-758, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357311

RESUMO

Living organisms on the Earth almost exclusively use l-amino acids for the molecular architecture of proteins. The biological occurrence of d-amino acids is rare, although their functions in various organisms are being gradually understood. A possible explanation for the origin of biomolecular homochirality is the delivery of enantioenriched molecules via extraterrestrial bodies, such as asteroids and comets on early Earth. For the asymmetric formation of amino acids and their precursor molecules in interstellar environments, the interaction with circularly polarized photons is considered to have played a potential role in causing chiral asymmetry. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the investigation of chirality transfer from chiral photons to amino acids involving the two major processes of asymmetric photolysis and asymmetric synthesis. We will discuss analytical data on cometary and meteoritic amino acids and their potential impact delivery to the early Earth. The ongoing and future ambitious space missions, Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx, ExoMars 2020, and MMX, are scheduled to provide new insights into the chirality of extraterrestrial organic molecules and their potential relation to the terrestrial homochirality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: d-Amino acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Evolução Molecular , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Fotólise , Aminoácidos/síntese química , Luz , Estereoisomerismo
14.
Chemphyschem ; 19(8): 921-933, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29266631

RESUMO

Photoionization of the chiral monoterpene limonene has been investigated using polarized synchrotron radiation between the adiabatic ionization threshold, 8.505 and 23.5 eV. A rich vibrational structure is seen in the threshold photoelectron spectrum and is interpreted using a variety of computational methods. The corresponding photoelectron circular dichroism-measured in the photoelectron angular distribution as a forward-backward asymmetry with respect to the photon direction-was found to be strongly dependent on the vibronic structure appearing in the photoelectron spectra, with the observed asymmetry even switching direction in between the major vibrational peaks. This effect can be ultimately attributed to the sensitivity of this dichroism to small phase shifts between adjacent partial waves of the outgoing photoelectron. These observations have implications for potential applications of this chiroptical technique, where the enantioselective analysis of monoterpene components is of particular interest.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(31): 5763-5772, 2017 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28723150

RESUMO

The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and dissociative photoionization of methyl fluoride (CH3F) in the 12.2-19.8 eV energy range were investigated by using synchrotron radiation coupled to a double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i2PEPICO) spectrometer. The production of several fragment ions including CH2F+, CHF+, CH3+, and CH2+ as a function of state and internal energy of CH3F+ ions was identified and analyzed, with their individual appearance energies measured through threshold photoelectron spectroscopy. Dynamical information was inferred from electron and ion kinetic energy correlation diagrams measured at chosen fixed photon energies. The detailed mechanisms governing the dissociation of state-selected CH3F+ ions prepared in the X2E, A2A1, and B2E low-lying electronic states as well as outside the Franck-Condon region have been inferred based on the present experimental results and existing theoretical calculations. Both the CH2F+ and CH3+ primary fragment ions have three different channels of production from different electronic states of CH3F+. The spin-orbit splitting states of the F fragment, 2P3/2 and 2P1/2, in the CH3+ + F dissociation channels were assigned and adiabatically correlate to the X2E ground state and the A2A1 electronic state, respectively, with the aid of previous theoretical results. The CH3F+ ions in the high energy part of the X2E ground state are unstable and statistically dissociate to the CH2F+(11A1) and H(2S) fragments along the potential energy curve of the X2E state. The A2A1 electronic state is a repulsive state and exclusively dissociates to the CH3+(11A1') and F(2P1/2) fragments. In addition, the CH2F+, CHF+, CH3+, and CH2+ fragment ions are also produced in the B2E state and in the Franck-Condon gap by indirect processes, such as internal conversion or dissociative autoionization.

