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1.
Lung Cancer ; 168: 38-45, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alternation of osimertinib and afatinib is a potential approach to overcome osimertinib resistance and to allow complementation of drug efficacy without compromising safety in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR)-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Treatment-naive patients with stage IV NSCLC harboring an activating EGFR mutation (L858R or exon-19 deletion) were enrolled. Alternating cycles of osimertinib at 80 mg/day for 8 weeks followed by afatinib at 20 mg/day for 8 weeks were administered. The primary end point was 12-month progression-free survival (PFS) probability. RESULTS: Forty-six patients were enrolled and treated with study therapy. The 12-month PFS probability was 70.2% (60% confidence interval [CI], 63.9-75.6%; 95% CI, 54.2-81.5%), which did not meet the primary end point. After a median follow-up time of 25.7 months, the median PFS was 21.3 months (95% CI, 16.3 months-not reached). The overall response rate was 69.6% (95% CI, 54.2-82.3%). The most common treatment-related adverse events (any grade or grade ≥ 3, respectively) were diarrhea (73.9%, 4.3%), rash acneiform (63.0%, 2.2%), and paronychia (52.2%, 0%). Five cases of pneumonitis, two of grade 2 and thres of grade 3, were apparent, all of which developed during osimertinib treatment. Exploratory evaluation of circulating tumor DNA suggested that coexisting TP53 mutations did not influence PFS for the alternating therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Alternating therapy with osimertinib and afatinib for treatment-naive patients with EGFR- mutated advanced NSCLC did not meet its primary end point, despite the encouraging efficacy and safety profile of this treatment strategy.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease implicated as an independent risk factor for lung cancer. However, optimal treatment for advanced lung cancer with IPF remains to be established. We performed a randomised phase 3 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of nintedanib plus chemotherapy (experimental arm) compared with chemotherapy alone (standard-of-care arm) for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with IPF. METHODS: Chemotherapy-naïve advanced NSCLC patients with IPF were allocated to receive carboplatin (area under the curve of 6 on day 1) plus nab-paclitaxel (100 mg m-2 on days 1, 8, and 15) every 3 weeks with or without nintedanib (150 mg b.i.d., daily). The primary end point was exacerbation-free survival (EFS). RESULTS: Between May 2017 and February 2020, 243 patients were enrolled. Median EFS was 14.6 months in the nintedanib plus chemotherapy group and 11.8 months in the chemotherapy group (HR, 0.89; 90% CI, 0.67-1.17; p=0.24), whereas median progression-free survival was 6.2 and 5.5 months, respectively (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.92). Overall survival was improved by nintedanib in patients with nonsquamous histology (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.93) and in those at GAP stage I (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.98). Seven (2.9%) of 240 patients experienced acute exacerbation during study treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The primary end point of the study was not met. However, carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel was found to be effective and tolerable in advanced NSCLC patients with IPF. Moreover, nintedanib in combination with such chemotherapy improved overall survival in patients with nonsquamous histology.

3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(3): 214-225, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This open-label Phase III trial (NCT02264990) evaluated the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel versus chemotherapy alone for first-line treatment of patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). A 52-gene expression classifier (LP52) previously shown to identify patients more likely to respond to veliparib was evaluated as a planned correlative analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult current or former smokers with advanced non-squamous NSCLC were randomized 1:1 to veliparib (120 mg daily for 7 days/cycle) with carboplatin and paclitaxel or to investigators' choice of platinum doublet chemotherapy (up to 6, 21-day cycles), with optional pemetrexed maintenance. Prospective analysis of the LP52 signature was conducted using a clinical Qiagen/HTG assay. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) in LP52+ patients. RESULTS: Overall, 595 patients received veliparib + carboplatin/paclitaxel (n = 298) or chemotherapy alone (n = 297); 13% (n = 40) in each arm were LP52+. The primary endpoint was not met; median OS was 11.2 months with veliparib + carboplatin/paclitaxel versus 9.2 months with chemotherapy alone in the LP52+ subgroup (hazard ratio [HR] 0.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.396-1.048; P = .113). In the overall population, median OS was 12.1 months in both arms (HR 0.986, 95% CI: 0.827-1.176; P = .846). No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION: In patients with non-squamous NSCLC, there was no significant improvement in OS with veliparib + carboplatin/paclitaxel versus chemotherapy alone, although a trend toward improved OS in the LP52+ population suggests this subgroup may benefit from veliparib. Statistical power was limited due to the small sample size.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PD-L1 expression on tumor cells is a marker of PD-1/PD-L1 antibody treatment efficacy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PD-L1 antibody (atezolizumab) prolongs overall survival (OS) compared with platinum doublet as first-line treatment for NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression. Bevacizumab enhanced cytotoxic agent and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor efficacy in non-squamous (NS)-NSCLC, and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in preclinical models. METHODS: This single-arm phase II study investigated clinical benefits of adding bevacizumab 15 mg/kg to atezolizumab 1200 mg fixed dose in a first-line setting for advanced NS-NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% without EGFR/ALK/ROS1 alterations. Primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) assessed by central review committee. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DOR), OS, and safety. RESULTS: Of 39 enrolled patients, 33 (84.6%) had stage IV NSCLC and 36 (92.3%) had smoking history. As of March 31, 2020, no patient had a complete response and 25 patients had a partial response (ORR=64.1%, 95% CI 47.18 to 78.80). Twelve-month PFS and OS rates were 54.9% (35.65 to 70.60) and 70.6% (50.53 to 83.74), respectively. The median DOR in 25 responders was 10.4 months (4.63-not reached). The median treatment cycle was 12 (1 to 27). Nineteen patients discontinued study treatment because of disease progression (N=17) or immune-related adverse events (AEs) (N=2) (sclerosing cholangitis or encephalopathy). There were 23 serious AEs in 12 patients, but no grade 4/5 toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Atezolizumab with bevacizumab is a potential treatment for NS-NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: JapicCTI-184038.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 10668969211069963, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986057

