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1.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800047

RESUMO

One of the most abundant bacteria in the subgingival pockets of patients with bleeding following mechanical periodontal therapy is Prevotella intermedia. However, despite its abundance, the molecular mechanisms of its contribution to periodontal disease are not well known. This is mainly due to the lack of genetic tools that would allow examination of the role of predicted virulence factors in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. Here, we report on the first mutant in the P. intermedia OMA14 strain. The mutation is an allelic exchange replacement of the sequences coding for a putative OxyR regulator with ermF sequences coding for the macrolide-lincosamide resistance in anaerobic bacteria. The mutant is severely impaired in its ability to grow with eukaryotic cells, indicating that it is an important target for interventional strategies. Further analyses reveal that its ability to grow with oxidative stress species, in the form of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen, is severely affected. Transcriptome analysis reveals that the major deregulated genes code for the alkylhydroperoxide reductase system, AhpCF, mediating protection from peroxide stress. Moreover, genes coding for Dps, CydA and Ftn are downregulated in the mutant strain, as further verified using qRT-PCR analysis. In conclusion, we succeeded in generating the first P. intermedia mutant and show that the OxyR-deficient strain is unable to survive with a variety of host cells as well as with oxidative stress.

2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 28, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653279

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for food group intake in Japan, the reproducibility and partial validity of which were previously confirmed for nutrients. METHODS: A total of 288 middle-aged healthy volunteers from 11 different areas of Japan provided nonconsecutive 3-day weighed dietary records (DRs) at 3-month intervals over four seasons. We evaluated reproducibility based on the first (FFQ1) and second (FFQ2) questionnaires and their validity against the DRs by comparing the intake of 20 food groups. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (SRs) were calculated between energy-adjusted intake from the FFQs and that from the DRs. RESULTS: The intake of 20 food groups estimated from the two FFQs was mostly equivalent. The median energy-adjusted SRs between the FFQ1 and FFQ2 were 0.61 (range 0.38-0.86) for men and 0.66 (0.45-0.84) for women. For validity, the median de-attenuated SRs between DRs and the FFQ1 were 0.51 (0.17-0.76) for men and 0.47 (0.23-0.77) for women. Compared with the DRs, the proportion of cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the FFQ1 ranged from 58 to 86% in men and from 57 to 86% in women. According to the robust Z scores and the Bland-Altman plot graphs, the underestimation errors in the FFQ1 tended to be greater in individuals with high mean levels of consumption for meat for men and for other vegetables for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The FFQ demonstrated high reproducibility and reasonable validity for food group intake. This questionnaire is short and remains appropriate for identifying associations between diet and health/disease among adults in Japan.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Cancer Med ; 10(6): 2153-2163, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650323

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672911

RESUMO

The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae employs gliding motility to move rapidly over solid surfaces. Gliding involves the movement of the adhesin SprB along the cell surface. F. johnsoniae spreads on nutrient-poor 1% agar-PY2, forming a thin film-like colony. We used electron microscopy and time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to investigate the structure of colonies formed by wild-type (WT) F. johnsoniae and by the sprB mutant (ΔsprB). In both cases, the bacteria were buried in the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) covering the top of the colony. In the spreading WT colonies, the EPM included a thick fiber framework and vesicles, revealing the formation of a biofilm, which is probably required for the spreading movement. Specific paths that were followed by bacterial clusters were observed at the leading edge of colonies, and abundant vesicle secretion and subsequent matrix formation were suggested. EPM-free channels were formed in upward biofilm protrusions, probably for cell migration. In the nonspreading ΔsprB colonies, cells were tightly packed in layers and the intercellular space was occupied by less matrix, indicating immature biofilm. This result suggests that SprB is not necessary for biofilm formation. We conclude that F. johnsoniae cells use gliding motility to spread and maturate biofilms.

5.
Nutrition ; 84: 111114, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although consumption of vegetable and 100% fruit juices are an acceptable alternative for vegetable and fruit intake, information about their actual effects on kidney function is sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the consumption of vegetable and fruit juices and changes in kidney function in a Japanese population over a 5-y period. METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed 2755 Japanese (742 men and 2013 women) individuals who participated in both the baseline and follow-up surveys in the Daiko study (a study within the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by age, sex, and serum creatinine level. For each beverage, we categorized all participants into four groups-rare (rarely consumed), low (≤2 cups/wk), moderate (3-4 cups/wk), or frequent (≥5 cups/wk) consumers of the beverage-based on a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean baseline and follow-up eGFR (SD) were 82.4 (14.6) and 72.2 (12.6), respectively. In fully adjusted regression analyses, moderate consumption of vegetable juice was associated a lower decline in eGFR compared with the rare consumption group (ß = -1.30; P = 0.01). Moreover, stratified analyses revealed that this significant association remained in those who were young, female, non-obese, normotensive, smoked cigarettes, consumed alcohol, or exercised. However, no significant association was found in analyses for fruit juices. CONCLUSIONS: This 5-y prospective study suggested an association between self-reported moderate consumption of vegetable juice and changes (possibly smaller decline) in kidney function in a relatively healthy Japanese population.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2736-2747, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497475

