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1.
Chempluschem ; 84(4): 387-391, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939211

RESUMO

A semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) chemiresistor (ZnFe2 O4 ) is used for discriminating two isomeric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely 1- and 2-propanol. The transient current of the SMO chemiresistor is correlated with the aerobic oxidation of organic vapors on its surface. The changes in transient current of the ZnFe2 O4 chemiresistor are measured at different temperatures (260-320 °C) for detecting equal concentrations (200 ppm) of the two structural isomers of propanol. The transient current of ZnFe2 O4 reflects a faster oxidation of 2-propanol than 1-propanol on the surface. First-principles calculations and kinetic studies on the interaction of 1- and 2-propanol over ZnFe2 O4 provide further insight in support of the experimental evidence. The calculations predict more spontaneous adsorption of 2-propanol on the (111) surface of ZnFe2 O4 than 1-propanol. Kinetic parameters for the oxidation of isomeric vapors are estimated by modelling the transient current of ZnFe2 O4 using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction mechanism. The faster oxidation of 2-propanol and comparatively lower activation energy for the respective process over ZnFe2 O4 is justified in accordance to the chemical structures of vapors. The findings have strong implications in exploring a new technique for discriminating isomeric VOCs, which is significant for environmental monitoring and medical applications.

2.
Opt Express ; 26(22): 29411-29423, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470105

RESUMO

We report on the surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) in hybrid MoSe2@Au plasmonic-excitonic nanostructures, focusing on the situation where the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanodisks is finely tuned to the exciton absorption of monolayer MoSe2. Using a resonant excitation, we investigate the SERRS in MoSe2@Au and the resonant Raman scattering (RRS) in a MoSe2@SiO2 reference. Both optical responses are compared to the non-resonant Raman scattering signal, thus providing an estimate of the relative contributions from the localized surface plasmons and the confined excitons to the Raman scattering enhancement. We determine a SERRS/RRS enhancement factor exceeding one order of magnitude. Furthermore, using numerical simulations, we explore the optical near-field properties of the hybrid MoSe2@Au nanostructure and investigate the SERRS efficiency dependence on the nanodisk surface morphology and on the excitation wavelength. We demonstrate that a photothermal effect, due to the resonant plasmonic pumping of electron-hole pairs into the MoSe2 layer, and the surface roughness of the metallic nanostructures are the main limiting factors of the SERRS efficiency.

3.
Small ; 14(20): e1703808, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659147

RESUMO

The mechanisms of carrier transport in the cross-plane crystal orientation of transition metal dichalcogenides are examined. The study of in-plane electronic properties of these van der Waals compounds has been the main research focus in recent years. However, the distinctive physical anisotropies, short-channel physics, and tunability of cross layer interactions can make the study of their electronic properties along the out-of-plane crystal orientation valuable. Here, the out-of-plane carrier transport mechanisms in niobium diselenide and hafnium disulfide are explored as two broadly different representative materials. Temperature-dependent current-voltage measurements are preformed to examine the mechanisms involved. First principles simulations and a tunneling model are used to understand these results and quantify the barrier height and hopping distance properties. Using Raman spectroscopy, the thermal response of the chemical bonds is directly explored and the insight into the van der Waals gap properties is acquired. These results indicate that the distinct cross-plane carrier transport characteristics of the two materials are a result of material thermal properties and thermally mediated transport of carriers through the van der Waals gaps. Exploring the cross-plane electron transport, the exciting physics involved is unraveled and potential new avenues for the electronic applications of van der Waals layers are inspired.

4.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(4): 329-334, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28092378

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors represent elementary components of layered heterostructures for emergent technologies beyond conventional optoelectronics. In their monolayer form they host electrons with quantized circular motion and associated valley polarization and valley coherence as key elements of opto-valleytronic functionality. Here, we introduce two-dimensional polarimetry as means of direct imaging of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. Using MoS2 as a representative material with valley-selective optical transitions, we establish quantitative image analysis for polarimetric maps of extended crystals, and identify valley polarization and valley coherence as sensitive probes of crystalline disorder. Moreover, we find site-dependent thermal and non-thermal regimes of valley-polarized excitons in perpendicular magnetic fields. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of wide-field polarimetry for rapid inspection of opto-valleytronic devices based on atomically thin semiconductors and heterostructures.

