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1.
Transplantation ; 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protective effects of carbon monoxide (CO) against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury during organ transplantation have been extensively investigated. Likewise, CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) are known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities via liberation of controlled amounts of CO in organs. Therefore, we hypothesized that intraluminal administration of water-soluble CORM-3 during cold storage of intestinal grafts would provide protective effects against IR injury. METHODS: Orthotopic syngeneic intestinal transplantation was performed in Lewis rats following 6 h of cold preservation in Ringer solution or University of Wisconsin solution. Saline containing CORM-3 (100 µmol/L) or its inactive counterpart (iCORM-3) was intraluminally introduced in the intestinal graft before cold preservation. RESULTS: Histopathological analysis of untreated and iCORM-3-treated grafts revealed a similar erosion and blunting of the intestinal villi. These changes in the mucosa structure were significantly attenuated by intraluminal administration of CORM-3. Intestinal mucosa damage caused by IR injury led to considerable deterioration of gut barrier function 3 h postreperfusion. CORM-3 significantly inhibited upregulation of proinflammatory mRNA levels, ameliorated intestinal morphological changes, and improved graft blood flow and mucosal barrier function. Additionally, CORM-3-treated grafts increased recipient survival rates. Pharmacological blockade of soluble guanylyl cyclase activity significantly reversed the protective effects conferred by CORM-3, indicating that CO partially mediates its therapeutic actions via soluble guanylyl cyclase activation. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that luminally delivered CORM-3 provides beneficial effects in cold-stored rat small intestinal grafts and could be an attractive therapeutic application of CO in the clinical setting of organ preservation and transplantation.

2.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e710, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840802

RESUMO

Background: Topical forms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been created to lessen systemic adverse effects. In general, they are believed to be well tolerated and appropriate for use as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug. Case Presentation: A 68-year-old woman visited our clinic due to tarry stool. The patient reported multiple episodes of recurrent bleeding from a gastric ulcer for 2 months and was treated with endoscopic hemostatic clipping. The patient disclosed she had been using a large number of diclofenac patches for more than 3 months. The patient was treated conservatively by discontinuation of diclofenac patches and treatment with a proton pump inhibitor and omeprazole. Conclusion: In conclusion, inappropriate use of topical NSAID patches can be a cause of peptic ulcer bleeding. Patients reporting multiple episodes of recurrent bleeding from a gastric ulcer should be questioned, particularly about the use of OTC medications that might include topical NSAID patches.

3.
Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776490

RESUMO

Prolonged vitamin C deficiency can result in numerous metabolic abnormalities like impaired tissue repair and defective collagen synthesis. This case report describes a middle-age Japanese man presenting painful purpura on his lower limbs, severe anemia, and altered consciousness. The patient had been eating a selective diet lacking in vegetables and fruits since childhood. A serum analysis demonstrated a low level of vitamin C. The patient was treated with vitamin supplementation and psychological intervention. Scurvy is an under-considered illness with a favorable prognosis if diagnosed early while it is still sporadically encountered in some patients with malabsorption or malnutrition even in modern times.

4.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18913, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812299

