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1.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(1): 61-68, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841338

RESUMO

Wearable sensors for human health, performance, and state monitoring, which have a linear response to the binding of biomarkers found in sweat, saliva, or urine, are of current interest for many applications. A critical part of any device is a biological recognition element (BRE) that is able to bind a biomarker at the surface of a sensor with a high affinity and selectivity to produce a measurable signal response. In this study, we discover and compare 12-mer peptides that bind to neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress and human health biomarker, using independent and complimentary experimental and computational approaches. The affinities of the NPY-binding peptides discovered by both methods are equivalent and below the micromolar level, which makes them suitable for application in sensors. The in silico design protocol for peptide-based BREs is low cost, highly efficient, and simple, suggesting its utility for discovering peptide binders to a variety of biomarker targets.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(41): 37939-37946, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525866

RESUMO

Electromagnetic hotspots at the interstices of plasmonic assemblies are recognized to be the most potent sites for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We demonstrate a novel "add-on" electromagnetic hotspot formation technique, which significantly improves the sensitivity of conventional SERS substrates composed of individual plasmonic nanostructures. The novel approach demonstrated here involves the transfer of "plasmonic patch", a transparent, flexible, and conformal elastomeric film adsorbed with plasmonic nanostructures, onto a conventional SERS substrate. The addition of the plasmonic patch onto a conventional SERS substrate following the analyte capture results in the formation of electromagnetic hotspots and hence a large SERS enhancement. The application of the plasmonic patch improves the sensitivity and limit of detection of conventional SERS substrates by up to ∼100-fold. The transfer of the plasmonic patch also effectively transforms the SERS-inactive gold mirror to a highly SERS-active "particle-on-mirror" system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the "add-on" technique can be effectively utilized for the vapor-phase detection of explosives such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) using peptide recognition elements. We believe that the on-demand hotspot formation approach presented here represents a highly versatile and ubiquitously applicable technology readily expandable to any existing SERS substrate without employing complicated modification.

3.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010064

RESUMO

In contrast to sophisticated high-throughput sequencing tools for genomic DNA, analytical tools for comparing secondary structure features between multiple single-stranded DNA sequences are less developed. For single-stranded nucleic acid ligands called aptamers, secondary structure is widely thought to play a pivotal role in driving recognition-based binding activity between an aptamer sequence and its specific target. Here, we employ a competition-based aptamer screening platform called CompELS to identify DNA aptamers for a colloidal target. We then analyze predicted secondary structures of the aptamers and a large population of random sequences to identify sequence features and patterns. Our secondary structure analysis identifies patterns ranging from position-dependent score matrixes of individual structural elements to position-independent consensus domains resulting from global alignment.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros/métodos , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Biblioteca Gênica , Ligantes , Matrizes de Pontuação de Posição Específica
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(15): 13927-13934, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884221

RESUMO

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is being pushed to new capabilities which enable studies on systems that were previously out of reach. Among recent innovations, TEM through liquid cells (LC-TEM) enables in operando observation of biological phenomena. This work applies LC-TEM to the study of biological components as they interact on an abiotic surface. Specifically, analytes or target molecules like neuropeptide Y (NPY) are observed in operando on functional graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) biosensors. Biological recognition elements (BREs) identified using biopanning with affinity to NPY are used to functionalize graphene to obtain selectivity. On working devices capable of achieving picomolar responsivity to neuropeptide Y, LC-TEM reveals translational motion, stochastic positional fluctuations due to constrained Brownian motion, and rotational dynamics of captured analyte. Coupling these observations with the electrical responses of the GFET biosensors in response to analyte capture and/or release will potentially enable new insights leading to more advanced and capable biosensor designs.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Grafite/química , Neuropeptídeo Y/análise , Transistores Eletrônicos , Área Sob a Curva , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Humanos , Neuropeptídeo Y/química , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Ligação Proteica , Curva ROC , Suor/metabolismo
5.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(2): 297-306, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688433

