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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1872, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755722

RESUMO

By limiting the heat spread during a fire hazard, intumescent coatings are important components of passive protection systems. They swell due to heat induced reactions of micro constituents and are transformed into carbonaceous porous-like media, known as intumescent chars. Their multiscale inner structures, key elements of performance, are costly to predict by recurrent and large scale fire testing while numerical simulations are challenging due to complex kinetics. Hence, we propose a novel approach using the fractal theory and the random nature of events to conceptualize the coating expansion. Experimental specimens were obtained from fire protective coatings exposed to bench scale hydrocarbon fire. Mass fractals were evidenced in the slices of 3D sample volumes reconstructed from X-ray microtomography. Consequently, geometrical building blocks were simulated by random walk, active walk, aggregation-like and site percolation: physical-chemical modes of action were inherent in the attribution of the randomness. It is a first demonstration to conceptualize different types of intumescent actions by a generalized approach with dimensionless parameters at multiscale, thus eliminating the simulation of complex kinetics to obtain a realistic morphology. Also, fractal results brought new evidence to former chemical analyses on fire test residues trying to explain the kinetics of expansion. Expected outcomes are to predict virtually the reaction of fire protective systems hence to speed-up the assessment of fire performance through computed properties of virtual volumes.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(29): 24860-24875, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957994

RESUMO

The contribution of copper complexes of salen-based Schiff bases N, N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine (C1), N, N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)ethylenediamine (C2), and N, N'-bis(5-hydroxysalicylidene)ethylenediamine (C3) to the flame retardancy of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is investigated in the context of minimizing the inherent flammability of TPU. Thermal and fire properties of TPU are evaluated. It is observed that fire performances vary depending upon the substitution of the salen framework. Cone calorimetry [mass loss calorimetry (MLC)] results show that, in TPU at 10 wt % loading, C2 and C3 reduce the peak of heat release rate by 46 and 50%, respectively. At high temperature, these copper complexes undergo polycondensation leading to resorcinol-type resin in the condensed phase and thus acting as intumescence reinforcing agents. C3 in TPU is particularly interesting because it delays significantly the time to ignition (MLC experiment). In addition, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry shows reduction in the heat release rate curve, suggesting its involvement in gas-phase action. Structural changes of copper complexes and radical formation during thermal treatment as well as their influence on fire retardancy of TPU in the condensed phase are investigated by spectroscopic studies supported by microscopic and powder diffraction studies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was fully used to follow the redox changes of Cu(II) ions as well as radical formation of copper complexes/TPU formulations in their degradation pathways. Pulsed EPR technique of hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy reveals evolution of the local surrounding of copper and radicals with a strong contribution of nitrogen fragments in the degradation products. Further, the spin state of radicals was investigated by the two-dimensional technique of phase-inverted echo-amplitude detected nutation experiment. Two different radicals were detected, that is, one monocarbon radical and an oxygen biradical. Thus, the EPR study permits to deeply investigate the mode of action of copper salen complexes in TPU.

3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 174: 35-43, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753522

RESUMO

Reported herein the binding affinity between Human Serum Albumin and the DNA binding and cleavage activity of three copper(II) complexes, [Cu(phen)(o-van)ClO4] (1), [Cu(phen)(gly)]ClO4 (2) and [Cu(L1)2(H2O)2] (3) wherein 1 and 2 are synthesized with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and co-ligands (o-van: o-vanillin; gly: glycine) and 3 with a ligand 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine (H1L1). Complex 2 crystallizes in monoclinic (P21/n) space group shows square pyramidal geometry. The complex 3 crystallizes in monoclinic (P21/a) space group. All the three complexes exhibit binding affinity towards the transport protein Human Serum albumin (HSA). Quantitative evaluation of the thermodynamics of interaction and the results obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that metal coordinated glycynate, o-vanillin and perchlorate groups have a major role to play in the binding process, the latter two being stronger in the binding of complex 1. The coordinated water in complex 3 also plays an important role in the binding, which makes binding of complex 3 with HSA stronger than that of complex 2. Experimental results indicate that the binding affinity of the complexes towards CT-DNA is in the order 1>3>2 implying that complex 1 binds stronger than complex 3 and 2.The DNA cleaving activity of all the three complexes was explored in the presence of reactive oxygen compound, H2O2. All the three complexes have primarily shown the DNA cleaving activity.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , DNA/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/química , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Benzaldeídos/química , Bovinos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Clivagem do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Fenantrolinas/química , Ligação Proteica
4.
Inorg Chem ; 55(9): 4278-95, 2016 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27104913