RESUMO

Although alcohol consumption is reported to increase the incidence of breast cancer in European studies, evidence for an association between alcohol and breast cancer in Asian populations is insufficient. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the association between alcohol (both frequency and amount) and breast cancer risk with categorization by menopausal status at baseline and at diagnosis. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the individual cohorts and combined using random-effects models. Among 158 164 subjects with 2 369 252 person-years of follow-up, 2208 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Alcohol consumption had a significant association with a higher risk of breast cancer in both women who were premenopausal at baseline (regular drinker compared to nondrinker: HR 1.37, 1.04-1.81, ≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.74, 1.25-2.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .017) and those who were premenopausal at diagnosis (≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.89, 1.04-3.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .032). In contrast, no significant association was seen in women who were postmenopausal at baseline or at diagnosis, despite a substantial number of subjects and long follow-up period. Our results revealed that frequent and high alcohol consumption are both risk factors for Asian premenopausal breast cancer, similarly to previous studies in Western countries. The lack of a clear association in postmenopausal women in our study warrants larger investigation in Asia.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 967, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441737

RESUMO

Colony spreading of Flavobacterium johnsoniae is shown to include gliding motility using the cell surface adhesin SprB, and is drastically affected by agar and glucose concentrations. Wild-type (WT) and ΔsprB mutant cells formed nonspreading colonies on soft agar, but spreading dendritic colonies on soft agar containing glucose. In the presence of glucose, an initial cell growth-dependent phase was followed by a secondary SprB-independent, gliding motility-dependent phase. The branching pattern of a ΔsprB colony was less complex than the pattern formed by the WT. Mesoscopic and microstructural information was obtained by atmospheric scanning electron microscopy (ASEM) and transmission EM, respectively. In the growth-dependent phase of WT colonies, dendritic tips spread rapidly by the movement of individual cells. In the following SprB-independent phase, leading tips were extended outwards by the movement of dynamic windmill-like rolling centers, and the lipoproteins were expressed more abundantly. Dark spots in WT cells during the growth-dependent spreading phase were not observed in the SprB-independent phase. Various mutations showed that the lipoproteins and the motility machinery were necessary for SprB-independent spreading. Overall, SprB-independent colony spreading is influenced by the lipoproteins, some of which are involved in the gliding machinery, and medium conditions, which together determine the nutrient-seeking behavior.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 34, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Oral Care BC-trial reported that professional oral care (POC) reduces the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in patients receiving everolimus (EVE) and exemestane (EXE). However, the effect of POC on clinical response among patients receiving EVE and EXE was not established. We compared outcomes for estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer patients who received POC to those who had not, and evaluated clinical prognostic factors. All patients simultaneously received EVE and EXE. METHODS: Between May 2015 and Dec 2017, 174 eligible patients were enrolled in the Oral Care-BC trial. The primary endpoint was the comparative incidence of grade 1 or worse oral mucositis, as evaluated for both the groups over 8 weeks by an oncologist. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Data were collected after a follow-up period of 13.9 months. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in PFS between the POC and Control Groups (P = 0.801). A BMI <  25 mg/m2 and non-visceral metastasis were associated with longer PFS (P = 0.018 and P = 0.003, respectively) and the use of bone modifying agents (BMA) was associated with shorter PFS (P = 0.028). The PFS and OS between the POC and control groups were not significantly different in the Oral-Care BC trial. CONCLUSIONS: POC did not influence the prognosis of estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer patients. Patients with non-visceral metastasis, a BMI <  25 mg/m2, and who did not receive BMA while receiving EVE and EXE may have better prognoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered online at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN), Japan (protocol ID 000016109), on January 5, 2015 and at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02376985 ).