RESUMO

Physiological sensors in a wearable form have rapidly emerged on the market due to technological breakthroughs and have become nearly ubiquitous with the Apple Watch, FitBit, and other wearable devices. While these wearables mostly monitor simple biometric signatures, new devices that can report on the human readiness level through sensing molecular biomarkers are critical to optimizing the human factor in both commercial sectors and the Department of Defense. The military is particularly interested in real-time, wearable, minimally invasive monitoring of fatigue and human performance to improve the readiness and performance of the war fighter. However, very few devices have ventured into the realm of reporting directly on biomarkers of interest. Primarily this is because of the difficulties of sampling biological fluids in real-time and providing accurate readouts using highly selective and sensitive sensors. When additional restrictions to only use sweat, an excretory fluid, are enforced to minimize invasiveness, the demands on sensors becomes even greater due to the dilution of the biomarkers of interest, as well as variability in salinity, pH, and other physicochemical variables which directly impact the read-out of real-time biosensors. This Account will provide a synopsis not only on exemplary demonstrations and technological achievements toward implementation of real-time, wearable sweat sensors but also on defining problems that still remain toward implementation in wearable devices that can detect molecular biomarkers for real world applications. First, the authors describe the composition of minimally invasive biofluids and then identify what biomarkers are of interest as biophysical indicators. This Account then reviews demonstrated techniques for extracting biofluids from the site of generation and transport to the sensor developed by the authors. Included in this discussion is a detailed description on biosensing recognition elements and transducers developed by the authors to enable generation of selective electrochemical sensing platforms. The authors also discuss ongoing efforts to identify biorecognition elements and the chemistries necessary to enable high affinity, selective biorecognition elements. Finally, this Account presents the requirements for wearable, real-time sensors to be (1) highly stable, (2) portable, (3) reagentless, (4) continuous, and (5) responsive in real-time, before delving into specific methodologies to sense classes of biomarkers that have been explored by academia, government laboratories, and industry. Each platform has its areas of greatest utility, but also come with corresponding weaknesses: (1) ion selective electrodes are robust and have been demonstrated in wearables but are limited to detection of ions, (2) enzymatic sensors enable indirect detection of metabolites and have been demonstrated in wearables, but the compounds that can be detected are limited to a subset of small molecules and the sensors are sensitive to flow, (3) impedance-based sensors can detect a wide range of compounds but require further research and development for deployment in wearables. In conclusion, while substantial progress has been made toward wearable molecular biosensors, substantial barriers remain and need to be solved to enable deployment of minimally invasive, wearable biomarker monitoring devices that can accurately report on psychophysiological status.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Suor/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação
6.
Macromol Biosci ; 19(3): e1800238, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369051

RESUMO

The suckerin family of proteins, identified from the squid sucker ring teeth assembly, offers unique mechanical properties and potential advantages over other natural biomaterials. In this study, a small suckerin isoform, suckerin-12, is used to create enzymatically crosslinked, macro-scale hydrogels. Upon exposure to specific salt conditions, suckerin-12 hydrogels contracted into a condensed state where mechanical properties are found to be modulated by the salt anion present. The rate of contraction is found to correlate well with the kosmotropic arm of the Hofmeister anion series. However, the observed changes in hydrogel mechanical properties are better explained by the ability of the salt to neutralize charges in suckerin-12 by deprotonization or charge screening. Thus, by altering the anions in the condensing salt solution, it is possible to tune the mechanical properties of suckerin-12 hydrogels. The potential for suckerins to add new properties to materials based on naturally-derived proteins is highlighted.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/química , Fibroínas/química , Hidrogéis/química , Estresse Mecânico , Animais , Isoformas de Proteínas/química
7.
ACS Comb Sci ; 20(10): 585-593, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189130

RESUMO

Competition-enhanced ligand screening (CompELS) was employed to rapidly screen through large DNA libraries to identify single-stranded, oligonucleotide-based ligands called aptamers that bind to a nonbiological target. This previously unreported aptamer screening approach involves the repeated introduction of unenriched random sequence populations during the biopanning process, but avoids iterative elution and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification steps inherent to traditional SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) screening. In this study, 25 aptamers were identified against a gold surface via CompELS and evaluated to identify patterns in primary structures and predicted secondary structures. Following a final one-round competition experiment with the 25 identified aptamers, one particular aptamer sequence (1N) emerged as the most competitive adsorbate species for the gold substrate. Binding analysis indicated at least an order of magnitude difference in the binding affinity of 1N ( Kd = 5.6 × 10-10 M) compared to five other high affinity aptamer candidates ( Kd = 10-8-10-9 M) from identical secondary structure families. Collectively, these studies introduce a rapid, reliable screening and ranking platform along with a classification scheme well-suited for identifying and characterizing aptamers for nonbiological as well as biological targets.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Biblioteca Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Cinética , Ligantes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros/métodos
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(38): 31928-31937, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165014

