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1.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(1): 58-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: U.S. policymakers and public health practitioners lack composite indicators (indices) to assess and compare the restrictiveness of state-level alcohol policy environments, conceptualized as the presence of multiple policies in effect in a particular place and time. The purposes of this study were to characterize the alcohol policy environment in each U.S. state and Washington, DC, in 2018, and to examine changes during the past 20 years. METHOD: State-specific Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores from 1999 to 2018 were based on 29 policies, after weighting each present policy by its efficacy and degree of implementation. Modified APS scores were also calculated on the basis of two sets of mutually exclusive policy subgroups. RESULTS: APS scores in 2018 varied considerably between states, ranging from 25.6 to 67.9 on a theoretical scale of 0 to 100; the median score was 43.5 (based on a 0-100 range), and 43 states had scores less than 50. The median change in state APS scores from 1999 to 2018 was positive (+4.9, range: -7.4 to +10.3), indicating increases in the restrictiveness of policy environments, with decreases in only five states. The increases in APS scores were primarily attributable to the implementation of stronger impaired-driving laws, whereas policies to reduce excessive drinking were unchanged. There was no correlation between states' excessive drinking policy scores and their impaired-driving scores (r = .05, p = .74). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this policy scale, few states have restrictive policy environments. Although states adopted policies targeting impaired driving during the study period, there was no change in policies to reduce excessive drinking.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926338
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 30-34, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945030

RESUMO

Each year, excessive drinking accounts for one in 10 deaths among U.S. adults aged 20-64 years (1), and approximately 90% of adults who report excessive drinking* binge drink (i.e., consume five or more drinks for men or four or more drinks for women on a single occasion) (2). In 2015, 17.1% of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years reported binge drinking approximately once a week and consumed an average of seven drinks per binge drinking episode, resulting in 17.5 billion total binge drinks, or 467 total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking (3). CDC analyzed 2011-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to assess trends in total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking in the United States overall and in the individual states. The age-adjusted† total annual number of binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking increased significantly from 472 in 2011 to 529 in 2017. Total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking also increased significantly from 2011 to 2017 among those aged 35-44 years (26.7%, from 468 to 593) and 45-64 years (23.1%, from 428 to 527). The largest percentage increases in total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking during this period were observed among those without a high school diploma (45.8%) and those with household incomes <$25,000 (23.9%). Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force§ for reducing excessive drinking (e.g., regulating alcohol outlet density) might reduce binge drinking and related health risks.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(1): 79-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Harnessing engagement in online searching and social media may provide complementary information for monitoring alcohol use, informing prevention and policy evaluation, and extending knowledge available from national surveys. METHODS: Relative search volumes for 7 alcohol-related keywords were estimated from Google Trends (data, 2014-2017), and the proportion of alcohol use-related Twitter posts (data, 2014-2015) was estimated using natural language processing. Searching/posting measures were created for all 50 U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. Survey reports of alcohol use and summaries of state alcohol policies were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (data, 2014-2016) and the Alcohol Policy Scale. In 2018-2019, associations among searching/posting measures and same state/year Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System reports of recent (past-30-day) alcohol use and maximum number of drinks consumed on an occasion were estimated using logistic and linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographics and Internet use, with moderation tested in regressions that included interactions of select searching/posting measures and the Alcohol Policy Scale. RESULTS: Recent alcohol use was reported by 52.93% of 1,297,168 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents, which was associated with all state-level searching/posting measures in unadjusted and adjusted models (p<0.0001). Among drinkers, most searching/posting measures were associated with maximum number of drinks consumed (p<0.0001). Associations varied with exposure to high versus low levels of state policy controls on alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Strong associations were found among individual alcohol use and state-level alcohol-related searching/posting measures, which were moderated by the strength of state alcohol policies. Findings support using novel personally generated data to monitor alcohol use and possibly evaluate effects of alcohol control policies.