RESUMO

A new family of one-dimensional Fe(II) 1,2,4-triazole spin transition coordination polymers for which a modification of anion and crystallization solvent can tune the switching temperature over a wide range, including the room temperature region, is reported. This series of materials was prepared as powders after reaction of ethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-acetate (αEtGlytrz) with an iron salt from a MeOH/H2O medium affording: [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](ClO4)2 (1); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](ClO4)2·CH3OH (2); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](NO3)2·H2O (3); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](NO3)2 (4); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](BF4)2·0.5H2O (5); [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](BF4)2 (6); and [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](CF3SO3)2·2H2O (7). Their spin transition properties were investigated by (57)Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The temperature dependence of the high-spin molar fraction derived from (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy in 1 reveals an abrupt single step transition between low-spin and high-spin states with a hysteresis loop of width 5 K (Tc(↑) = 296 K and Tc(↓) = 291 K). The properties drastically change with modification of anion and/or lattice solvent. The transition temperatures, deduced by SQUID magnetometry, shift to Tc(↑) = 273 K and Tc(↓) = 263 K for (2), Tc(↑) = 353 K and Tc(↓) = 333 K for (3), Tc(↑) = 338 K and Tc(↓) = 278 K for (4), T(↑) = 320 K and T(↓) = 305 K for (5), Tc(↑) = 106 K and Tc(↓) = 92 K for (6), and T(↑) = 325 K and T(↓) = 322 K for (7). Annealing experiments of 3 lead to a change of the morphology, texture, and magnetic properties of the sample. A dehydration/rehydration process associated with a spin state change was analyzed by a mean-field macroscopic master equation using a two-level Hamiltonian Ising-like model for 3. A new structural-property relationship was also identified for this series of materials [Fe(αEtGlytrz)3](anion)2·nSolvent based on Mössbauer and DSC measurements. The entropy gap associated with the spin transition and the volume of the inserted counteranion shows a linear trend, with decrease in entropy with increasing the size of the counteranion. The first materials of this substance class to display a complete spin transition in both spin states are also presented.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(38): 21208-17, 2015 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26348914

RESUMO

A broad spectrum of applications of "Salen"-based Schiff bases tagged them as versatile multifunctional materials. However, their applicability is often bounded by a temperature threshold and, thus, they have rarely been used for high temperature applications. Our investigation of a classical Schiff base, N,N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)ethylenediamine (L2), reveals that it displays an intriguingly combative response to an elevated temperature/fire scenario. L2 resists and regulates thermal degradation by forming an ablative surface, and acts as a thermal shield. A polycondensation via covalent cross-linking, which forms a hyperbranched cross-linked resin is found to constitute the origin of the ablative surface. This is a unique example of a resin formation produced with a Schiff base, that mimicks the operational strategy of a high-heat resistant phenolic resin. Further applicability of L2, as a flame retardant, was tested in an engineering polymer, polyamide-6. It was found that it reinforces the polymer against fire risks by the formation of an intumescent coating. This paves the way for a new strategic avenue in safeguarding polymeric materials toward fire risks. Further, this material represents a promising start for thermal protective applications.