5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 39465, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27995992

RESUMO

The interfaces in devices made of two-dimensional materials such as MoS2 can effectively control their optoelectronic performance. However, the extent and nature of these deterministic interactions are not fully understood. Here, we investigate the role of substrate interfaces on the photodetector properties of MoS2 devices by studying its photocurrent properties on both SiO2 and self-assembled monolayer-modified substrates. Results indicate that while the photoresponsivity of the devices can be enhanced through control of device interfaces, response times are moderately compromised. We attribute this trade-off to the changes in the electrical contact resistance at the device metal-semiconductor interface. We demonstrate that the formation of charge carrier traps at the interface can dominate the device photoresponse properties. The capture and emission rates of deeply trapped charge carriers in the substrate-semiconductor-metal regions are strongly influenced by exposure to light and can dynamically dope the contact regions and thus perturb the photodetector properties. As a result, interface-modified photodetectors have significantly lower dark-currents and higher on-currents. Through appropriate interfacial design, a record high device responsivity of 4.5 × 103 A/W at 7 V is achieved, indicative of the large signal gain in the devices and exemplifying an important design strategy that enables highly responsive two-dimensional photodetectors.

6.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21601, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26876194

RESUMO

We have performed ultrafast optical microscopy on single flakes of atomically thin CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide, using non-degenerate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and probe carriers above and below the indirect and direct band gaps. These measurements reveal the influence of layer thickness on carrier dynamics when probing near the band gap. Furthermore, fluence-dependent measurements indicate that carrier relaxation is primarily influenced by surface-related defect and trap states after above-bandgap photoexcitation. The ability to probe femtosecond carrier dynamics in individual flakes can thus give much insight into light-matter interactions in these two-dimensional nanosystems.

7.
Adv Mater ; 27(47): 7800-8, 2015 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26505987

RESUMO

High-quality organic and inorganic van der Waals (vdW) solids are realized using methylammonium lead halide (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) as the organic part (organic perovskite) and 2D inorganic monolayers as counterparts. By stacking on various 2D monolayers, the vdW solids exhibit dramatically different light emissions. Futhermore, organic/h-BN vdW solid arrays are patterned for red-light emission.

8.
Adv Mater ; 27(37): 5605-9, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26293810

RESUMO

A facile chemical vapor deposition method to prepare single-crystalline VS2 nanosheets for the hydrogen evolution reaction is reported. The electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activities of VS2 show an extremely low overpotential of -68 mV at 10 mA cm(-2), small Tafel slopes of ≈34 mV decade(-1), as well as high stability, demonstrating its potential as a candidate non-noble-metal catalyst for the HER.

9.
Nano Lett ; 15(8): 5089-97, 2015 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26177185

RESUMO

Large-scale suspended architectures of various two-dimensional (2D) materials (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and graphene) are demonstrated on nanoscale patterned substrates with different physical and chemical surface properties, such as flexible polymer substrates (polydimethylsiloxane), rigid Si substrates, and rigid metal substrates (Au/Ag). This transfer method represents a generic, fast, clean, and scalable technique to suspend 2D atomic layers. The underlying principle behind this approach, which employs a capillary-force-free wet-contact printing method, was studied by characterizing the nanoscale solid-liquid-vapor interface of 2D layers with respect to different substrates. As a proof-of-concept, a photodetector of suspended MoS2 has been demonstrated with significantly improved photosensitivity. This strategy could be extended to several other 2D material systems and open the pathway toward better optoelectronic and nanoelectromechnical systems.

10.
Nano Lett ; 15(5): 3048-55, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25822539

RESUMO

Atomically thin photodetectors based on 2D materials have attracted great interest due to their potential as highly energy-efficient integrated devices. However, photoinduced carrier generation in these media is relatively poor due to low optical absorption, limiting device performance. Current methods for overcoming this problem, such as reducing contact resistances or back gating, tend to increase dark current and suffer slow response times. Here, we realize the avalanche effect in a 2D material-based photodetector and show that avalanche multiplication can greatly enhance the device response of an ultrathin InSe-based photodetector. This is achieved by exploiting the large Schottky barrier formed between InSe and Al electrodes, enabling the application of a large bias voltage. Plasmonic enhancement of the photosensitivity, achieved by patterning arrays of Al nanodisks onto the InSe layer, further improves device efficiency. With an external quantum efficiency approaching 866%, a dark current in the picoamp range, and a fast response time of 87 µs, this atomic layer device exhibits multiple significant advances in overall performance for this class of devices.

11.
ACS Nano ; 9(1): 555-63, 2015 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25569715

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenides monolayers and black phosphorus thin crystals are emerging two-dimensional materials that demonstrated extraordinary optoelectronic properties. Exotic properties and physics may arise when atomic layers of different materials are stacked together to form van der Waals solids. Understanding the important interlayer couplings in such heterostructures could provide avenues for control and creation of characteristics in these artificial stacks. Here we systematically investigate the optical and optoelectronic properties of artificial stacks of molybdenum disulfide, tungsten disulfide, and black phosphorus atomic layers. An anomalous photoluminescence quenching was observed in tungsten disulfide-molybdenum disulfide stacks. This was attributed to a direct to indirect band gap transition of tungsten disulfide in such stacks while molybdenum disulfide maintains its monolayer properties by first-principles calculations. On the other hand, due to the strong build-in electric fields in tungsten disulfide-black phosphorus or molybdenum disulfide-black phosphorus stacks, the excitons can be efficiently splitted despite both the component layers having a direct band gap in these stacks. We further examine optoelectronic properties of tungsten disulfide-molybdenum disulfide artificial stacks and demonstrate their great potentials in future optoelectronic applications.