RESUMO

Mechanisms of biomaterial sclerotization in natural systems promise new insights into how the mechanical properties of engineered materials may be dynamically modulated. One such example involves the proteinaceous jaw of the marine sandworm, Nereis virens. Previously, the mechanical properties of the N. virens jaw were shown to be modulated by Zn binding, a property that was proposed to be enabled by the presence of the histidine-rich jaw protein, Nvjp-1. Here we demonstrate the creation of Nvjp-1-based hydrogels and show that progressive sclerotization of these hydrogels can be accomplished with hierarchical exposure to metal cations and anions. Divalent Zn cations are capable of reversibly sclerotizing the hydrogels through the formation of coordinate cross-links, an effect that is shown to be remarkably specific for Zn. Additionally, the degree of Zn-induced sclerotization is strongly influenced by the identity of the anion present in the hydrogel. Thus, the viscoelastic properties of Nvjp-1 hydrogels can be modulated through programmed, hierarchical exposure to specific cations and anions present in the sclerotizing salts. These observations have resulted in new hydrogel capabilities, such as the creation of anion-controlled shape-memory polymers, and will add to the number of control parameters that can be used to tune the properties of functional hydrogels in a dynamic manner.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Poliquetos/química , Animais , Ânions/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Cátions/química , Histidina/química , Hidrogéis/química
9.
ACS Sens ; 3(5): 1024-1031, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741092

RESUMO

Sensors for human health and performance monitoring require biological recognition elements (BREs) at device interfaces for the detection of key molecular biomarkers that are measurable biological state indicators. BREs, including peptides, antibodies, and nucleic acids, bind to biomarkers in the vicinity of the sensor surface to create a signal proportional to the biomarker concentration. The discovery of BREs with the required sensitivity and selectivity to bind biomarkers at low concentrations remains a fundamental challenge. In this study, we describe an in-silico approach to evolve higher sensitivity peptide-based BREs for the detection of cardiac event marker protein troponin I (cTnI) from a previously identified BRE as the parental affinity peptide. The P2 affinity peptide, evolved using our in-silico method, was found to have ∼16-fold higher affinity compared to the parent BRE and ∼10 fM (0.23 pg/mL) limit of detection. The approach described here can be applied towards designing BREs for other biomarkers for human health monitoring.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores/análise , Dicroísmo Circular , Simulação por Computador , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Troponina I/química
10.
Small ; 14(7)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323458

RESUMO

Interfacing biomolecules with functional materials is a key strategy toward achieving externally-triggered biological function. The rational integration of functional proteins, such as enzymes, with plasmonic nanostructures that exhibit unique optical properties such as photothermal effect provides a means to externally control the enzyme activity. However, due to the labile nature of enzymes, the photothermal effect of plasmonic nanostructures is mostly utilized for the enhancement of the biocatalytic activity of thermophilic enzymes. In order to extend and utilize the photothermal effect to a broader class of enzymes, a means to stabilize the immobilized active protein is essential. Inspired by biomineralization for the encapsulation of soft tissue within protective exteriors in nature, metal-organic framework is utilized to stabilize the enzyme. This strategy provides an effective route to enhance and externally modulate the biocatalytic activity of enzymes bound to functional nanostructures over a broad range of operating environments that are otherwise hostile to the biomolecules.


Assuntos
Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Catálise , Nanoestruturas/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
11.
ACS Sens ; 3(2): 342-351, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29336151

RESUMO

Most biosensors relying on antibodies as recognition elements fail in harsh environment conditions such as elevated temperatures, organic solvents, or proteases because of antibody denaturation, and require strict storage conditions with defined shelf life, thus limiting their applications in point-of-care and resource-limited settings. Here, a metal-organic framework (MOF) encapsulation is utilized to preserve the biofunctionality of antibodies conjugated to nanotransducers. This study investigates several parameters of MOF coating (including growth time, surface morphology, thickness, and precursor concentrations) that determine the preservation efficacy against different protein denaturing conditions in both dry and wet environments. A plasmonic biosensor based on gold nanorods as the nanotransducers is employed as a model biodiagnostic platform. The preservation efficacy attained through MOF encapsulation is compared to two other commonly employed materials (sucrose and silk fibroin). The results show that MOF coating outperforms sucrose and silk fibroin coatings under several harsh conditions including high temperature (80 °C), dimethylformamide, and protease solution, owing to complete encapsulation, stability in wet environment and ease of removal at point-of-use by the MOF. We believe this study will broaden the applicability of this universal approach for preserving different types of on-chip biodiagnostic reagents and biosensors/bioassays, thus extending the benefits of advanced diagnostic technologies in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ouro/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanotubos/química , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Fibroínas/química
12.
Light Sci Appl ; 7: 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839611