6.
Chemistry ; 21(15): 5843-55, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25736846

RESUMO

A thermochromic 1D spin crossover coordination (SCO) polymer [Fe(ßAlatrz)3](BF4)2⋅2 H2O (1⋅2 H2O), whose precursor ßAlatrz, (1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-propionate) has been tailored from a ß-amino acid ester is investigated in detail by a set of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), (57)Fe Mössbauer, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared, and Raman measurements. An hysteretic abrupt two-step spin crossover (T1/2(↓) = 230 K and T1/2(↑) = 235 K, and T1/2(↓) = 172 K and T1/2(↑) = 188 K, respectively) is registered for the first time for a 1,2,4-triazole-based Fe(II) 1D coordination polymer. The two-step SCO configuration is observed in a 1:2 ratio of low-spin/high-spin in the intermediate phase for a 1D chain. The origin of the stepwise transition was attributed to a distribution of chains of different lengths in 1⋅2 H2O after First Order Reversal Curves (FORC) analyses. A detailed DFT analysis allowed us to propose the normal mode assignment of the Raman peaks in the low-spin and high-spin states of 1⋅2 H2O. Vibrational spectra of 1⋅2 H2O reveal that the BF4(-) anions and water molecules play no significant role on the vibrational properties of the [Fe(ßAlatrz)3](2+) polymeric chains, although non-coordinated water molecules have a dramatic influence on the emergence of a step in the spin transition curve. The dehydrated material [Fe(ßAlatrz)3](BF4)2 (1) reveals indeed a significantly different magnetic behavior with a one-step SCO which was also investigated.

7.
Chemistry ; 21(11): 4300-7, 2015 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601611

RESUMO

A conformationally flexible triazole-carboxylic acid ligand derived from an L-amino acid, namely, 4 H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-acetic acid (αHGlytrz), has been exploited to synthesize a structurally diverse and functionally intriguing metal-organic framework with CuSiF6. The crystal structure reveals a novel single-walled metal-organic nanotube (SWMONT), namely, {[Cu3(µ3-OH)(H2O)3(Glytrz)3]⋅SiF6⋅8 H2O⋅X}∞ (1), (where X = disordered lattice water molecules) having a pore size as large as zeolites. Compound 1 was synthesized as crystals, as powder, or as layers by precipitation/electrodeposition. Mercury intrusion porosimetry demonstrates the ability of this material to store metallic mercury, after a pressure treatment, contrary to previous literature examples.

8.
Inorg Chem ; 53(3): 1263-5, 2014 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24417443

RESUMO

A mononuclear iron(II) neutral complex (1) is screened for sensing abilities for a wide spectrum of chemicals and to evaluate the response function toward physical perturbation like temperature and mechanical stress. Interestingly, 1 precisely detects methanol among an alcohol series. The sensing process is visually detectable, fatigue-resistant, highly selective, and reusable. The sensing ability is attributed to molecular sieving and subsequent spin-state change of iron centers, after a crystal-to-crystal transformation.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/química , Gases/análise , Metanol/análise , Álcoois/análise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Temperatura , Volatilização
9.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 67(6): 411-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23945101

RESUMO

The past decade has witnessed intense research activity in the area of Fe(II) spin crossover coordination polymers, which are structurally diverse and functionally intriguing materials. In this endeavor, a less exploited series of ligands have been selected among various N-donor triazole and tetrazole molecules. Developing conventions that allow the tailoring of such functional materials with predictable architecture and properties is an important objective and current interest in crystal engineering. However, detailed knowledge on the structure-property correlation is still scanty due to the small number of crystal structures of such compounds. The principal focus is to decipher the effect of various supramolecular factors such as intermolecular interactions, hydrogen bonding etc., on the resultant Fe(II) coordination polymers. This tutorial review aims at highlighting some of the developments of such structurally diverse and functionally intriguing 1D polymeric chains, 2D and 3D networks built from triazole or tetrazole ligands exhibiting fascinating spin crossover phenomena.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Polímeros/química , Tetrazóis/química , Triazóis/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Magnetismo , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Marcadores de Spin
10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 51(50): 12597-601, 2012 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23129209

RESUMO

Mind the gap: A complete, cooperative spin transition for a mononuclear Mn(III) complex is reported with an 8 K hysteresis window. Raman spectra collected at a single temperature in warming and cooling modes confirm the electronic bistability within the hysteresis loop. The source of the cooperativity is a disconnection in the hydrogen-bonded 1D chains that connect adjacent cations owing to an order-disorder transition in the PF(6)(-) counterion.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(40): 15850-3, 2011 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21936512