RESUMO

Only four cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor (YST) component have been reported in the English literature. No genetic investigation has been performed in these cases. We report a case of colorectal adenocarcinoma in which the recurrent tumor had a YST component. A 49-year-old woman presented with a pelvic tumor three years after endoscopic mucosal resection of sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. The pelvic tumor consisted of an undifferentiated carcinoma component and a YST component. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was elevated to 42 ng/mL. Treatment as conventional colorectal carcinoma produced some anticancer effects, but the patient died 14 months after the recurrence and 49 months after the EMR. With the help of the next-generation sequencing results of the recurrent tumor, APC c.835 - 8A > G and TP53 c.524G > A (p.R175H) mutations were identified by direct sequencing in both the primary and the recurrent tumors, confirming the relationship between the two metachronous tumors.

7.
Cancer Sci ; 113(1): 221-228, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704312

RESUMO

Considering the increasing number of identified driver oncogene alterations, additional genetic tests are required to determine the treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Next-generation sequencing can detect multiple driver oncogenes simultaneously, enabling the analysis of limited amounts of biopsied tissue samples. In this retrospective, multicenter study (UMIN ID000039523), we evaluated real-world clinical data using the Oncomine Dx Target Test Multi-CDx System (Oncomine DxTT) as a companion diagnostic system. Patients with NSCLC who were tested for a panel of 46 genes using the Oncomine DxTT between June 2019 and January 2020 were eligible for enrollment. Patients from 19 institutions affiliated to the West Japan Oncology Group were recruited. The primary endpoint of the study was the success rate of genetic alteration testing in four driver genes (EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF) using the Oncomine DxTT. In total, 533 patients were enrolled in the study. The success rate of genetic alteration testing for all four genes was 80.1% (95% CI 76.5%-83.4%). Surgical resection was associated with the highest success rate (88.0%), which was significantly higher than that for bronchoscopic biopsy (76.8%, P = .005). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant difference for surgical resection alone (P = .006, 95% CI 1.36-6.18, odds ratio 2.90). Although the success rate of genetic alteration testing immediately after Oncomine DxTT induction was not sufficient in this study, optimizing specimen quantity and quality may improve the use of driver gene testing in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Mutação , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(3): 231-241, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726958

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of gefitinib as an adjuvant therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: IMPACT (WJOG6410L; University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000006252), a randomized, open-label, phase III study, included patients with completely resected pathologic stage II-III non-small-cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations (exon 19 deletion or L858R) during September 2011 to December 2015. Patients were randomly assigned to receive gefitinib (250 mg once daily) for 24 months or cisplatin (80 mg/m2 on day 1) plus vinorelbine (25 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8; cis/vin) once every 3 weeks for four cycles. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Overall, 234 patients were randomly assigned. Among 232 eligible patients (116 each; excluding two who withdrew consent), the median DFS was 35.9 and 25.1 months in the gefitinib and cis/vin groups, respectively. However, Kaplan-Meier curves crossed around 4 years after surgery with no statistically significant difference (stratified log-rank P = .63; hazard ratio by stratified Cox proportional hazards model = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.28). Overall survival (OS) was also not different (stratified log-rank P = .89; hazard ratio = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.65), with the 5-year OS rates being 78.0% and 74.6% in the gefitinib and cis/vin groups, respectively. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 0 and three patients in the gefitinib and cis/vin groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although adjuvant gefitinib appeared to prevent early relapse, it did not prolong DFS or OS. However, similar DFS and OS may justify adjuvant gefitinib in the selected patient subsets, especially those deemed ineligible for platinum-doublet adjuvant therapy; however, this was not a noninferiority trial.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Pneumonectomia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Gefitinibe/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Pneumonectomia/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Vinorelbina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Invest New Drugs ; 40(1): 194-197, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463889