5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108885, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although more restrictive alcohol control policies (e.g., higher alcohol taxes) are related to lower levels of alcohol consumption, little is known about the relationship between alcohol policies and rates of alcohol-attributable cancer. METHODS: State alcohol policy restrictiveness, as measured by a validated policy scale, were related to state rates of six alcohol attributable cancers in the U.S. from 2006 to 2010 in a lagged, cross-sectional linear regression that controlled for a variety of state-level factors. Cancer mortality rates were from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Alcohol-Related Disease Impact application, which uses population-attributable fraction methodology to calculate mortality from cancers of the esophagus, larynx, liver, oropharynx, prostate (male only) and breast (female only). RESULTS: More restrictive state alcohol policies were associated with lower cancer mortality rates for the six cancer types overall (beta [ß] -0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.59, -0.07), and among men (ß -0.45; 95% CI -0.81, -0.10) and women (ß -0.21; 95% CI -0.40, -0.02). A 10% increase in the restrictiveness of alcohol policies (based on the mean APS among states) was associated with an 8.5% decrease in rates of combined alcohol-attributable cancers. In all analyses stratified by cancer subtype and sex, the associations were in the hypothesized direction (i.e., more restrictive state policy environments were associated with lower rates of alcohol-attributable cancers), with the exception of laryngeal cancer among women. CONCLUSION: Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising prevention strategy for alcohol-related cancer.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many individuals presumed to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Little known about patterns of alcohol use in patients with NAFLD or how drinking behaviors affect liver fat. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 2475 participants of the Framingham Heart Study with hepatic steatosis, determined by computed tomography. We performed multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to evaluate the association between alcohol drinking patterns and hepatic steatosis. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, diet, and the components of the metabolic syndrome. We excluded heavy alcohol users, defined as women who consume more than 14 alcohol drinks/week and men who consume more than 21 alcohol drinks/week. RESULTS: In our sample (mean age, 49.8±10.2; 50.3% women), the prevalence of hepatic steatosis was 17.5%. The total number of alcohol drinks/week and the maximum drinks consumed per drinking day were each associated with hepatic steatosis (adjusted-odds ratio [aOR] 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29 and aOR 1.15; 95% CI 1.02-1.30). Binge drinking occurred in 25.4% of individuals with presumed NAFLD and was associated with an increased odds of hepatic steatosis (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98) among alcohol users. In a beverage-specific analysis, alcohol use patterns were associated with hepatic steatosis among beer drinkers, but not among wine drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: In a cross-sectional study of participants of the Framingham Heart Study with hepatic steatosis, we observed an association between alcohol use and liver fat, even after excluding heavy alcohol users from our analysis. Alcohol use therefore appears to be a risk factor for NAFLD. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings and determine if alcohol use should be a focus for research, prevention, and treatment of presumed NAFLD.

7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(4): 408-414, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: At least one type of tax is applied to the sale of alcoholic beverages in all U.S. states. The purpose of this study was to characterize the composition and magnitude of alcohol taxes in states and to assess the relationship between total alcohol taxes (federal plus state) and the cost of excessive drinking. METHOD: The amount of tax (in dollars per standard drink) by state was estimated from data on state ad valorem excise, specific excise, and sales taxes in 2010 obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and Tax Foundation. These taxes were summed, and specific excise taxes were assessed as a proportion of total state taxes. Tax data on beer were analyzed for all 50 states. Tax data for wine and distilled spirits were restricted to the 32 license states and Washington, D.C., with fully privatized distribution systems. Total alcohol taxes for the 32 license states were compared on a per-drink basis with published state estimates of the cost of excessive drinking in these states in 2010. RESULTS: Specific excise taxes accounted for a weighted median of 20.1% of total state alcohol tax revenue in the 32 license states and Washington, D.C. The median total alcohol tax per drink (based on all federal and state taxes) was $0.21, which accounted for 26.7% of the median cost to government and 10.3% of the median total economic cost of excessive drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Specific excise taxes account for one fifth of state alcohol taxes in the 32 license states; but even considering all tax types, total alcohol taxes account for only one tenth of alcohol-related costs.

