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Allergy ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596517


BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is the main cause of the autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). We previously reported the selective loss of group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC) number and function in a Dock8-deficient mouse model. In this study, we sought to test whether DOCK8 is required for the function and maintenance of ILC subsets in humans. METHODS: Peripheral blood ILC1-3 subsets of 16 DOCK8-deficient patients recruited at the pretransplant stage, and seven patients with autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations, were compared with those of healthy controls or post-transplant DOCK8-deficient patients (n = 12) by flow cytometry and real-time qPCR. Sorted total ILCs from DOCK8- or STAT3-mutant patients and healthy controls were assayed for survival, apoptosis, proliferation, and activation by IL-7, IL-23, and IL-12 by cell culture, flow cytometry, and phospho-flow assays. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient but not STAT3-mutant patients exhibited a profound depletion of ILC3s, and to a lesser extent ILC2s, in their peripheral blood. DOCK8-deficient ILC1-3 subsets had defective proliferation, expressed lower levels of IL-7R, responded less to IL-7, IL-12, or IL-23 cytokines, and were more prone to apoptosis compared with those of healthy controls. CONCLUSION: DOCK8 regulates human ILC3 expansion and survival, and more globally ILC cytokine signaling and proliferation. DOCK8 deficiency leads to loss of ILC3 from peripheral blood. ILC3 deficiency may contribute to the susceptibility of DOCK8-deficient patients to infections.

Scand J Immunol ; 90(5): e12809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322747


We evaluated 18 DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) patients and aimed to investigate the immunological changes in this population. DGS patients with low naive CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells were defined as high-risk (HR) patients, whereas patients with normal numbers of naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were defined as standard risk (SR) patients. Level of serum IgM, CD3+ T cell counts and percentages of class-switched memory B cells were significantly low in HR group compared to SR ones. Severe infections and persistent hypoparathyroidism were detected significantly higher in HR group. Patients with reduced percentages of class-switched B cells had earlier onset of infection, lower blood IgM, lower CD4+ and CD8+ T counts than patients with normal class-switched memory B cells. Decreased levels of IgM were associated with low numbers of naive CD4+ and recent thymic emigrants T cells. Monitoring the immune changes of patients with DGS would be useful to predict the severe phenotype of disease.

Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Switching de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Lactente , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238161


BACKGROUND: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency presents with susceptibility to infections, autoimmunity, and lymphoproliferation. The long-term efficacy of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin (abatacept) as targeted therapy for its immune dysregulatory features remains to be established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and immunologic features of LRBA deficiency and long-term efficacy of abatacept treatment in controlling the different disease manifestations. METHODS: Twenty-two LRBA-deficient patients were recruited from different immunology centers and followed prospectively. Eighteen patients on abatacept were evaluated every 3 months for long-term clinical and immunologic responses. LRBA expression, lymphocyte subpopulations, and circulating T follicular helper cells were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 13.4 ± 7.9 years, and the follow-up period was 3.4 ± 2.3 years. Recurrent infections (n = 19 [86.4%]), immune dysregulation (n = 18 [81.8%]), and lymphoproliferation (n = 16 [72.7%]) were common clinical features. The long-term benefits of abatacept in 16 patients were demonstrated by complete control of lymphoproliferation and chronic diarrhea followed by immune dysregulation, most notably autoimmune cytopenias. Weekly or every other week administration of abatacept gave better disease control compared with every 4 weeks. There were no serious side effects related to the abatacept therapy. Circulating T follicular helper cell frequencies were found to be a reliable biomarker of disease activity, which decreased on abatacept therapy in most subjects. However, high circulating T follicular helper cell frequencies persisted in 2 patients who had a more severe disease phenotype that was relatively resistant to abatacept therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term abatacept therapy is effective in most patients with LRBA deficiency.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-9, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404088


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: About 65-80% of children with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) can tolerate extensively heated milk. We have invested in the mass fabrication of a test product containing milk protein baked at 180°C for 30 min (SUTMEK-milk) and a milk-free placebo (SUTMEK-placebo) to carry out a standardised double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) test in patients with CMA. METHODS: We studied children with IgE-mediated CMA between 13 and 48 months of age. Specific IgEs (spIgE) to milk proteins were quantified. A DBPCFC with our bakery products was performed, and factors determining reactivity to extensively heated milk were evaluated. We also tested the applicability of SUTMEK products in baked-milk oral immunotherapy in a pilot assessment. RESULTS: We studied 15 children (8 girls, 7 boys) with a median age of 26 months (range: 13-48 months). Nine (60%) patients tolerated a challenge with extensively heated milk, while 6 (40%) were found reactive (anaphylaxis: 2, wheezing: 2, urticaria: 2). spIgE to milk, α-lactalbumin, and casein, and the wheal diameter on skin prick testing were higher in the reactive group than the tolerant groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.048, respectively). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses yielded the following cut-off values for spIgEs that would predict a reactivity to extensively heated milk; milk: 25 kU/L (area under curve, AUC: 0.981), casein: 32 kU/L (AUC: 0.983), and α-lactalbumin: 17 kU/L (AUC: 0.981). Nine patients have tolerated well a continued daily consumption of SUTMEK-milk or -placebo for 6 months at the desired doses. CONCLUSIONS: Our bakery products were successfully used in DBPCFC studies and qualified as an acceptable tool for use in the research of interventional tolerance induction. Although spIgE appears useful in determining children at high risk of reacting to extensively heated milk, the predictive cut-off values are still far from being perfect.

Turk Pediatri Ars ; 51(4): 186-192, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123330


AIM: Although the association between primary immunodeficiency and autoimmunity is already well-known, it has once again become a topic of debate with the discovery of newly-defined immunodeficiencies. Thus, investigation of the mechanisms of development of autoimmunity in primary immunodefficiency and new target-specific therapeutic options has come to the fore. In this study, we aimed to examine the clinical findings of autoimmunity, autoimmunity varieties, and treatment responses in patients who were genetically diagnosed as having primary immunodeficiency. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The files of patients with primary immunodeficiency who had clinical findings of autoimmunity, who were diagnosed genetically, and followed up in our clinic were investigated. The demographic and clinical features of the patients and their medical treatments were evaluated. RESULTS: Findings of autoimmunity were found in 30 patients whose genetic mutations were identified. The mean age at the time of the first symptoms was 8.96±14.64 months, and the mean age of receiving a genetic diagnosis was 82.55±84.71 months. The most common diseases showing findings of autoimmunity included immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy X-linked syndrome (16.7%); autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (10%); lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor protein deficiency (10%); and DiGeorge syndrome (10%). Twelve (40%) patients showed findings of autoimmunity at the time of first presentation. The most common findings of autoimmunity included inflammatory bowel disease, inflammatory bowel disease-like findings (n=14, 46.7%), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (n=11, 36.7%), and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (n=9, 30.0%). A response to immunosupressive agents was observed in 15 (50%) patients. Ten patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Six patients were lost to follow-up due to a variety of complications. CONCLUSION: Autoimmunity is frequently observed in patients with primary immunodeficiency. The possibility of primary immunodeficiency should be considered in patients with early-onset manifestations of autoimmunity, and these patients should be carefully monitored in terms of immunodeficiency development. Early diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency may provide favorable outcomes in terms of survival.