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2.
Oncologist ; 25(2): e223-e230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of oral mucositis (any grade) after everolimus treatment is 58% in the general population and 81% in Asian patients. This study hypothesized that professional oral care (POC) before everolimus treatment could reduce the incidence of everolimus-induced oral mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase III study evaluated the efficacy of POC in preventing everolimus-induced mucositis. Patients were randomized into POC and control groups (1:1 ratio) and received everolimus with exemestane. Patients in the POC group underwent teeth surface cleaning, scaling, and tongue cleaning before everolimus initiation and continued to receive weekly POC throughout the 8-week treatment period. Patients in the control group brushed their own teeth and gargled with 0.9% sodium chloride solution or water. The primary endpoint was the incidence of all grades of oral mucositis. We targeted acquisition of 200 patients with a 2-sided type I error rate of 5% and 80% power to detect 25% risk reduction. RESULTS: Between March 2015 and December 2017, we enrolled 175 women from 31 institutions, of which five did not receive the protocol treatment and were excluded. Over the 8 weeks, the incidence of grade 1 oral mucositis was significantly different between the POC group (76.5%, 62 of 82 patients) and control group (89.7%, 78 of 87 patients; p = .034). The incidence of grade 2 (severe) oral mucositis was also significantly different between the POC group (34.6%, 28 of 82 patients) and control group (54%, 47 of 87 patients; p = .015). As a result of oral mucositis, 18 (22.0%) patients in the POC group and 28 (32.2%) in the control group had to undergo everolimus dose reduction. CONCLUSION: POC reduced the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in patients receiving everolimus and exemestane. This might be considered as a treatment option of oral care for patients undergoing this treatment. Clinical trial identification number: NCT02069093. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The Oral Care-BC trial that prophylactically used professional oral care (POC), available worldwide, did not show a greater than 25% difference in mucositis. The 12% difference in grade 1 or higher mucositis and especially the ∼20% difference in grade 2 mucositis are likely clinically meaningful to patients. POC before treatment should be considered as a treatment option of oral care for postmenopausal patients who are receiving everolimus and exemestane for treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer and metastatic breast cancer. However, POC was not adequate for prophylactic oral mucositis in these patients, and dexamethasone mouthwash prophylaxis is standard treatment before everolimus.

3.
Hum Cell ; 33(2): 303-307, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975031

RESUMO

Gout, which results from elevated serum uric acid (SUA), is a common form of arthritis that is induced by urate crystals. A single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2544390, of LDL receptor related protein 2 (LRP2/Megalin), has previously been reported to be associated with SUA by a genome-wide association study in a Japanese population. However, it was controversial as to whether rs2544390 is associated with gout in a Japanese population, since previous studies with Japanese populations have reported an association between gout and rs2544390 both with and without significance. This prompted us to investigate the association between gout and rs2544390 of LRP2. Using 1208 clinically diagnosed gout patients and 1223 controls in a Japanese male population, our results showed that while rs2544390 did not show a significant association with gout susceptibility in the present study (p = 0.0793, odds ratio [OR] with 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.11 [0.99-1.24]). However, a meta-analysis using previous studies on Japanese populations revealed a significant association with gout (pmeta = 0.0314, OR with 95% CI 1.09 [1.01-1.18]). We have therefore for the first time confirmed a positive association between rs2544390 and gout with only a Japanese male population. Our study provides clues to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of gout and has the potential to lead to novel therapeutic strategies against gout using LRP2 as a molecular target.

4.
Biol Chem ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913843

RESUMO

Prevotella intermedia, a Gram-negative anaerobic rod, is frequently observed in subgingival polymicrobial biofilms from adults with chronic periodontitis. Peptidases in periodontopathic bacteria are considered to function as etiological reagents. Prevotella intermedia OMA14 cells abundantly express an unidentified cysteine peptidase specific for Arg-4-methycoumaryl-7-amide (MCA). BAU17746 (locus tag, PIOMA14_I_1238) and BAU18827 (locus tag, PIOMA14_II_0322) emerged as candidates of this peptidase from the substrate specificity and sequence similarity with C69-family Streptococcus gordonii Arg-aminopeptidase. The recombinant form of the former solely exhibited hydrolyzing activity toward Arg-MCA, and BAU17746 possesses a 26.6% amino acid identity with the C69-family Lactobacillus helveticus dipeptidase A. It was found that BAU17746 as well as L. helveticus dipeptidase A was a P1-position Arg-specific dipeptidase A, although the L. helveticus entity, a representative of the C69 family, had been reported to be specific for Leu and Phe. The full-length form of BAU17746 was intramolecularly processed to a mature form carrying the N-terminus of Cys15. In conclusion, the marked Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing activity in Pre. intermedia was mediated by BAU17746 belonging to the C69-family dipeptidase A, in which the mature form carries an essential cysteine at the N-terminus.