RESUMO

Spontaneous bladder rupture is an uncommon and life-threatening urological emergency, and early diagnosis is often challenging. Herein, we report a case of intraperitoneal bladder rupture in an 81-year-old male with neurogenic bladder-the case of intraperitoneal bladder rupture required late laparotomy for pelvic abscess following initial conservative treatment. An eighty-one-year-old male presented to our emergency department with deterioration of consciousness, fever, and hematuria. He denied previous trauma history and had been treated for neurogenic bladder. Physical examination revealed signs of tenderness in the abdomen. A diagnosis of bladder rupture was made based on laboratory examination indicating renal failure and radiological imaging showing urinary ascites. Conservative management with a Foley catheter and antibiotics (meropenem administered 1 g/day) was initiated. On day seven after admission, the patient complained of abdominal pain and fever, and a diagnosis of pelvic abscess based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and septic peritonitis was made. An emergency exploratory laparotomy for peritoneal drainage was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on day 29 after admission. Urinary bladder rupture should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with free fluid in the abdomen, peritonitis, reduced urine output, and hematuria. Clinicians should be aware that secondary bacterial peritonitis can occur as a major complication of a ruptured urinary bladder.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 339, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is caused by acute lung injury, is a destructive respiratory disorder caused by a systemic inflammatory response. Persistent inflammation results in irreversible alveolar fibrosis. Because hydrogen gas possesses anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesized that daily repeated inhalation of hydrogen gas could suppress persistent lung inflammation by inducing functional changes in macrophages, and consequently inhibit lung fibrosis during late-phase lung injury. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, lung injury was induced in mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin (1.0 mg/kg). Mice were exposed to control gas (air) or hydrogen (3.2% in air) for 6 h every day for 7 or 21 days. Respiratory physiology, tissue pathology, markers of inflammation, and macrophage phenotypes were examined. RESULTS: Mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury that received daily hydrogen therapy for 21 days (BH group) exhibited higher static compliance (0.056 mL/cmH2O, 95% CI 0.047-0.064) than mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury exposed only to air (BA group; 0.042 mL/cmH2O, 95% CI 0.031-0.053, p = 0.02) and lower static elastance (BH 18.8 cmH2O/mL, [95% CI 15.4-22.2] vs. BA 26.7 cmH2O/mL [95% CI 19.6-33.8], p = 0.02). When the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined 7 days after bleomycin administration, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-4 and IL-13 were significantly lower in the BH group than in the BA group. There were significantly fewer M2-biased macrophages in the alveolar interstitium of the BH group than in the BA group (3.1% [95% CI 1.6-4.5%] vs. 1.1% [95% CI 0.3-1.8%], p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that hydrogen inhalation inhibits the deterioration of respiratory physiological function and alveolar fibrosis in this model of lung injury.

6.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 88: 106474, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Penetrating chest trauma caused by a crossbow bolt is very rare. Herein, we report a successfully treated patient who attempted suicide by directing a crossbow to the chest cavity and developed an expanding pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta during eight-day follow up. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department after firing a crossbow bolt twice into his left chest. At admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable and maintaining oxygenation. The bolt had already been removed from the body. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a cavity pseudoaneurysm 2.5 mm in size in the aortic arch. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT demonstrated wound tracts showing probable damage by the bolt. The patient was admitted to the emergency department for careful observation and transferred to the psychiatric ward on day two. Follow-up contrast-enhanced CT on day eight demonstrated rapid expansion of the pseudoaneurysm from 2.5 mm to 4.0 mm in size. We performed thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) on day 13. The patient was uneventfully discharged on the 20th hospital day. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: Emergency physicians should be aware that damage to the surrounding tissue may be accompanied by delayed expansion of an aortic pseudoaneurysm, even if the bolts do not cause direct aortic wall injury. CONCLUSION: This case suggests that understanding the injury mechanism, confirming the tract of the bolts, and carefully exploring traumatic pseudoaneurysm can lead to a less invasive operation due to early detection.

7.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of alteplase, either combined with stent-retriever thrombectomy or a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT), in patients with large-vessel occlusion stroke. METHODS: This was a retrospective post hoc analysis of data from The Direct Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute LVO Stroke (SKIP) study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the first-line thrombectomy technique: stent-retriever and ADAPT. Each group was further divided into two subgroups, namely MT and MT + alteplase. The procedural outcomes, such as first pass effect (FPE) ratio and number of passes, were evaluated. The clinical outcomes included mRS score at 3 months. RESULTS: A total of 180 patients were included (116 in the stent-retriever group and 64 in the ADAPT group). No interaction was detected between the first-line technique and alteplase administration. In the stent-retriever group, after adjusting for factors associated with FPE, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of FPE of the MT + alteplase subgroup versus the MT subgroup was 3.57 (1.5-8.48) and in the ADAPT group it was 1.35 (0.37-4.91). With alteplase, the number of passes decreased with adjusted odds ratios of 0.59 (0.37-0.93) in the stent-retriever group but not in the ADAPT group. In both first-line technique groups, clinical outcomes did not differ between subgroups. CONCLUSION: In the SKIP study, alteplase administration was associated with increased FPE when combined with stent-retriever thrombectomy, but not with ADAPT. We found no differences in the clinical outcomes.