8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(6): 1234-1243, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although restrictive state alcohol policy environments are protective for individuals' binge drinking, research is sparse on the effect of alcohol policies on alcohol's harms to others (AHTO). We examined the lagged associations between efficacy of U.S. state alcohol policies and number of harms from others' drinking 1 year later. METHODS: Individuals with AHTO data in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (analytic sample n = 26,744) that pooled the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Alcohol Surveys and a 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey were linked with prior-year state policy measures. We used 2 measures from the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS)-effectiveness in reducing (i) binge drinking and (ii) impaired driving, based on experts' efficacy judgments regarding 29 state alcohol policies. Three 12-month AHTO measures (due to another drinker) were experiencing: (i) either family/marriage difficulties or financial troubles; (ii) being assaulted or vandalized; and (iii) passenger with drunk driver or traffic accident. Multilevel models accounting for clustering within states and stratified by age-groups (<40 vs. ≥40) examined associations between the APS and AHTO measures, controlling for individual covariates (gender, race, education, employment and marital status, family problem-drinking history) of the victim. RESULTS: Only for those aged <40, the lagged APS-Binge drinking and APS-Impaired driving scores were each inversely associated with aggression-related harms and, separately, with drunk driving-related harm from someone else's drinking (ps < 0.05 to < 0.01). Family/financial harms were not associated with APS scores for either age-group. Composite AHTO measures (any of 3 harm-types) also were inversely associated with stronger state alcohol policy environments (ps < 0.05 to <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: State alcohol policies may be effective in reducing, to a meaningful degree, aggression-related harms and vehicular hazards due to other drinkers, but mainly in those under 40.

9.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(2): 172-179, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) results in deaths of both primary and corollary (i.e., nonintimate partner) victims. Alcohol use is a known risk factor for IPV, yet the relationship between alcohol policies and IPV homicides is unclear. This repeated cross-sectional study characterizes alcohol involvement, and the relationship between alcohol policies and alcohol involvement, among victims of IPV homicides in the U.S. METHODS: Homicide victim data from 17 states in the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed in 2017-2018. Alcohol Policy Scale scores characterized alcohol policies by state year and were used in generalized estimating equation logistic regression models to predict the odds of alcohol involvement among victims of IPV homicide. RESULTS: Among victims of IPV homicide, 36.5% of primary and 41.1% of corollary victims had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) >0.00%. Of the victims with a positive BAC, 67.6% had a BAC ≥0.08%. In adjusted models, a 10-percentage point increase in Alcohol Policy Scale score was associated with reduced odds of having a positive BAC (AOR=0.77, 95% CI=0.64, 0.93) and having a BAC ≥0.08% (AOR=0.82, 95% CI=0.68, 0.99) among all victims, primary victims (AOR=0.78, 95% CI=0.63, 0.98; AOR=0.82, 95% CI=0.65, 1.04), and corollary victims (AOR=0.61, 95% CI=0.42, 0.89; AOR=0.68, 95% CI=0.48, 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use was prevalent among victims of IPV homicide, and more-restrictive alcohol policies were associated with reduced odds of alcohol involvement. Strengthening alcohol policies is a promising strategy to reduce alcohol-involved IPV homicide victimization.

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(16): 365-368, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022164

RESUMO

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including birth defects that involve central nervous system impairment, behavioral disorders, and impaired intellectual development, which can lead to difficulties with school and employment. A recent study in four U.S. communities found a 1.1%-5.0% prevalence of FASDs among first-grade students (1). Drinking during pregnancy might also be a risk factor for other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, including miscarriage and stillbirth (2). CDC estimated the prevalence of self-reported current drinking (at least one alcohol drink in the past 30 days) and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past 30 days) among pregnant women aged 18-44 years, using 2015-2017 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Current drinking and binge drinking in the past 30 days were reported by 11.5% and 3.9% of pregnant women, respectively. Among pregnant women who binge drink, the average frequency of binge drinking in the past 30 days was 4.5 episodes, and the average intensity of binge drinking (the average largest number of drinks reported consumed on any occasion among binge drinkers) was 6.0 drinks. Increased implementation of evidence-based community-level and clinic-level interventions, such as universal alcohol screening and brief counseling in primary and prenatal care, could decrease the prevalence of drinking during pregnancy, which might ultimately reduce the prevalence of FASDs and other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Can J Diet Pract Res ; 80(3): 111-115, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724112

RESUMO

We estimated calorie intake from alcohol in Canada, overall and by gender, age, and province, and provide evidence to advocate for mandatory alcohol labelling requirements. Annual per capita (aged 15+) alcohol sales data in litres of pure ethanol by beverage type were taken from Statistics Canada's CANSIM database and converted into calories. The apportionment of consumption by gender, age, and province was based on data from the Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drug Survey. Estimated energy requirements (EER) were from Canada's Food Guide. The average drinker consumed 250 calories, or 11.2% of their daily EER in the form of alcohol, with men (13.3%) consuming a higher proportion of their EER from alcohol than women (8.2%). Drinkers consumed more than one-tenth of their EER from alcohol in all but one province. By beverage type, beer contributes 52.7% of all calories derived from alcohol, while wine (20.8%); spirits (19.8%); and ciders, coolers, and other alcohol (6.7%) also contribute substantially. The substantial caloric impact of alcoholic drinks in the Canadian diet suggests that the addition of caloric labelling on these drinks is a necessary step.