5.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 2, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health has become a major public health issue worldwide. Biological and epidemiological studies suggest diet has a role in the prevention or cure of mental disorders. However, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between diet and mental health. This study aimed to investigate associations between dietary intake of nutrients (macronutrients, vitamins, calcium, and fatty acids) and food groups (fish, meat and chicken, dairy products, and vegetables) and mental health among middle-aged Japanese in cross-sectional and prospective studies. METHODS: In total, 9298 men and women that participated in two areas of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study were eligible for analysis at the baseline (cross-sectional) survey. Of these, 4701 participants were followed for about 5 years and included in the follow-up (prospective) analysis. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to assess participants' general mental health status over the past several weeks. The average intake of 46 foods over the past year was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We also evaluated lifestyle and medical factors using a self-administered questionnaire. A cross-sectional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios for a GHQ score ≥ 4 (poor mental health) according to dietary intake of foods/nutrients at baseline. The prospective study used baseline dietary and lifestyle factors and GHQ scores at follow-up. RESULTS: The cross-sectional logistic regression analysis showed vegetables, protein, calcium, vitamin D, carotene and n-3 highly-polyunsaturated fatty acids were inversely associated with a GHQ score ≥ 4. On the other hand, mono-unsaturated fatty acids showed a positive association with higher GHQ score. The prospective logistic regression analysis found dairy products, calcium, vitamin B2, and saturated fatty acids were inversely correlated with a GHQ score ≥ 4. Calcium was associated with GHQ scores in both the cross-sectional and follow-up studies. In the follow-up study, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a GHQ score ≥ 4 was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.92) for the highest versus lowest quartiles of calorie-adjusted dietary calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Consuming particular nutrients and foods, especially calcium and dairy products, may lead to better mental health in Japanese adults.

6.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 86-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only one interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction [P-interaction = 0.001 (α = 0.05/21 = 0.002)]. The per-major-allele (C allele) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

7.
J Hum Hypertens ; 34(2): 125-131, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481698

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to show the combined effect of weight gain within normal weight range in adulthood and parental HT on the prevalence of HT. The study subjects were 44,998 individuals (19,039 men and 25,959 women) with normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9) aged 35-69 years who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were categorized into six groups by weight gain from age 20 years (<10 kg, and ≥10 kg) and by the number of parents having HT (no parent, one parent, and both parents). Odds ratios for HT were estimated after adjustment for age, sex, current BMI, estimated daily sodium intake, and other confounding factors. The prevalence of HT (31.5% in total subjects) gradually increased with greater weight gain from age 20 years and with greater number of parents with HT. Subjects who gained weight ≥10 kg and having both parents with HT showed the highest risk of having HT compared with those who gained weight <10 kg without parental HT (59.8% vs. 24.9%, odds ratio 4.25, 95% CI 3.53-5.13 after adjustment). This association was similarly observed in any category of age, sex, and BMI. Subjects who gained weight within normal range of BMI and having one or both parent(s) with HT showed the higher risk of having HT independent of their attained BMI in their middle ages. Thus, subjects having parent(s) with HT should avoid gaining their weight during adulthood, even within normal range of BMI, to reduce the risk of having HT.

9.
Pediatr Int ; 62(2): 221-228, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with childhood-onset chronic illnesses, the transition to adult care requires an understanding of transition readiness and the effectiveness of evaluation methods. However, no such psychometrically verified scales exist in Japan. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) and verify its validity and reliability. METHODS: The Japanese TRAQ was developed in accordance with international guidelines, followed by a preliminary survey to verify face validity among six participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For the main survey 107 patients who fulfilled the same inclusion criteria were asked to complete the questionnaire and provide basic information. After descriptive statistics analysis, the construct validity of the Japanese TRAQ was tested using the t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were calculated to assess reliability. RESULTS: In the main survey, 76 participants with no missing data were included in the complete data analysis (40 males 36 females; mean age, 17.8 and 18.2 years, respectively). The mean total Japanese TRAQ score was 3.9. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.94 overall and 0.8-0.96 for each of the four domains. The known-groups analysis revealed that older participants (r = 0.23, P = 0.044), those having knowledge of the disease name (yes [4.0] vs no [3.4]; P < 0.001), and making unaccompanied hospital visits (with parent/others [3.7] vs alone [4.4]; P < 0.001) had significantly higher total TRAQ scores. CONCLUSION: We confirmed preliminarily the validity and reliability of the Japanese TRAQ.