8.
Acta Med Okayama ; 75(4): 517-521, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511620

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetically mediated cardiomyopathy charac-terized by progressive myocardial loss of the right ventricle and its replacement by fibrofatty tissue, causing dyskinesia, aneurysm, and/or arrhythmia. The prevalence of ARVC is estimated to be 1 in 2,000-5,000, with the condition accounting for up to 20% of sudden cardiac deaths in individuals < 35 years old. This report describes the case of 61-year-old Japanese who was diagnosed with ARVC after cardiac arrest (CA) and successful resusci-tation. After the sudden CA, the restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved with appropriate resusci-tation, followed by the introduction of target temperature management in the intensive care unit. He was diag-nosed with ARVC based on angiography and histology results. An ICD (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) was implanted, and he was discharged without neurological sequelae 1 month post-CA. ARVC is an important cause of sudden CA, and successfully resuscitated patients with right ventricular dilation should undergo testing to rule out ARVC.

9.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16738, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513366

RESUMO

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of poison-related death and influences neurological function. An 83-year-old female was transferred to our emergency unit due to hypertension with dizziness, headache, and right hemiplegia. There was no radiographic evidence of ischemic stroke. The family members reported that the patient may have been exposed to CO by briquettes burned inside a closed room. High flow oxygen therapy was given for suspected CO intoxication and her symptoms quickly improved. Although we do not have clear evidence, we presume that hemiplegia in our patient was caused by CO intoxication, based on rapid recovery with oxygen therapy, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level elevation (3.0%), polycythemia, and neuroimaging. Despite the hematogenous effects of CO, paralysis appeared to be more severe on her right side than on her left side. MRI and blood tests helped to support CO as the suspected cause of her hemiplegia. This case reconfirms the importance of medical interviewing by medical practitioners, even in an emergency setting.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574435

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between shorter or irregular sleep duration (SD) in early childhood and increased risk of injury at primary school age using data from a nationwide survey in Japan. We categorized SD into seven groups: 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, 9 hrs, 10 or 11 h, >12 h, and irregular, based on questionnaire responses collected at 5.5 years old. The relationship between SD and incidence of injury at 5.5-nine years of age is shown. In addition, we completed a stratified analysis on children with or without problematic behavior at eight years old. We included 32,044 children, of which 6369 were classified as having an injury and 25,675 as not having an injury. Logistic regression model showed that shorter or irregular SD categories were associated with an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for injuries (6 h: aOR 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.66, 7 h: aOR 1.10, 95% CI, 0.98-1.23, 8 h: aOR 1.13, 95% CI, 1.02-1.26, irregular: aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10-1.43). The same tendency was observed with shorter or irregular SD in subgroups with or without behavioral problems. Shorter or irregular sleep habits during early childhood are associated with injury during primary school age.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Sono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 104, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) are known to have poor prognoses. In 2003, the joint committee of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma proposed stopping unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) sustained for > 15 min after TCA. However, in 2013, a specific time-limit for terminating resuscitation was dropped, due to the lack of conclusive studies or data. We aimed to define the association between emergency medical services transport time and survival to demonstrate the survival curve of TCA. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Japan Trauma Data Bank. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 16, at least one trauma with Abbreviated Injury Scale score (AIS) ≥ 3, and CPR performed in a prehospital setting. Exclusion criteria were burn injury, AIS score of 6 in any region, and missing data. Estimated survival rate and risk ratio for survival were analyzed according to transport time for all patients. Analysis was also performed separately on patients with sustained TCA at arrival. RESULTS: Of 292,027 patients in the database, 5336 were included in the study with 4141 sustained TCA. Their median age was 53 years (interquartile range (IQR) 36-70), and 67.2% were male. Their median Injury Severity Score was 29 (IQR 22-41), and median transport time was 11 min (IQR 6-17). Overall survival after TCA was 4.5%; however, survival of patients with sustained TCA at arrival was only 1.2%. The estimated survival rate and risk ratio for sustained TCA rapidly decreased after 15 min of transport time, with estimated survival falling below 1%. CONCLUSION: The chances of survival for sustained TCA declined rapidly while the patient is transported with CPR support. Time should be one reasonable factor for considering termination of resuscitation in patients with sustained TCA, although clinical signs of life, and type and severity of trauma should be taken into account clinically.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e690, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430036