12.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(1): 63-68, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use causes approximately 10% of deaths among adults ages 20-65 in the United States. Although previous research has demonstrated differential age-related risk relationships, it is difficult to estimate the magnitude of selection bias attributable to premature mortality based on existing cohort studies, the average age of which is greater than 50 years. The objective of our study was to assess the distribution of mortality-related harms and benefits from alcohol among adults ages 20 and older in comparison with the distribution among those older than age 50. METHOD: Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Alcohol-Related Disease Impact software application from 2006-10 were used to determine the distribution of alcohol-attributable deaths (AADs) and the years of potential life lost (YPLLs) that was caused or prevented by alcohol for 54 conditions by 15-year age groupings (20-34, 35-49, 50-64, 65+) in the United States. We also determined the proportion of net deaths and YPLLs occurring in each age group, overall and by cause of death. RESULTS: Adults ages 20-49 years experienced 35.8% of the deaths and 58.4% of the YPLLs caused by alcohol, whereas the same group accrued only 4.5% of AADs and 14.2% of YPLLs gained. Overall, 46.3% of the total net deaths and 64.7% of the net YPLLs occurred among those ages 20-49; adding net deaths occurring among those ages 20-49 to those occurring after age 50 would result in an 86.3% relative increase in net deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Because of premature mortality, alcohol-mortality associations based on cohort studies may underestimate negative health consequences compared with those observed among the general population.

13.
Addiction ; 114(4): 601-602, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259589
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 15: E151, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522582

RESUMO

Limited information exists about the effectiveness of interventions to enforce laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons in licensed establishments. New Mexico Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were used to evaluate an intervention on binge drinking intensity in licensed (eg, bars) versus unlicensed (eg, homes) locations. The proportion of binge drinkers in licensed locations who consumed 8 or more drinks on a binge drinking occasion decreased from 42.1% in 2004-2005 to 22.6% in 2007-2008 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.9), while the proportion in unlicensed locations was essentially unchanged. Enhanced enforcement of overservice laws may reduce excessive drinking in licensed establishments.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Comércio , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Licenciamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA Intern Med ; 178(7): 894-901, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29813162

RESUMO

Importance: Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of mortality. However, the association between the restrictiveness of the alcohol policy environment (ie, based on multiple existing policies) and alcohol-related crash fatalities has not been characterized previously to date. Objective: To examine the association between the restrictiveness of state alcohol policy environments and the likelihood of alcohol involvement among those dying in motor vehicle crashes in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a repeated cross-sectional study in which state alcohol policies (operationalized by the Alcohol Policy Scale [APS]) from 1999 to 2014 were related to motor vehicle crash fatalities from 2000 to 2015 using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1-year lag). Alternating logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustering of multiple deaths within a crash and of multiple crashes occurring within states. The study also examined independent associations of mutually exclusive subgroups of policies, including consumption-oriented policies vs driving-oriented policies. The study setting was the 50 US states. Participants were 505 614 decedents aged at least 21 years from motor vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds that a crash fatality was alcohol related (fatality stemmed from a crash in which ≥1 driver had a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] ≥0.08%). Results: From 2000 to 2015, there were 505 614 adult motor vehicle crash fatalities in the United States, of which 178 795 (35.4%) were alcohol related. Each 10-percentage point increase in the APS score (corresponding to more restrictive state policies) was associated with reduced individual-level odds of alcohol involvement in a crash fatality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.91); results were consistent among most demographic and crash-type strata. More restrictive policies also had protective associations with alcohol involvement among crash fatalities associated with BACs from greater than 0.00% to less than 0.08%. After accounting for driving-oriented policies, consumption-oriented policies were independently protective for alcohol-related crash fatalities (aOR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.98 based on a 10-percentage point increased APS score). Conclusions and Relevance: Strengthening alcohol policies, including those that do not specifically target impaired driving, could reduce alcohol-related crash fatalities. Policies may also protect against crash fatalities involving BAC levels below the current legal limit for driving in the United States.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Dirigir sob a Influência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
17.
J Public Health Res ; 7(1): 1269, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780765