10.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(10): 972-984, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee and green tea, two popular drinks in the Japanese, have recently drawn much attention as potential protective factors against the occurrence of liver cancer. METHODS: We systematically reviewed epidemiologic studies on coffee, green tea and liver cancer among Japanese populations. Original data were obtained by searching the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Ichushi databases, complemented with manual searches. The evaluation was performed in terms of the magnitude of association in each study and the strength of evidence ('convincing', 'probable', 'possible', or 'insufficient'), together with biological plausibility. RESULTS: We identified four cohort and four case-control studies on coffee and liver cancer and six cohort and one case-control studies on green tea and liver cancer. All cohort and case-control studies on coffee reported a weak to strong inverse association, with a summary relative risk (RR) for one cup increase being 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.79). Conversely, all studies but two cohort studies on green tea reported no association, with a corresponding summary RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01, P = 0.37). CONCLUSION: Coffee drinking 'probably' decreases the risk of primary liver cancer among the Japanese population whereas the evidence on an association between green tea and liver cancer is 'insufficient' in this population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Café/química , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Chá/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17332, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757997

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified about 70 genomic loci associated with breast cancer. Owing to the complexity of linkage disequilibrium and environmental exposures in different populations, it is essential to perform regional GWAS for better risk prediction. This study aimed to investigate the genetic architecture and to assess common genetic risk model of breast cancer with 6,669 breast cancer patients and 21,930 female controls in the Japanese population. This GWAS identified 11 genomic loci that surpass genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5.0 × 10-8 with nine previously reported loci and two novel loci that include rs9862599 on 3q13.11 (ALCAM) and rs75286142 on 21q22.12 (CLIC6-RUNX1). Validation study was carried out with 981 breast cancer cases and 1,394 controls from the Aichi Cancer Center. Pathway analyses of GWAS signals identified association of dopamine receptor medicated signaling and protein amino acid deacetylation with breast cancer. Weighted genetic risk score showed that individuals who were categorized in the highest risk group are approximately 3.7 times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to individuals in the lowest risk group. This well-powered GWAS is a representative study to identify SNPs that are associated with breast cancer in the Japanese population.

12.
Oncologist ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of oral mucositis (any grade) after everolimus treatment is 58% in the general population and 81% in Asian patients. This study hypothesized that professional oral care (POC) before everolimus treatment could reduce the incidence of everolimus-induced oral mucositis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase III study evaluated the efficacy of POC in preventing everolimus-induced mucositis. Patients were randomized into POC and control groups (1:1 ratio) and received everolimus with exemestane. Patients in the POC group underwent teeth surface cleaning, scaling, and tongue cleaning before everolimus initiation and continued to receive weekly POC throughout the 8-week treatment period. Patients in the control group brushed their own teeth and gargled with 0.9% sodium chloride solution or water. The primary endpoint was the incidence of all grades of oral mucositis. We targeted acquisition of 200 patients with a 2-sided type I error rate of 5% and 80% power to detect 25% risk reduction. RESULTS: Between March 2015 and December 2017, we enrolled 175 women from 31 institutions, of which five did not receive the protocol treatment and were excluded. Over the 8 weeks, the incidence of grade 1 oral mucositis was significantly different between the POC group (76.5%, 62 of 82 patients) and control group (89.7%, 78 of 87 patients; p = .034). The incidence of grade 2 (severe) oral mucositis was also significantly different between the POC group (34.6%, 28 of 82 patients) and control group (54%, 47 of 87 patients; p = .015). As a result of oral mucositis, 18 (22.0%) patients in the POC group and 28 (32.2%) in the control group had to undergo everolimus dose reduction. CONCLUSION: POC reduced the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in patients receiving everolimus and exemestane. This might be considered as a treatment option of oral care for patients undergoing this treatment. Clinical trial identification number: NCT02069093. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The Oral Care-BC trial that prophylactically used professional oral care (POC), available worldwide, did not show a greater than 25% difference in mucositis. The 12% difference in grade 1 or higher mucositis and especially the ∼20% difference in grade 2 mucositis are likely clinically meaningful to patients. POC before treatment should be considered as a treatment option of oral care for postmenopausal patients who are receiving everolimus and exemestane for treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer and metastatic breast cancer. However, POC was not adequate for prophylactic oral mucositis in these patients, and dexamethasone mouthwash prophylaxis is standard treatment before everolimus.