RESUMO

Aim: The rapid response system (RRS) is an in-hospital medical safety system. To date, not much is known about patient disposition after RRS activation, especially discharge home. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of patients with adverse events who required RRS activation. Methods: Retrospective data from the In-Hospital Emergency Registry in Japan collected from April 2016 to November 2020 were eligible for our analysis. We divided patients into Home Discharge, Transfer, and Death groups. The primary outcome was the prevalence of direct discharge home, and independently associated factors were determined using multivariable logistic regression. Results: We enrolled 2,043 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of discharge home was 45.7%; 934 patients were included in the Home Discharge group. Age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.97), malignancy (AOR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.48-0.99), oxygen administration before RRS (AOR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36-0.66), cerebral performance category score on admission (AOR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.26-0.56), do not attempt resuscitation order before RRS (AOR 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.29), RRS call for respiratory failure (AOR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.72), RRS call for stroke (AOR 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.37), and intubation (AOR 0.20; 95% CI, 0.12-0.34) were independently negative, and RRS call for anaphylaxis (AOR 15.3; 95% CI, 2.72-86.3) was positively associated with discharge home. Conclusion: Less than half of the in-hospital patients under RRS activation could discharge home. Patients' conditions before RRS activation, disorders requiring RRS activation, and intubation were factors that affected direct discharge home.

13.
Case Rep Emerg Med ; 2021: 9940395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239738

RESUMO

Introduction: Most physicians are not familiar with postoperative changes to the orbit, so radiologists and clinicians may sometimes find it challenging to conduct a proper radiological assessment of the globe of the eye and orbital abnormalities. We present a patient with head trauma who had surgery for retinal detachment with implantation of silicone encircling bands. This case report may help clinicians recognize imaging characteristics after ophthalmic surgery to prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary workup. Case Report. An 18-year-old man with severe head trauma was admitted to our hospital. Initial computed tomography (CT) revealed a high attenuation of intraocular silicone that could be mistaken for a hemorrhage. Ophthalmological examination and detailed ophthalmic history confirmed silicone oil in his eye for treatment of retinal detachment. Knowledge of the anatomical changes and radiological appearance of postsurgical findings following retinal detachment, including the surgical materials of silicone oil or bands, can prevent unnecessary alarm. Conclusion: Implanted ophthalmic devices, for example, silicone oil, appear similar to hemorrhages on CT and magnetic resonance imaging and cause diagnostic confusion. When in doubt, it is useful to assess the clinical presentation and obtain an accurate medical history.

14.
J Epidemiol ; 31(9): 511-517, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hardships associated with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic can affect mental health, potentially leading to increased risk of suicide. We examined the relationship between the COVID-19 outbreak and suicide attempts in Okayama, Japan using information from emergency dispatches. METHODS: This was a descriptive epidemiological study. We collected information on emergency dispatches in Okayama City and Kibichuo from March to August in 2018, 2019, and 2020 (n = 47,770 cases). We compared emergency dispatches and their demographic characteristics, especially focusing on suicide attempts, during these 3 years. RESULTS: The number of emergency dispatches in 2020 decreased compared with the previous 2 years, while the number and proportion of emergency dispatches related to suicide attempts increased. This increase was more pronounced among women and those aged 25-49 years. Among women aged 25-49 years, there was a cumulative total of 43 suicide attempts in 2018 and 2019 and 73 suicide attempts in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The number and proportion of emergency dispatches related to suicide attempts increased in 2020 compared with the previous 2 years, especially among women and those aged 25-49 years. This increase may be partly explained by hardships, such as economic losses or reduced social ties, during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Despacho de Emergência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cureus ; 13(3): e14179, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936890

RESUMO

A 49-year-old man transferred to our hospital for dyspnea that developed while transporting significant loads of dry ice, which may have caused potential carbon dioxide intoxication. On admission, he presented hyperventilation and disorientation. Transthoracic echocardiography showed the reduced motion of the anterior wall of the left ventricle with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. The patient underwent coronary angiography, which did not show apparent coronary arterial stenosis. The electrocardiogram revealed T-wave change and echocardiography results showed the subsided changes on the third hospital day. He was discharged without any symptoms on the fourth hospital day. Our case demonstrates the potential association between carbon dioxide intoxication and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Our experience may inform emergency physicians in formulating diagnostic/therapeutic approaches for similar patients experiencing cardiac failure following carbon dioxide intoxication.