RESUMO

Fluorescence-based techniques are the cornerstone of modern biomedical optics, with applications ranging from bioimaging at various scales (organelle to organism) to detection and quantification of a wide variety of biological species of interest. However, the weakness of the fluorescence signal remains a persistent challenge in meeting the ever-increasing demand to image, detect, and quantify biological species with low abundance. Here, we report a simple and universal method based on a flexible and conformal elastomeric film with adsorbed plasmonic nanostructures, which we term a "plasmonic patch," that provides large (up to 100-fold) and uniform fluorescence enhancement on a variety of surfaces through simple transfer of the plasmonic patch to the surface. We demonstrate the applications of the plasmonic patch in improving the sensitivity and limit of detection (by more than 100 times) of fluorescence-based immunoassays implemented in microtiter plates and in microarray format. The novel fluorescence enhancement approach presented here represents a disease, biomarker, and application agnostic ubiquitously applicable fundamental and enabling technology to immediately improve the sensitivity of existing analytical methodologies in an easy-to-handle and cost-effective manner, without changing the original procedures of the existing techniques.

13.
ACS Omega ; 3(6): 6230-6236, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31458805

RESUMO

Breathing-air quality within commercial airline cabins has come under increased scrutiny because of the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the engine bleed air used to provide oxygen to cabins. Ideally, a sensor would be placed within the bleed air pipe itself, enabling detection before it permeated through and contaminated the entire cabin. Current gas-phase sensors suffer from issues with selectivity, do not have the appropriate form factor, or are too complex for commercial deployment. Here, we chose isopropyl alcohol (IPA), a main component of de-icer spray used in the aerospace community, as a target analyte: IPA exposure has been hypothesized to be a key component of aerotoxic syndrome in pre, during, and postflight. IPAs proposed mechanism of action is that of an anesthetic and central nervous system depressant. In this work, we describe IPA sensor development by showing (1) the integration of a polymer as an IPA capture matrix, (2) the adoption of a redox chemical additives as an IPA oxidizer, and (3) the application of carbon nanotubes as an electronic sensing conduit. We demonstrate the ability to not only detect IPA at 100-10 000 ppm in unfiltered, laboratory air but also discriminate among IPA, isoprene, and acetone, especially in comparison to a typical photoionization detector. Overall, we show an electronic device that operates at room temperature and responds preferentially to IPA, where the increase in the resistance corresponds directly to the concentration of IPA. Ultimately, this study opens up the pathway to selective electronic sensors that can enable real-time monitoring in a variety of environments for the force health prevention and protection, and the potential through future work to enable low parts-per-million and possibly high parts-per-billion selective detection of gas-phase VOCs of interest.

14.
Nanoscale ; 9(40): 15666-15672, 2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993826

RESUMO

Biotic-abiotic hybrids comprised of globular proteins and functional nanostructures with complementary and synergistic properties are central to a number of bionanotechnological applications. A comprehensive understanding of the effect of physicochemical properties of abiotic nanostructures on the biological activity of the bionanoconjugates is critical in the design of these bio-nano hybrids. In this study, using size and curvature-controlled gold nanoparticles as a model abiotic system, we investigated the effect of hydrodynamic diameter and surface curvature on the activity of a model enzyme, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), adsorbed on the surface of the nanostructures. In contrast with the previous studies, we have employed a novel class of gold superstructures (gold nanoparticles on spheres) to deconvolute the effects of size and curvature on the catalytic activity of the bionanoconjugates. This study improves our understanding of the bio/nano interface and the design of bioinorganic hybrids with potential applications in biomimetic and bioenabled sensors, energy harvesting, optoelectronic components and devices, responsive and autonomous materials.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanoconjugados/química , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre
16.
Chem Rev ; 117(20): 12705-12763, 2017 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937748

RESUMO

Through the use of the limited materials palette, optimally designed micro- and nanostructures, and tightly regulated processes, nature demonstrates exquisite control of light-matter interactions at various length scales. In fact, control of light-matter interactions is an important element in the evolutionary arms race and has led to highly engineered optical materials and systems. In this review, we present a detailed summary of various optical effects found in nature with a particular emphasis on the materials and optical design aspects responsible for their optical functionality. Using several representative examples, we discuss various optical phenomena, including absorption and transparency, diffraction, interference, reflection and antireflection, scattering, light harvesting, wave guiding and lensing, camouflage, and bioluminescence, that are responsible for the unique optical properties of materials and structures found in nature and biology. Great strides in understanding the design principles adapted by nature have led to a tremendous progress in realizing biomimetic and bioinspired optical materials and photonic devices. We discuss the various micro- and nanofabrication techniques that have been employed for realizing advanced biomimetic optical structures.