RESUMO

The first crystal structures of a dinuclear iron(II) complex with three N1,N2-1,2,4-triazole bridges in the high-spin and low-spin states are reported. Its sharp spin transition, which was probed using X-ray, calorimetric, magnetic, and (57)Fe Mossbauer analyses, is also delineated in the crystalline state by variable-temperature fluorimetry for the first time.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 12(8): 5339-51, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21954363

RESUMO

A ß-aminoacid ester was successfully derivatized to yield to 4H-1,2-4-triazol-4-yl-propionate (ßAlatrz) which served as a neutral bidentate ligand in the 1D coordination polymer [Fe(ßAlatrz)(3)](CF(3)SO(3))(2)·0.5H(2)O (1·0.5H(2)O). The temperature dependence of the high-spin molar fraction derived from (57)Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy recorded on cooling below room temperature reveals an exceptionally abrupt single step transition between high-spin and low-spin states with a hysteresis loop of width 4 K (T(c) (↑) = 232 K and T(c) (↓) = 228 K) in agreement with magnetic susceptibility measurements. The material presents striking reversible thermochromism from white, at room temperature, to pink on quench cooling to liquid nitrogen, and acts as an alert towards temperature variations. The phase transition is of first order, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, with transition temperatures matching the ones determined by SQUID and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The freshly prepared sample of 1·0.5H(2)O, dried in air, was subjected to annealing at 390 K, and the obtained white compound [Fe(ßAlatrz)(3)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) (1) was found to exhibit a similar spin transition curve however much temperature was increased by (T(c) (↑) = 252 K and T(c) (↓) = 248 K). The removal of lattice water molecules from 1·0.5H(2)O is not accompanied by a change of the morphology and of the space group, and the chain character is preserved. However, an internal pressure effect stabilizing the low-spin state is evidenced.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Triazóis/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Polímeros/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
13.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(25): 7152-4, 2011 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21607245

RESUMO

A novel iron(II) mononuclear spin transition complex [FeL(py)(2)] displays an abrupt spin transition around 225 K accompanied by a very wide thermal hysteresis loop (∼50 K) that spreads out over 100 K. Crystal structure analysis in both low-spin and high-spin states reveals a lipid layer-like arrangement of the complex molecules and provides insights into the spin switching mechanism.


Assuntos
Ferro/química , Lipídeos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Temperatura
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 12(44): 14782-8, 2010 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20931141

RESUMO

The vibrational properties of the trimeric iron complex [Fe(3)(4-(2'-hydroxy-ethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)(6)(H(2)O)(6)](CF(3)SO(3))(6) which serves as a model of the 1D iron coordination polymers based on 1,2,4-triazoles have been investigated by nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation (NIS), as well as by Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The system reveals a soft spin crossover involving only the central iron atom with its FeN(6) core, while the terminal FeN(3)O(3) units show no spin transition. The NIS spectra of the central low-spin isomer exhibit a number of marker bands in the 350-450 cm(-1) region which have not been detected in the Raman spectra. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations allowed the assignment of these bands to Fe-N bending and stretching modes. A characteristic high-spin marker mode has been identified and discriminated from the iron-ligand modes of the terminal iron atoms. This characteristic central Fe-N mode has been observed experimentally at 245 cm(-1) and theoretically at 255 cm(-1). Contrary to mononuclear centrosymmetric Fe complexes, some of the symmetric vibrations of the trimeric complex involving iron movements are observed by NIS. Furthermore the DFT calculations displayed the importance of the coulombic repulsion between metal ions for the geometry and stability of a given spin isomer.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 49(12): 5723-36, 2010 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20507075