16.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968411

RESUMO

Aim: A lack of known guidelines for the provision of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) to patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has led to variability in practice between hospitals even in the same country. Because variability in ECPR practice has not been completely examined, we aimed to describe the variability in ECPR practice in patients with OHCA from the emergency department (ED) to the intensive care units (ICU). Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire to examine variability in ECPR practice was completed in January 2020 by 36 medical institutions who participated in the SAVE-J II study. Institutional demographics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, initial resuscitation management, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) initiation, initial ECMO management, intra-aortic balloon pumping/endotracheal intubation/management during coronary angiography, and computed tomography criteria were recorded. Results: We received responses from all 36 institutions. Four institutions (11.1%) had a hybrid emergency room. Cardiovascular surgery was always involved throughout the entire ECMO process in only 14.7% of institutions; 60% of institutions had formal inclusion criteria and 50% had formal exclusion criteria. In two-thirds of institutions, emergency physicians carried out cannulation. Catheterization room was the leading location of cannulation (48.6%) followed by ED (31.4%). The presence of formal exclusion criteria significantly increased with increasing ECPR volume (P for trend <0.001). Intra-aortic balloon pumping was routinely initiated in only 25% of institutions. Computed tomography was routinely carried out before coronary angiography in 25% of institutions. Conclusions: We described the variability in ECPR practice in patients with OHCA from the ED to the ICU.

17.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968415

RESUMO

Aim: Although uncommon, medical emergencies arise in general dental practice. Inadequate data on their severity and frequency makes targeting medical education for general dental practitioners difficult. This also makes planning for unexpected events challenging for practitioners and makes collaborating with emergency physicians burdensome. We aimed to clarify the incidence and characteristics of a dental outpatient department's medical emergencies. Methods: This single-center, retrospective, observational study was undertaken with patients who visited the dental outpatient department of Okayama University Hospital during the 8-year period. The primary outcome of the study was to identify the incidence and characteristics of medical emergencies in the dental outpatient department. Then we examined the timing of medical emergencies, administered medications, and final disposition (home/admission). Results: During the period, 1,146,929 patients were enrolled. Forty-two patients (0.0037%) were consulted as medical emergencies. More than 60% of the incidents were vasovagal syncope, and dehydration and hypoglycemia were the second most prevalent at 9.5%. The most common types of dental treatments were tooth extraction (45.2%), followed by general dental treatment (28.6%), and other dental surgery such as implant placement (14.3%). Types of medical emergencies occurred equally before, during, and after dental treatment. Antihypertensive agents, sedatives, or glucose were used. For patients with emergencies, 90.5% recovered during the day and returned home, and 9.5% were hospitalized. Conclusion: The incidence of medical emergencies was low in our dental outpatient department. Knowledge of basic management principles, regular education for emergency care, and practicing first aid skills are mandatory for safe patient management.

18.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(5): e04138, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026172

RESUMO

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication during pregnancy causes fetal death and teratogenic effects. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy has the potential to improve them. HBO2 therapy should be considered to treat CO intoxication during pregnancy.

19.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791103

RESUMO

Trauma is a primary cause of death globally, with non-compressible torso hemorrhage constituting an important part of "potentially survivable trauma death." Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta has become a popular alternative to aortic cross-clamping under emergent thoracotomy for non-compressible torso hemorrhage in recent years, however, it alone does not improve the survival rate of patients with severe shock or traumatic cardiac arrest from non-compressible torso hemorrhage. Development of novel advanced maneuvers is essential to improve these patients' survival, and research on promising methods such as selective aortic arch perfusion and emergency preservation and resuscitation is ongoing. This review aimed to provide physicians in charge of severe trauma cases with a broad understanding of these novel therapeutic approaches to manage patients with severe hemorrhagic trauma, which may allow them to develop lifesaving strategies for exsanguinating trauma patients. Although there are still hurdles to overcome before their clinical application, promising research on these novel strategies is in progress, and ongoing development of synthetic red blood cells and techniques that reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury may further maximize their effects. Both continuous proof-of-concept studies and translational clinical evaluations are necessary to clinically apply these hemostasis approaches to trauma patients.

20.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 9(1): e16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870203

RESUMO

Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder marked by the production of bronchial casts and acute respiratory failure development. In pediatric cases, influenza infection sometimes results in the obstruction of bronchi and leads to this potentially life-threatening condition. We report the case of a five-year-old boy with plastic bronchitis related to influenza A infection, which could only be recovered by the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO could effectively provide sufficient oxygenation for patients suffering from severe reversible acute respiratory failure. If patients infected with the influenza virus present acute respiratory distress with total lung atelectasis, clinicians should consider the diagnosis of plastic bronchitis and the subsequent treatment interventions with ECMO in a severe cases.

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