RESUMO

Background: Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been shown to be an important contributor to the problem of underage drinking in the U.S. More work is needed on identifying and minimizing content with particular appeal to youth. Design and Methods: We tested the association between the youth-appeal of marketing content of televised alcohol advertisements and the brand-specific alcohol consumption of both underage youth and adults. We used existing data from three sources: a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among underage youth (N=1032), a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among adults (N ~13,000), and an analysis of content appealing to youth (CAY) in a sample of televised alcohol advertisements (n=96) aired during the youth survey. The association between CAY scores for the 96 alcohol ads and youth (age 13-20) versus adult (age 21+) consumption of those ads' brands was tested through bivariate and multivariate models. Results: Brand CAY scores were (a) positively associated with brand-specific youth consumption after controlling for adult brand consumption; (b) positively associated with a ratio of youth-toadult brand-specific consumption; and (c) not associated with adult brand consumption. Conclusions: Alcohol brands with youth-appealing advertising are consumed more often by youth than adults, indicating that these ads may be more persuasive to relatively younger audiences, and that youth are not simply mirroring adult consumption patterns in their choice of brands. Future research should consider the content of alcohol advertising when testing marketing effects on youth drinking, and surveillance efforts might focus on brands popular among youth.

18.
Am J Prev Med ; 54(4): 486-496, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Binge drinking (four or more drinks for women, five or more drinks for men on an occasion) accounts for more than half of the 88,000 U.S. deaths resulting from excessive drinking annually. Adult binge drinkers do so frequently and at high intensity; however, there are known disparities in binge drinking that are not well characterized by any single binge-drinking measure. A new measure of total annual binge drinks was used to assess these disparities at the state and national levels. METHODS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2015 data (analyzed in 2016) were used to estimate the prevalence, frequency, intensity, and total binge drinks among U.S. adults. Total annual binge drinks was calculated by multiplying annual binge-drinking episodes by binge-drinking intensity. RESULTS: In 2015, a total of 17.1% of U.S. adults (37.4 million) reported an annual average of 53.1 binge-drinking episodes per binge drinker, at an average intensity of 7.0 drinks per binge episode, resulting in 17.5 billion total binge drinks, or 467.0 binge drinks per binge drinker. Although binge drinking was more common among young adults (aged 18-34 years), half of the total binge drinks were consumed by adults aged ≥35 years. Total binge drinks per binge drinker were substantially higher among those with lower educational levels and household incomes than among those with higher educational levels and household incomes. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. adult binge drinkers consume about 17.5 billion total binge drinks annually, or about 470 binge drinks/binge drinker. Monitoring total binge drinks can help characterize disparities in binge drinking and help plan and evaluate effective prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(1): 43-48, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29227230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the United States, excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost $249 billion, or $2.05 per drink, in 2010. Specific excise taxes, the predominant form of alcohol taxation in the United States, are based on the volume of alcohol sold rather than a percentage of price and can thus degrade over time because of inflation. The objective of this study was to describe changes in inflation-adjusted state alcohol excise taxes on a beverage-specific basis. METHOD: State-level data on specific excise taxes were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and the Tax Foundation. Excise tax rates were converted into the tax per standard U.S. drink (14 g of ethanol) for beer, wine, and distilled spirits, and converted into 2015 dollars using annual Consumer Price Index data. RESULTS: Across U.S. states, the average state alcohol excise tax per drink in 2015 was $0.03 for beer, $0.05 for distilled spirits, and $0.03 for wine. From 1991 to 2015, the average inflation-adjusted (in 2015 dollars) state alcohol excise tax rate declined 30% for beer, 32% for distilled spirits, and 27% for wine. Percentage declines in state excise taxes since their inception were more than twice as large as those from 1991 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: In 2015, average state specific excise taxes were $0.05 or less per standard drink across all beverage types and have experienced substantial inflation-adjusted declines.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/economia , Impostos/economia , Cerveja/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Vinho/economia
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