9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 61-73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815128

RESUMO

Adhesive pili (or fimbriae) in bacteria are classified into five types, among which type V pili have been most recently described. Type V pili differ from other pili types with respect to transport mechanism, structure, and pilin synthesis. Genes of type V pili are restricted to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Protein subunits that compose type V pili are transported to the cell surface as lipoprotein precursors and then polymerized into a pilus through a strand-exchange mechanism, which is demonstrated by several experiments, including palmitic acid labeling and Cys-Cys cross-linking analysis. Here, we describe the use of these methods to analyze type V pili.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Polimerização , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21109, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273542

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, translocates many virulence factors including the cysteine proteases referred to as gingipains to the cell surface via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). Expression of the T9SS component proteins is regulated by the tandem signaling of the PorXY two-component system and the ECF sigma factor SigP. However, the details of this regulatory pathway are still unknown. We found that one of the T9SS conserved C-terminal domain-containing proteins, PGN_0123, which we have designated PorA, is involved in regulating expression of genes encoding T9SS structural proteins and that PorA can be translocated onto the cell surface without the T9SS translocation machinery. X-ray crystallography revealed that PorA has a domain similar to the mannose-binding domain of Escherichia coli FimH, the tip protein of Type 1 pilus. Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the sensor kinase PorY conferred phenotypic recovery on the ΔporA mutant. The SigP sigma factor, which is activated by the PorXY two-component system, markedly decreased in the ΔporA mutant. These results strongly support a potential role for PorA in relaying a signal from the cell surface to the PorXY-SigP signaling pathway.

11.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1169-1177, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020668

RESUMO

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18499, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116160

RESUMO

There are few studies examining the association between homocysteine (Hcy) level and the risk of hypertension with consideration for folate and vitamin B12 as related to Hcy level. We simultaneously examined the associations of plasma levels of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12, and dietary folate intake with the prevalence of hypertension. Participants included 1046 men and 1033 women (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.0 ± 8.9 years) in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary folate intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hypertension was defined based on measured blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication. A total of 734 participants (35.3%) had hypertension. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for the highest quartile group of Hcy were 2.36 (95% CI 1.41-3.96) in men and 1.86 (95% CI 1.11-3.11) in women, as compared with the lowest group (P for trend = 0.014 and 0.005, respectively). Dietary folate intake was not correlated with hypertension in both men and women (P for trend = 0.099 and 0.703, respectively). Plasma vitamin B12 was positively associated with hypertension only in women (P for trend = 0.027). Plasma Hcy level was positively linked with hypertension after controlling for covariates, including folate and vitamin B12.

13.
Alcohol ; 89: 129-138, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991979

RESUMO

To investigate the association between alcohol intake pattern in amount and frequency and metabolic syndrome (Mets) components, we simulated the change in the prevalence of Mets components by intake reduction. In order to manage Mets, alcohol intake reduction with moderation of intake pattern is required. However, evidence investigating the comparative impact of alcohol intake reduction in amount and frequency for Mets components is limited. We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study in the general Japanese population. The study subjects included 37,371 non-drinkers and current drinkers recruited in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Odds ratios (ORs) for Mets components according to alcohol intake amount and frequency were estimated using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of Mets components was estimated after assumed alcohol intake reduction of a) none, b) 10 g/day (men) or 5 g/day (women), c) 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women), d) less than 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women) for moderate-to-heavy drinkers, e) 1-2 times/week, and f) 3-4 times/week. The ORs with alcohol intake amount and frequency increased with high blood pressure while decreasing with dyslipidemia. A J-shaped association was observed between intake amount and Mets. The estimated prevalence (%) of high blood pressure and dyslipidemia in men were a) 45.2, b) 43.0, c) 41.4, d) 40.4, e) 42.9, and f) 42.0; and a) 50.3, b) 51.8, c) 52.9, d) 50.2, e) 52.7, and f) 53.4 in women. The estimated prevalence of high blood pressure in women did not evidently decrease. Simulated alcohol intake reduction showed decreased prevalence for high blood pressure and increased prevalence for dyslipidemia in men after reduced intake amount and frequency. The largest decreased prevalence for high blood pressure was observed in men when all moderate-to-heavy drinkers reduced their alcohol intake amount to less than 20 g/day.

14.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants. METHODS: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.

15.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(10): 643-656, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816331

RESUMO

Pili or fimbriae, which are filamentous structures present on the surface of bacteria, were purified from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, in 1980s. The protein component of pili (stalk pilin), which is its major component, was named FimA; it has a molecular weight of approximately 41 kDa. Because the molecular weight of the pilin from P. gingivalis is twice that of pilins from other bacterial pili, the P. gingivalis Fim pili were suggested to be formed via a novel mechanism. In earlier studies, we reported that the FimA pilin is secreted on the cell surface as a lipoprotein precursor, and the subsequent N-terminal processing of the FimA precursor by arginine-specific proteases is necessary for Fim pili formation. The crystal structures of FimA and its related proteins were determined recently, which show that Fim pili are formed by a protease-mediated strand-exchange mechanism. The most recent study conducted by us, wherein we performed cryoelectron microscopy of the pilus structure, provided evidence in support of this mechanism. As the P. gingivalis Fim pili are formed through novel transport and assembly mechanisms, such pili are now designated as Type V pili. Surface lipoproteins, including the anchor pilin FimB of Fim pili that are present on the outer membrane, have been detected in certain Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we describe the assembly mechanisms of pili, including those of Type V and other pili, as well as the lipoprotein transport mechanisms.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