13.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(3): 489-500, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579339

RESUMO

Forest walking or Shinrin-yoku is a health promotion activity in Japan. Although some studies have reported the acute effects of walking a few hours in forested areas in reducing blood pressure level compared to other environments, studies investigating whether successive walking has long-term effects in lowering blood pressure levels or lowering prevalence of hypertension are rare. This study aimed to reconfirm the presence or absence of an association between the frequency of forest walking and prevalence of hypertension in a Japanese population. This J-MICC Daiko Study was conducted targeting residents in Nagoya City. A total of 5,109 participants (1,452 men and 3,657 women; age, mean ± standard deviation: 52.5 ± 10.3 years) were included in the analysis. Age-adjusted blood pressure level by frequency of forest walking was not significant. After adjusting for age and lifestyle, the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of the most frequent group (n=88, 1.7%; once a week or more group) relative to the less than once a month group (n=4,558, 89.2%) for prevalence of hypertension were not also significant [0.80 (95% CI: 0.40-1.62) for men and 1.48 (95% CI: 0.73-3.00) for women]. This study reconfirmed that either lowering blood pressure level or lowering the prevalence of hypertension is not associated with frequency of forest walking, similar to the results of our previous J-MICC Shizuoka Study. Given that these two studies were cross-sectional studies, cohort studies investigating the causal relationship are required to evaluate the effect of frequent forest walking on the prevention of hypertension.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4393, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562340

RESUMO

Human height is a representative phenotype to elucidate genetic architecture. However, the majority of large studies have been performed in European population. To investigate the rare and low-frequency variants associated with height, we construct a reference panel (N = 3,541) for genotype imputation by integrating the whole-genome sequence data from 1,037 Japanese with that of the 1000 Genomes Project, and perform a genome-wide association study in 191,787 Japanese. We report 573 height-associated variants, including 22 rare and 42 low-frequency variants. These 64 variants explain 1.7% of the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, a gene-based analysis identifies two genes with multiple height-increasing rare and low-frequency nonsynonymous variants (SLC27A3 and CYP26B1; PSKAT-O < 2.5 × 10-6). Our analysis shows a general tendency of the effect sizes of rare variants towards increasing height, which is contrary to findings among Europeans, suggesting that height-associated rare variants are under different selection pressure in Japanese and European populations.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/genética
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3603-3614, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482651

RESUMO

Red meat and processed meat have been suggested to increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially colon cancer. However, it remains unclear whether these associations differ according to meat subtypes or colon subsites. The present study addressed this issue by undertaking a pooled analysis of large population-based cohort studies in Japan: 5 studies comprising 232 403 participants (5694 CRC cases) for analysis based on frequency of meat intake, and 2 studies comprising 123 635 participants (3550 CRC cases) for analysis based on intake quantity. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using the random effect model. Comparing the highest vs lowest quartile, beef intake was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44) and distal colon cancer (DCC) risk in men (pooled HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61). Frequent intake of pork was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.87) for "3 times/wk or more" vs "less than 1 time/wk". Frequent intake of processed red meat was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in women (pooled HR 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00; P trend = .04) for "almost every day" vs "less than 1 time/wk". No association was observed for chicken consumption. The present findings support that intake of beef, pork (women only), and processed red meat (women only) might be associated with a higher risk of colon (distal colon) cancer in Japanese.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/etiologia , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bovinos , Colo , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Carne/classificação , Aves Domésticas , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos
16.
Cancer Med ; 8(14): 6414-6425, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475462

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are two major risk factors for esophageal cancer. Not all, but several of case-control studies have indicated interaction between the two factors; however, no prospective study has validated this phenomenon to date. Therefore, the interaction between smoking and alcohol drinking is still open-ended question. To answer this, we conducted a pooled analysis using large-scale population-based cohort studies in Japan. Male subjects from eight cohort studies were included. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were both categorized categorically (never/ever), and in the three consumption levels of pack years and ethanol consumption/day. Effects of smoking and drinking in each study were estimated by Cox regression models. The study-specific results were combined through meta-analysis to obtain summary effects of hazard ratios (HRs) and measures of interactions at both additive and multiplicative scales. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) from smoking and drinking were obtained using distributions of exposures and fully adjusted HRs. In 162 826 male subjects, 954 esophageal cancer incidences were identified. HRs of ever smoking, ever drinking, and their combination were 2.92 (1.59-5.36), 2.73 (1.78-4.18), and 8.86 (4.82-16.30), respectively. Interaction between cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking was significantly positive on the additive scale, but not significant on the multiplicative scale. The joint effect of smoking and drinking in three levels of evaluation showed a similar significant super-additive interaction. PAFs from smoking, drinking, and their combination were 55.4%, 61.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a significant positive additive interaction for esophageal cancer risk.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 917-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392470