16.
J Chem Phys ; 147(1): 013937, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688422

RESUMO

We report an experimental investigation of homochiral cluster formation in seeded molecular beam expansions of (2R,3R)-butanediol. Synchrotron radiation vacuum ultraviolet photoionization measurements have been performed using a double imaging electron-ion spectrometer in various configurations and modes of operation. These include measurements of the cluster ion mass spectra, wavelength scanned ion yields, and threshold electron spectra. Protonated cluster ions ranging up to n = 7 have been observed and size-selected photoelectron spectra and photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) have been recorded by velocity map imaging, recorded in coincidence with ions, at a number of fixed photon energies. Translation temperatures of the cluster ions have been further examined by ion imaging measurements. As well as the sequence of protonated clusters with integral numbers of butanediol monomer units, a second series with half-integral monomer masses is observed and deduced to result from a facile cleavage of a butanediol monomer moiety within the nascent cluster. This second sequence of half-integral masses displays quite distinct behaviours. PECD measurements are used to show that the half-integral mass cluster ions do not share a common parentage with whole integer masses. Using an analogy developed with simple theoretical calculations of butanediol dimer structures, it is inferred that the dissociative branching into integral and half-integral ion mass sequences is controlled by the presence of different butanediol monomer conformations within the hydrogen bonded clusters.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(10): 103402, 2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339280

RESUMO

We report the first measurements of size-resolved photoelectron angular distributions for the valence orbitals of neutral water clusters with up to 20 molecules. A systematic decrease of the photoelectron anisotropy is found for clusters with up to 5-6 molecules, and most remarkably, convergence of the anisotropy for larger clusters. We suggest the latter to be the result of a local short-range scattering potential that is fully described by a unit of 5-6 molecules. The cluster data and a detailed electron scattering model are used to predict the anisotropy of slow photoelectrons in liquid water. Reasonable agreement with experimental liquid jet data is found.

18.
Science ; 355(6321): 141, 2017 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28082555

RESUMO

We detected ribose and related sugars in the organic residues of simulated interstellar ices using multidimensional gas chromatography. Kawai questions the formation of sugar compounds in the ices and suggests that they arise from a classical formose reaction during sample workup for analysis. We disagree with this hypothesis and present additional data to argue that Kawai's criticism does not apply.


Assuntos
Gelo/análise , Ribose , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Compostos Orgânicos , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Chemphyschem ; 18(5): 500-512, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973748

RESUMO

Electron-ion coincidence imaging is used to study chiral asymmetry in the angular distribution of electrons emitted from randomly-oriented enantiomers of two molecules, methyloxirane and trifluoromethyloxirane, upon ionization by circularly polarized VUV synchrotron radiation. Vibrationally-resolved photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) measurements of the outermost orbital ionization reveal unanticipated large fluctuations in the magnitude of the forward-backward electron scattering asymmetry, including even a complete reversal of direction. Identification and assignment of the vibrational excitations is supported by Franck-Condon simulations of the photoelectron spectra. A previously proposed quasi-diatomic model for PECD is developed and extended to treat polyatomic systems. The parametric dependence of the electronic dipole matrix elements on nuclear geometry is evaluated in the adiabatic approximation. It provokes vibrational level dependent shifts in amplitude and phase, to which the chiral photoelectron angular distributions are especially sensitive. It is shown that single quantum excitation of those vibrational modes, which experience only a relatively small displacement of the ion equilibrium geometry along the normal coordinate and which are then only weakly excited in the Franck-Condon limit, can be accompanied by big shifts in scattering phase; hence the observed big fluctuations in PECD asymmetry for such modes.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(51): 16596-16599, 2016 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27992194

RESUMO

Biological entities, such as DNA bases or proteins, possess numerous tautomers and isomers that lie close in energy, making the experimental characterization of a unique tautomer challenging. We apply VUV synchrotron-based experiments combined with state-of-the-art ab initio methodology to determine the adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) of specific gas-phase cytosine tautomers produced in a molecular beam. The structures and energetics of neutral and cationic cytosine tautomers were determined using explicitly correlated methods. The experimental spectra correspond to well-resolved bands that are attributable to the specific contributions of five neutral tautomers of cytosine prior to ionization. Their AIEs are experimentally determined for the first time with an accuracy of 0.003 eV. This study also serves as an important showcase for other biological entities presenting a dense pattern of isomeric and tautomeric forms in their spectra that can be investigated to understand the charge redistribution in these species upon ionization.


Assuntos
Citosina/química , Fótons , Isomerismo , Processos Fotoquímicos
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