12.
Acc Chem Res ; 48(1): 31-40, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25490347

RESUMO

CONSPECTUS: The unique physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and its promising applications in future optoelectronics have motivated an extensive study of its physical properties. However, a major limiting factor in investigation of 2D MoS2 is its large area and high quality preparation. The existence of various types of defects in MoS2 also makes the characterization of defect types and the understanding of their roles in the physical properties of this material of critical importance. In this Account, we review the progress in the development of synthetic approaches for preparation of 2D MoS2 and the understanding of the role of defects in its electronic and optical properties. We first examine our research efforts in understanding exfoliation, direct sulfurization, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of MoS2 monolayers as main approaches for preparation of such atomic layers. Recognizing that a natural consequence of the synthetic approaches is the addition of sources of defects, we initially focus on identifying these imperfections with intrinsic and extrinsic origins in CVD MoS2. We reveal the predominant types of point and grain boundary defects in the crystal structure of polycrystalline MoS2 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and understand how they modify the electronic band structure of this material using first-principles-calculations. Our observations and calculations reveal the main types of vacancy defects, substitutional defects, and dislocation cores at the grain boundaries (GBs) of MoS2. Since the sources of defects in two-dimensional atomic layers can, in principle, be controlled and studied with more precision compared with their bulk counterparts, understanding their roles in the physical properties of this material may provide opportunities for changing their properties. Therefore, we next examine the general electronic properties of single-crystalline 2D MoS2 and study the role of GBs in the electrical transport and photoluminescence properties of its polycrystalline counterparts. These results reveal the important role played by point defects and GBs in affecting charge carrier mobility and excitonic properties of these atomic layers. In addition to the intrinsic defects, growth process induced substrate impurities and strain induced band structure perturbations are revealed as major sources of disorder in CVD grown 2D MoS2. We further explore substrate defects for modification and control of electronic and optical properties of 2D MoS2 through interface engineering. Self-assembled monolayer based interface modification, as a versatile technique adaptable to different conventional and flexible substrates, is used to promote significant tunability in the key MoS2 field-effect device parameters. This approach provides a powerful tool for modification of native substrate defect characteristics and allows for a wide range of property modulations. Our results signify the role of intrinsic and extrinsic defects in the physical properties of MoS2 and unveil strategies that can utilize these characteristics.

13.
ACS Nano ; 9(1): 840-9, 2015 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25521210

RESUMO

A fundamental understanding of the intrinsic optoelectronic properties of atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is crucial for its integration into high performance semiconductor devices. Here, we investigate the transport properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) under photoexcitation using correlated scanning photocurrent microscopy and photoluminescence imaging. We examined the effect of local phase transformation underneath the metal electrodes on the generation of photocurrent across the channel length with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. While maximum photocurrent generation occurs at the Schottky contacts of semiconducting (2H-phase) MoS2, after the metallic phase transformation (1T-phase), the photocurrent peak is observed toward the center of the device channel, suggesting a strong reduction of native Schottky barriers. Analysis using the bias and position dependence of the photocurrent indicates that the Schottky barrier heights are a few millielectron volts for 1T- and ∼ 200 meV for 2H-contacted devices. We also demonstrate that a reduction of native Schottky barriers in a 1T device enhances the photoresponsivity by more than 1 order of magnitude, a crucial parameter in achieving high-performance optoelectronic devices. The obtained results pave a way for the fundamental understanding of intrinsic optoelectronic properties of atomically thin TMDs where ohmic contacts are necessary for achieving high-efficiency devices with low power consumption.

14.
ACS Nano ; 8(12): 12682-9, 2014 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25469686

RESUMO

We report on the fabrication of monolayer MoS2-coated gold nanoantennas combining chemical vapor deposition, e-beam lithography surface patterning, and a soft lift-off/transfer technique. The optical properties of these hybrid plasmonic-excitonic nanostructures are investigated using spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Off- and in-resonance plasmonic pumping of the MoS2 excitonic luminescence showed distinct behaviors. For plasmonically mediated pumping, we found a significant enhancement (∼65%) of the photoluminescence intensity, clear evidence that the optical properties of the MoS2 monolayer are strongly influenced by the nanoantenna surface plasmons. In addition, a systematic photoluminescence broadening and red-shift in nanoantenna locations is observed which is interpreted in terms of plasmonic enhanced optical absorption and subsequent heating of the MoS2 monolayers. Using a temperature calibration procedure based on photoluminescence spectral characteristics, we were able to estimate the local temperature changes. We found that the plasmonically induced MoS2 temperature increase is nearly four times larger than in the MoS2 reference temperatures. This study shines light on the plasmonic-excitonic interaction in these hybrid metal/semiconductor nanostructures and provides a unique approach for the engineering of optoelectronic devices based on the light-to-current conversion.