17.
Gene ; 762: 145019, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755657

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, we examined the associations between PPAR-γ polymorphisms (rs1801282, rs3856806, rs12497191, rs1151999, and rs1152003) and serum lipids in two cross-sectional studies. In the Shizuoka area of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study, we examined 4,952 participants (3,356 men and 1,596 women) in a baseline survey and 2,245 participants (1,550 men and 695 women) in a second survey 5 years later. Outcome measures were the prevalence of dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥ 140 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < 40 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs) and the prevalence of high LDL-C (LDL-C ≥ 140 mg/dl and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 2,114 and 1,431 individuals (42.7% and 28.9%) had dyslipidemia and high LDL-C in the baseline survey, respectively, as did 933 and 716 (41.6% and 31.9%), respectively, in the second survey. In the baseline study, compared with major allele homozygotes, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 and rs12497191 had a 42% (OR, 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.85) and 23% (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99) lower risk of dyslipidemia, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In addition, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 had a 45% (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86) lower risk of high LDL-C. Similar risk reductions were found in the second survey. In conclusion, rs3856806 and rs12497191 polymorphisms may be related to a lower risk of dyslipidemia and high LDL-C.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575552

RESUMO

Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease with a relevant focus on the long-term success of dental implants and implant-supported prostheses. The present study focuses on the antibacterial effect of the silver nanoparticle and investigated the suppression of dental plaque adhesion on implant abutment and/or superstructure by micro-wave assistant nanosilver coating in vivo and in vitro. Nanosilver coating on pure titanium was prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In vitro studies were conducted to analyze biocompatibility using MTS assay and fluorescence microscopy with human gingival fibroblasts to evaluate antibacterial activity. During the in vivo study, nanosilver coating was applied to the healing abutments, and the prevention of plaque accumulation on nanosilver coating was confirmed by a split-mouth randomized clinical trial. The aggregation of nano-sized particles was found on the titanium surface with an antibacterial effect. The coating had no cytotoxic effect on human gingival fibroblasts. The result of the clinical trial showed that the coating suppressed the dental plaque adhesion on the healing abutments. Nanosilver coating is a promising material with antibacterial properties and can be used for implant abutments and prostheses for preventing peri-implantitis.

19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(3): e002670, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies provided many biological insights into coronary artery disease (CAD), but these studies were mainly performed in Europeans. Genome-wide association studies in diverse populations have the potential to advance our understanding of CAD. METHODS: We conducted 2 genome-wide association studies for CAD in the Japanese population, which included 12 494 cases and 28 879 controls and 2808 cases and 7261 controls, respectively. Then, we performed transethnic meta-analysis using the results of the coronary artery disease genome-wide replication and meta-analysis plus the coronary artery disease 1000 Genomes meta-analysis with UK Biobank. We then explored the pathophysiological significance of these novel loci and examined the differences in CAD-susceptibility loci between Japanese and Europeans. RESULTS: We identified 3 new loci on chromosome 1q21 (CTSS), 10q26 (WDR11-FGFR2), and 11q22 (RDX-FDX1). Quantitative trait locus analyses suggested the association of CTSS and RDX-FDX1 with atherosclerotic immune cells. Tissue/cell type enrichment analysis showed the involvement of arteries, adrenal glands, and fat tissues in the development of CAD. We next compared the odds ratios of lead variants for myocardial infarction at 76 genome-wide significant loci in the transethnic meta-analysis and a moderate correlation between Japanese and Europeans, where 8 loci showed a difference. Finally, we performed tissue/cell type enrichment analysis using East Asian-frequent and European-frequent variants according to the risk allele frequencies and identified significant enrichment of adrenal glands in the East Asian-frequent group while the enrichment of arteries and fat tissues was found in the European-frequent group. These findings indicate biological differences in CAD susceptibility between Japanese and Europeans. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 3 new loci for CAD and highlighted the genetic differences between the Japanese and European populations. Moreover, our transethnic analyses showed both shared and unique genetic architectures between the Japanese and Europeans. While most of the underlying genetic bases for CAD are shared, further analyses in diverse populations will be needed to elucidate variations fully.

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