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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 13-24, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apalutamide is an inhibitor of the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Whether the addition of apalutamide to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) would prolong radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival as compared with placebo plus ADT among patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer has not been determined. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer to receive apalutamide (240 mg per day) or placebo, added to ADT. Previous treatment for localized disease and previous docetaxel therapy were allowed. The primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 525 patients were assigned to receive apalutamide plus ADT and 527 to receive placebo plus ADT. The median age was 68 years. A total of 16.4% of the patients had undergone prostatectomy or received radiotherapy for localized disease, and 10.7% had received previous docetaxel therapy; 62.7% had high-volume disease, and 37.3% had low-volume disease. At the first interim analysis, with a median of 22.7 months of follow-up, the percentage of patients with radiographic progression-free survival at 24 months was 68.2% in the apalutamide group and 47.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for radiographic progression or death, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.60; P<0.001). Overall survival at 24 months was also greater with apalutamide than with placebo (82.4% in the apalutamide group vs. 73.5% in the placebo group; hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P = 0.005). The frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was 42.2% in the apalutamide group and 40.8% in the placebo group; rash was more common in the apalutamide group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer, overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival were significantly longer with the addition of apalutamide to ADT than with placebo plus ADT, and the side-effect profile did not differ substantially between the two groups. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; TITAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02489318.).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Tioidantoínas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiografia , Tioidantoínas/efeitos adversos
2.
Asian J Urol ; 4(2): 75-85, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264210

RESUMO

Objective: This double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study was designed to compare efficacy and safety of abiraterone acetate + prednisone (abiraterone) to prednisone alone in chemotherapy-naïve, asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients from China, Malaysia, Thailand and Russia. Methods: Adult chemotherapy-naïve patients with confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) grade 0-1, ongoing androgen deprivation (serum testosterone <50 ng/dL) with prostate specific antigen (PSA) or radiographic progression were randomized to receive abiraterone acetate (1000 mg, QD) + prednisone (5 mg, BID) or placebo + prednisone (5 mg, BID), until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Primary endpoint was improvements in time to PSA progression (TTPP). Results: Totally, 313 patients were randomized (abiraterone: n = 157; prednisone: n = 156); and baseline characteristics were balanced. At clinical cut-off (median follow-up time: 3.9 months), 80% patients received treatment (abiraterone: n = 138, prednisone: n = 112). Median time to PSA progression was not reached with abiraterone versus 3.8 months for prednisone, attaining 58% reduction in PSA progression risk (HR = 0.418; p < 0.0001). Abiraterone-treated patients had higher confirmed PSA response rate (50% vs. 21%; relative odds = 2.4; p < 0.0001) and were 5 times more likely to achieve radiographic response than prednisone-treated patients (22.9% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.0369). Median survival was not reached. Most common (≥10% abiraterone vs. prednisone-treated) adverse events: bone pain (7% vs. 14%), pain in extremity (6% vs. 12%), arthralgia (10% vs. 8%), back pain (7% vs. 11%), and hypertension (15% vs. 14%). Conclusion: Interim analysis confirmed favorable benefit-to-risk ratio of abiraterone in chemotherapy-naïve men with mCRPC, consistent with global study, thus supporting use of abiraterone in this patient population.