15.
Nat Commun ; 5: 5246, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25404060

RESUMO

Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted tremendous attention due to its promising applications in high-performance field-effect transistors, phototransistors, spintronic devices and nonlinear optics. The enhanced photoluminescence effect in monolayer MoS2 was discovered and, as a strong tool, was employed for strain and defect analysis in MoS2. Recently, large-size monolayer MoS2 has been produced by chemical vapour deposition, but has not yet been fully explored. Here we systematically characterize chemical vapour deposition-grown MoS2 by photoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping and demonstrate non-uniform strain in single-crystalline monolayer MoS2 and strain-induced bandgap engineering. We also evaluate the effective strain transferred from polymer substrates to MoS2 by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Furthermore, our work demonstrates that photoluminescence mapping can be used as a non-contact approach for quick identification of grain boundaries in MoS2.

16.
Adv Mater ; 26(45): 7666-72, 2014 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25332191

RESUMO

A few-layered ternary Cu-In-Se compound is synthesized, the photoconductivity is measured, and 2D photovoltaic devices are fabricated. Few-layered CuIn7 Se11 has a strong photoresponse and the potential to serve as the active medium in ultra-thin photovoltaic devices.

17.
Adv Mater ; 26(37): 6467-71, 2014 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25100132

RESUMO

A reversible 2H-to-1T phase transition in a MoS2 monolayer is realized by plasmonic hot electrons. This transition can be actively controlled by the incident light intensity, wavelength, sample areas, and perimeters, resulting in an effective shift of photoluminescence. The suggested configuration paves the way for plasmonic optoelectronic device applications of MoS2 in the future.

18.
ACS Nano ; 8(8): 7930-7, 2014 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25019978

RESUMO

Semiconducting MoS2 monolayers have shown many promising electrical properties, and the inevitable polycrystallinity in synthetic, large-area films renders understanding the effect of structural defects, such as grain boundaries (GBs, or line-defects in two-dimensional materials), essential. In this work, we first examine the role of GBs in the electrical-transport properties of MoS2 monolayers with varying line-defect densities. We reveal a systematic degradation of electrical characteristics as the line-defect density increases. The two common MoS2 GB types and their specific roles are further examined, and we find that only tilt GBs have a considerable effect on the MoS2 electrical properties. By examining the electronic states and sources of disorder using temperature-dependent transport studies, we adopt the Anderson model for disordered systems to explain the observed transport behaviors in different temperature regimes. Our results elucidate the roles played by GBs in different scenarios and give insights into their underlying scattering mechanisms.

19.
ACS Nano ; 8(8): 8292-9, 2014 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25019534

RESUMO

Phosphorene, a elemental 2D material, which is the monolayer of black phosphorus, has been mechanically exfoliated recently. In its bulk form, black phosphorus shows high carrier mobility (∼10,000 cm(2)/V·s) and a ∼0.3 eV direct band gap. Well-behaved p-type field-effect transistors with mobilities of up to 1000 cm(2)/V·s, as well as phototransistors, have been demonstrated on few-layer black phosphorus, showing its promise for electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its high hole mobility and thickness-dependent direct band gap. However, p­n junctions, the basic building blocks of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices, have not yet been realized based on black phosphorus. In this paper, we demonstrate a gate-tunable p­n diode based on a p-type black phosphorus/n-type monolayer MoS2 van der Waals p­n heterojunction. Upon illumination, these ultrathin p­n diodes show a maximum photodetection responsivity of 418 mA/W at the wavelength of 633 nm and photovoltaic energy conversion with an external quantum efficiency of 0.3%. These p­n diodes show promise for broad-band photodetection and solar energy harvesting.

20.
Nanoscale ; 6(10): 5279-83, 2014 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24695461

RESUMO

A novel MoS2 transparent counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells is reported. In order to enhance the catalytic activity of the electrode, active edge sites are created artificially by patterning holes on MoS2 atomic layers. Electrochemical analysis shows that the electrochemical activity is significantly improved after the patterning of holes. The photon-to-electron efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on MoS2 atomic layer counter electrodes is increased remarkably from 2% to 5.8% after the hole patterning.

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