RESUMO

The thermally induced hysteretic spin transition (ST) that occurs in the polymeric chain compound [Fe(NH(2)trz)(3)](NO(3))(2) (1) above room temperature (T(c)(upward arrow) = 347 K, T(c)(downward arrow) = 314 K) has been tracked by (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD) at variable temperatures. From the XRPD pattern indexation, an orthorhombic primitive cell was observed with the following cell parameters: a = 11.83(2) A, b = 9.72(1) A, c = 6.361(9) A at 298 K (low-spin state) and a = 14.37(2) A, b = 9.61(4) A, c = 6.76(4) A at 380 K (high-spin state). The enthalpy and entropy variation associated to the ST of 1, have been evaluated by DSC as DeltaH = 23(1) kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS = 69.6(1) J mol(-1) K(-1). These thermodynamic data were used within a two-level Ising like model for the statistical analysis of First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) diagram that was recorded for 1, in the cooling mode. Strong intramolecular cooperative effects are witnessed by the derived interaction parameter of J = 496 K. The crystal structure of [Cu(NH(2)trz)(3)](NO(3))(2).H(2)O (2) was obtained thanks to high quality single crystals prepared by slow evaporation after hydrothermal pretreatment. The catena poly[mu-tris(4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-N1,N2) copper(II)] dinitrate monohydrate (2) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 16.635(6) A, b = 13.223(4) A, c = 7.805(3) A, beta = 102.56(3) degrees, Z = 4. Complex 2 is a 1D infinite chain containing triple N1,N2-1,2,4-triazole bridges with an intra-chain distance of Cu...Cu = 3.903(1) A. A dense H-bonding network with the nitrate counteranion involved in intra-chain and inter-chain interactions is observed. Such a supramolecular network could be at the origin of the unusually large hysteresis loop displayed by 1 (DeltaT approximately 33 K), as a result of an efficient propagation of elastic interactions through the network. This hypothesis is strengthened by the crystal structure of 2 and by the absence of crystallographic phase transition for 1 over the whole temperature range of investigation as shown by XRPD.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 114(5): 1975-84, 2010 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20088554

RESUMO

The colorimetric analysis of images recorded with an optical microscope during the onset of the spin crossover transformation allows monitoring separately the involved electronic and structural aspects, through the separation of resonant absorption and scattering effects. Complementary information can also be obtained by using the polarized modes of the microscope. These potentialities are illustrated by the observation of [Fe(ptz)(6)](BF(4))(2) single crystals during the onset of the thermal transitions in the 110-140 K range. We characterized the interplay between the electronic (HS <--> LS) and structural (order <--> disorder) transformations. Elastic stresses and mechanical effects (hopping, self-cleavage) generated by the volume change upon electronic transition are also illustrated, with their impact on the photoswitching properties of the crystals.

19.
Chemistry ; 15(17): 4327-42, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19291720

RESUMO

The relationships between the crystal structure and optical properties of switchable N-salicylideneanils have been revised and discussed on the basis of new experimental results and a computational approach. N-salicylidene-3-aminopyridine (L(3)) is a versatile thermo- and photochromic molecule. It also exhibits an infinitely slow thermal back relaxation (k = 9.9x10(-8) s(-1)) after photoswitching that is suitable for optical memories. Contrary to reports in the literature, N-salicylidene-4-aminopyridine (L(4)) is exclusively thermochromic. To explain these unexpected optical properties in the solid state, crystallography combined with UV-visible spectroscopic data was exploited. L(3) was also used as a ligand in new thermochromic coordination complexes [M(CH(3)OH)(2)(L(3))(2)(NCX)(2)], in which M(II) = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu or Mn and X = S or Se (1-6), which allowed the fine-tuning of the electron density in the photochromic moiety. The influence of the coordination through the nitrogen of the pyridine ring is also fully discussed.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12166742

RESUMO

A new binucleating ligand containing phenoxide as an endogenous bridging group, 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol bis(2-furanthiocarboxyhydrazone) and its binuclear Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with chloride ion as an exogenous bridge, have been obtained. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic moment measurements at room temperature, electronic, IR, 1H-NMR, EPR, FAB spectral studies and thermal data. The copper complex assumes a tetranuclear structure composed of two binuclear units related by a center of symmetry. The dimeric nature of copper(II) complex is supported by FAB. This complex is EPR silent. Room temperature magnetic moment reveals the operation of a significant antiferromagnetic spin exchange between the metal centers. Ligand and its copper and zinc complexes exhibit fluorescence at room temperature in DMF. All the compounds show an appreciable antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Compostos Organometálicos/química , Eletroquímica , Temperatura Alta , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metais/química , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrometria de Massas de Bombardeamento Rápido de Átomos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estereoisomerismo
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