17.
Nanoscale ; 9(24): 8401-8409, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604905

RESUMO

Colloidal metal nanocrystals find many applications in catalysis, energy conversion devices, and therapeutics. However, the nature of ligand interactions and implications on shape control have remained uncertain at the atomic scale. Large differences in peptide adsorption strength and facet specificity were found on flat palladium surfaces versus surfaces of nanoparticles of 2 to 3 nm size using accurate atomistic simulations with the Interface force field. Folding of longer peptides across many facets explains the formation of near-spherical particles with local surface disorder, in contrast to the possibility of nanostructures of higher symmetry with shorter ligands. The average particle size in TEM correlates inversely with the surface coverage with a given ligand and with the strength of ligand adsorption. The role of specific amino acids and sequence mutations on the nanoparticle size and facet composition is discussed, as well as the origin of local surface disorder that leads to large differences in catalytic reactivity.

18.
Langmuir ; 33(26): 6611-6619, 2017 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605903

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of abiotic nanostructures determine the structure and function of biological counterparts in biotic-abiotic nanohybrids. A comprehensive understanding of the interfacial interactions and the predictive capability of their structure and function is paramount for virtually all fields of bionanotechnology. In this study, using plasmonic nanostructures as a model abiotic system, we investigate the effect of the surface charge of nanostructures on the biocatalytic reaction kinetics of a bound enzyme. We found that the surface charge of nanostructures profoundly influences the structure, orientation, and activity of the bound enzyme. Furthermore, the interactions of the enzyme with nanoparticles result in stable conjugates that retain their functionality at elevated temperatures, unlike their free counterparts that lose their secondary structure and biocatalytic activity.

19.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15156, 2017 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447665

RESUMO

Energetic liquids function mainly as fuels due to low energy densities and slow combustion kinetics. Consequently, these properties can be significantly increased through the addition of metal nanomaterials such as aluminium. Unfortunately, nanoparticle additives are restricted to low mass fractions in liquids because of increased viscosities and severe particle agglomeration. Nanoscale protein ionic liquids represent multifunctional solvent systems that are well suited to overcoming low mass fractions of nanoparticles, producing stable nanoparticle dispersions and simultaneously offering a source of oxidizing agents for combustion of reactive nanomaterials. Here, we use iron oxide-loaded ferritin proteins to create a stable and highly energetic liquid composed of aluminium nanoparticles and ferritin proteins for printing and forming 3D shapes and structures. In total, this bioenergetic liquid exhibits increased energy output and performance, enhanced dispersion and oxidation stability, lower activation temperatures, and greater processability and functionality.


Assuntos
Ferritinas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Impressão , Proteínas/química , Alumínio/química , Animais , Cavalos , Tinta , Líquidos Iônicos/química
20.
ACS Nano ; 11(5): 4899-4906, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448717

RESUMO

The water/graphene interface has received considerable attention in the past decade due to its relevance in various potential applications including energy storage, sensing, desalination, and catalysis. Most of our knowledge about the interfacial water structure next to graphene stems from simulations, which use experimentally measured water contact angles (WCAs) on graphene (or graphite) to estimate the water-graphene interaction strength. However, the existence of a wide spectrum of reported WCAs on supported graphene and graphitic surfaces makes it difficult to interpret the water-graphene interactions. Here, we have used surface-sensitive infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to probe the interfacial water structure next to graphene supported on a sapphire substrate. In addition, the ice nucleation properties of graphene have been explored by performing in situ freezing experiments as graphitic surfaces are considered good ice nucleators. For graphene supported on sapphire, we observed a strong SFG peak associated with highly coordinated, ordered water next to graphene. Similar ordering was not detected next to bare sapphire, implying that the observed ordering of water molecules in the former case is a consequence of the presence of graphene. Our analysis indicates that graphene behaves like a hydrophobic (or negatively charged) surface, leading to enhanced ordering of water molecules. Although liquid water orders next to graphene, the ice formed is proton disordered. This research sheds light on water-graphene interactions relevant in optimizing the performance of graphene in various applications.

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