3.
Lancet Oncol ; 16(2): 152-60, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival compared with placebo plus prednisone in men with chemotherapy-naive castration-resistant prostate cancer at the interim analyses of the COU-AA-302 trial. Here, we present the prespecified final analysis of the trial, assessing the effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on overall survival, time to opiate use, and use of other subsequent therapies. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised phase 3 study, 1088 asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with chemotherapy-naive prostate cancer stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology performance status (0 vs 1) were randomly assigned with a permuted block allocation scheme via a web response system in a 1:1 ratio to receive either abiraterone acetate (1000 mg once daily) plus prednisone (5 mg twice daily; abiraterone acetate group) or placebo plus prednisone (placebo group). Coprimary endpoints were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival analysed in the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00887198. FINDINGS: At a median follow-up of 49.2 months (IQR 47.0-51.8), 741 (96%) of the prespecified 773 death events for the final analysis had been observed: 354 (65%) of 546 patients in the abiraterone acetate group and 387 (71%) of 542 in the placebo group. 238 (44%) patients initially receiving prednisone alone subsequently received abiraterone acetate plus prednisone as crossover per protocol (93 patients) or as subsequent therapy (145 patients). Overall, 365 (67%) patients in the abiraterone acetate group and 435 (80%) in the placebo group received subsequent treatment with one or more approved agents. Median overall survival was significantly longer in the abiraterone acetate group than in the placebo group (34.7 months [95% CI 32.7-36.8] vs 30.3 months [28.7-33.3]; hazard ratio 0.81 [95% CI 0.70-0.93]; p=0.0033). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events of special interest were cardiac disorders (41 [8%] of 542 patients in the abiraterone acetate group vs 20 [4%] of 540 patients in the placebo group), increased alanine aminotransferase (32 [6%] vs four [<1%]), and hypertension (25 [5%] vs 17 [3%]). INTERPRETATION: In this randomised phase 3 trial with a median follow-up of more than 4 years, treatment with abiraterone acetate prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone by a margin that was both clinically and statistically significant. These results further support the favourable safety profile of abiraterone acetate in patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(12): 1356-63, 2015 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25624432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) trials has been inconsistently defined and poorly associated with overall survival (OS). A reproducible quantitative definition of radiographic PFS (rPFS) was tested for association with a coprimary end point of OS in a randomized trial of abiraterone in patients with mCRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: rPFS was defined as ≥ two new lesions on an 8-week bone scan plus two additional lesions on a confirmatory scan, ≥ two new confirmed lesions on any scan ≥ 12 weeks after random assignment, and/or progression in nodes or viscera on cross-sectional imaging, or death. rPFS was assessed by independent review at 15% of deaths and by investigator review at 15% and 40% of deaths. rPFS and OS association was evaluated by Spearman's correlation. RESULTS: A total of 1,088 patients were randomly assigned to abiraterone plus prednisone or prednisone alone. At first interim analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) by independent review was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.52; P < .001; abiraterone plus prednisone: median rPFS, not estimable; prednisone: median rPFS, 8.3 months). Similar HRs were obtained by investigator review at the first two interim analyses (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.60; P < .001 and HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.62; P < .001, respectively), validating the imaging data assay used. Spearman's correlation coefficient between rPFS and OS was 0.72. CONCLUSION: rPFS was highly consistent and highly associated with OS, providing initial prospective evidence on further developing rPFS as an intermediate end point in mCRPC trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Acetato de Abiraterona , Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Radiografia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Lancet Oncol ; 15(11): 1263-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25242048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the final analysis of the phase 3 COU-AA-301 study, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Here, we present the final analysis of an early-access protocol trial that was initiated after completion of COU-AA-301 to enable worldwide preapproval access to abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial in 23 countries. We enrolled patients who had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after taxane chemotherapy. Participants received oral doses of abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and prednisone (5 mg twice a day) in 28-day cycles until disease progression, development of sustained side-effects, or abiraterone acetate becoming available in the respective country. The primary outcome was the number of adverse events arising during study treatment and within 30 days of discontinuation. Efficacy measures (time to prostate-specific antigen [PSA] progression and time to clinical progression) were gathered to guide treatment decisions. We included in our analysis all patients who received at least one dose of abiraterone acetate. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01217697. FINDINGS: Between Nov 17, 2010, and Sept 30, 2013, 2314 patients were enrolled into the early-access protocol trial. Median follow-up was 5·7 months (IQR 3·5-10·6). 952 (41%) patients had a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event, and grade 3 or 4 serious adverse events were recorded in 585 (25%) people. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were hepatotoxicity (188 [8%]), hypertension (99 [4%]), cardiac disorders (52 [2%]), osteoporosis (31 [1%]), hypokalaemia (28 [1%]), and fluid retention or oedema (23 [1%]). 172 (7%) patients discontinued the study because of adverse events (64 [3%] were drug-related), as assessed by the investigator, and 171 (7%) people died. The funder assessed causes of death, which were due to disease progression (85 [4%]), an unrelated adverse experience (72 [3%]), and unknown reasons (14 [1%]). Of the 86 deaths not attributable to disease progression, 18 (<1%) were caused by a drug-related adverse event, as assessed by the investigator. Median time to PSA progression was 8·5 months (95% CI 8·3-9·7) and median time to clinical progression was 12·7 months (11·8-13·8). INTERPRETATION: No new safety signals or unexpected adverse events were found in this early-access protocol trial to assess abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who progressed after chemotherapy. Future work is needed to ascertain the most effective regimen of abiraterone acetate to optimise patients' outcomes. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Androstenóis/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Androstenos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 6(5): 501-6, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17679184

RESUMO

We report the results of a nonrandomized, open-label pilot trial investigating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of bexarotene gel 1% in treating chronic mild to moderate plaque psoriasis. Twenty-four adults with mild to moderate stable plaque psoriasis involving 15% or less of their body surface were enrolled. Patients applied bexarotene gel 1%, using an application frequency escalation regimen, starting at once every other day and increasing to 4 times daily as tolerated and beneficial for up to 24 weeks. The primary efficacy instrument was a Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) score evaluating the overall response to treatment. This utilized individual signs of psoriasis and the percent of body surface area involvement. Safety assessments included physical examinations, recording of adverse events, and laboratory safety evaluations. Fifteen out of 24 enrolled patients (63%) achieved at least 50% improvement by PGA score at 2 or more consecutive visits, and 6 (24%) achieved clearing of 90% or more. Six patients maintained a response throughout 8 weeks of follow-up. An increased response appeared to correlate with a higher frequency of gel application. Adverse events occurred primarily at application sites and were mild or moderate in severity. Bexarotene gel 1% was active in treating mild to moderate plaque psoriasis with achievement of durable responses in some patients and was well-tolerated. A randomized, placebo-controlled study would be useful in confirming these results.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bexaroteno , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pele/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/administração & dosagem , Tetra-Hidronaftalenos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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