RESUMO

The aim of our study was to assess the association between green tea consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a pooled analysis of eight Japanese population-based cohort studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), derived from random effects models, were used to evaluate the associations between green tea consumption, based on self-report at baseline, and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. During a mean follow-up of 17.3 years, among 313,381 persons, 52,943 deaths occurred. Compared with individuals who consumed < 1 cup/day, those in the highest consumption category (≥ 5 cups/day) had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [the multivariate-adjusted HR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.94) for men and 0.82 (0.74-0.90) for women]. A similar inverse association was observed for heart disease mortality [HR 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for men, and 0.75 (0.68-0.84) for women], and cerebrovascular disease mortality [HR 0.76 (0.68-0.85) for men, and 0.78 (0.68-0.89) for women]. Among women, green tea consumption was associated with decreased risk of total cancer mortality: 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for the 1-2 cups/day category and 0.91 (0.85-0.98) for the 3-4 cups/day category. Results for respiratory disease mortality were [HR 0.75 (0.61-0.94)] among 3-4 cup daily consumers and [HR 0.66 (0.55-0.79)] for ≥ 5 cups/day. Higher consumption of green tea is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality in Japanese, especially for heart and cerebrovascular disease. Moderate consumption decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
J Hum Hypertens ; 33(10): 748-755, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431683

RESUMO

The prevention of hypertension starts with the awareness of risk. Our aim was to construct a simple and well-validated risk model for nonhypertensive people in Japan consisting of basic clinical variables, using a dataset for two areas derived from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We constructed a continuous-value model using data on 5105 subjects participating in both the baseline survey and a second survey conducted after 5 years. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 statistic for the entire cohort were 0.826 and 7.06, respectively. For validation, the entire cohort was randomly divided 100 times into derivation and validation sets at a ratio of 6:4. The summarized median AUC and the Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 statistic were 0.83 and 12.2, respectively. The AUC of a point-based model consisting of integer scores assigned to each variable was 0.826 and showed no difference, compared with the continuous-value model. This simple risk model may help the general population to assess their risks of new-onset hypertension.

19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(10): 1430-1437, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The first ever genome-wide association study (GWAS) of clinically defined gout cases and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (AHUA) controls was performed to identify novel gout loci that aggravate AHUA into gout. METHODS: We carried out a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1003 AHUA controls followed by 2 replication studies. In total, 2860 gout cases and 3149 AHUA controls (all Japanese men) were analysed. We also compared the ORs for each locus in the present GWAS (gout vs AHUA) with those in the previous GWAS (gout vs normouricaemia). RESULTS: This new approach enabled us to identify two novel gout loci (rs7927466 of CNTN5 and rs9952962 of MIR302F) and one suggestive locus (rs12980365 of ZNF724) at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10- 8). The present study also identified the loci of ABCG2, ALDH2 and SLC2A9. One of them, rs671 of ALDH2, was identified as a gout locus by GWAS for the first time. Comparing ORs for each locus in the present versus the previous GWAS revealed three 'gout vs AHUA GWAS'-specific loci (CNTN5, MIR302F and ZNF724) to be clearly associated with mechanisms of gout development which distinctly differ from the known gout risk loci that basically elevate serum uric acid level. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis is the first to reveal the loci associated with crystal-induced inflammation, the last step in gout development that aggravates AHUA into gout. Our findings should help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gout development and assist the prevention of gout attacks in high-risk AHUA individuals.

20.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of alcohol drinking with bladder cancer risk remains unclear in East Asian populations. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme oxidizes alcohol-metabolized carcinogenic acetaldehyde into acetate. It is well known that the inactive ALDH2 carriers, specific to East Asian populations, have an increased risk of several cancer types because of increased exposure to acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk using data from ten population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan, where approximately 40% of the population has inactive ALDH2 enzyme. METHODS: We analyzed 340,497 Japanese participants with average follow-up of 13.4 years. The association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk was evaluated using Cox regression models within each study, and random-effects models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During 4,729,071 person-years, 936 men and 325 women were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our results showed no evidence of significant association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk even among men who consumed alcohol of ≥69 g/week, with HR of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.79-1.33). The null result was observed consistently among women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support an association between alcohol drinking and bladder cancer risk in the Japanese, at least without consideration of the polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.

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