RESUMO

Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous adenocarcinoma that usually is of epidermal origin and shows glandular differentiation and that is treated by wide local excision depending on the disease extent. For widely metastatic disease, however, a standard treatment remains to be established. Similar to breast cancer, EMPD has been found to overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) or hormone receptors (HRs). Whereas HER2-directed therapy was recently shown to be effective for HER2-positive EMPD, the potential role of endocrine therapy for HR-positive EMPD has remained unknown. We here report a case of metastatic EMPD with HR positivity that was successfully treated with the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. This first-line treatment of systemic metastasis resulted in durable tumor regression for > 20 months without any treatment-related toxicities. This is the first report to reveal the promise of tamoxifen as a safe and effective treatment for HR-positive metastatic EMPD.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Paget Extramamária/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/uso terapêutico , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Doença de Paget Extramamária/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese
10.
Mol Oncol ; 16(7): 1493-1507, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270845

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are widely used to treat various malignancies. Although the gut microbiome is known to influence the efficacy of ICIs on epithelial tumors, the functional interactions between gut taxa and colonic mucosa remain poorly understood. Here we performed transcriptomic profiling and 16S rRNA sequencing to investigate the relationships between mucosal gene expression and microbial composition with ICI responses and gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events (GI irAEs). In responders, genes related to DNA repair and cell cycle signatures were enriched in responders whereas signatures related to innate immune response, NFAT and IFN-γ signaling pathways were enriched in nonresponders. Gut microbial composition revealed an association between moderate GI irAE and favorable response to ICI therapy. Favorable therapeutic responses to ICI and GI irAE treatments were associated with taxa classified as Enterobacteriaceae and were related to ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway, tRNA metabolic process, and ribonucleoprotein complex assembly in the colon. These findings open new perspectives for improving the efficacy and safety of cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/genética , Colite/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
N Engl J Med ; 386(3): 241-251, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies have not been approved for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy and safety of trastuzumab deruxtecan (formerly DS-8201), a HER2 antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with HER2-mutant NSCLC have not been investigated extensively. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, international, phase 2 study in which trastuzumab deruxtecan (6.4 mg per kilogram of body weight) was administered to patients who had metastatic HER2-mutant NSCLC that was refractory to standard treatment. The primary outcome was objective response as assessed by independent central review. Secondary outcomes included the duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Biomarkers of HER2 alterations were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 91 patients were enrolled. The median duration of follow-up was 13.1 months (range, 0.7 to 29.1). Centrally confirmed objective response occurred in 55% of the patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 65). The median duration of response was 9.3 months (95% CI, 5.7 to 14.7). Median progression-free survival was 8.2 months (95% CI, 6.0 to 11.9), and median overall survival was 17.8 months (95% CI, 13.8 to 22.1). The safety profile was generally consistent with those from previous studies; grade 3 or higher drug-related adverse events occurred in 46% of patients, the most common event being neutropenia (in 19%). Adjudicated drug-related interstitial lung disease occurred in 26% of patients and resulted in death in 2 patients. Responses were observed across different HER2 mutation subtypes, as well as in patients with no detectable HER2 expression or HER2 amplification. CONCLUSIONS: Trastuzumab deruxtecan showed durable anticancer activity in patients with previously treated HER2-mutant NSCLC. The safety profile included interstitial lung disease that was fatal in two cases. Observed toxic effects were generally consistent with those in previously reported studies. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo and AstraZeneca; DESTINY-Lung01 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03505710.).


Assuntos
Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos
12.
Drug Saf ; 45(1): 45-64, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928484

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: RELAY was a global, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study that demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) for ramucirumab plus erlotinib (RAM + ERL) versus placebo plus erlotinib (PBO + ERL) in the first-line treatment of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletion or exon 21 (L858R) mutation-positive, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). OBJECTIVE: This article provides an in-depth analysis of the safety profile of RAM + ERL versus PBO + ERL observed in RELAY. METHODS: Eligible patients met these criteria: stage IV NSCLC; EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 substitution (L858R) mutation; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1; and no central nervous system metastases. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive erlotinib 150 mg/day orally plus either ramucirumab 10 mg/kg intravenously or matching placebo once every 2 weeks, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was PFS. Safety was evaluated based on reported treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory assessments. RESULTS: The safety population comprised 446 patients (221 in RAM+ERL arm; 225 in PBO + ERL arm) who received at least one dose of study drug between January 2016 and February 2018. The overall incidence of grade ≥ 3 AEs was higher with RAM + ERL than with PBO + ERL, primarily driven by grade 3 hypertension. Grade ≥ 3 dermatitis acneiform and diarrhea were also reported more frequently in the RAM + ERL arm. The increased incidence of AEs with RAM + ERL was easily detected through routine monitoring and managed through dose adjustments and appropriate supportive care. CONCLUSION: This in-depth safety analysis from RELAY supports that RAM + ERL, irrespective of the increased incidence of AEs, does not affect a patient's ability to benefit from treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02411448.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação
13.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 3(5): 100317, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498383

RESUMO

Introduction: Although data accumulated in clinical trials have higher accuracy compared with real-world data and are irreplaceably valuable, most previous clinical trial data have been left unused. Methods: The Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) asked six clinical trial groups that conducted randomized clinical trials on curative chemoradiation for locally advanced NSCLC to provide data. After obtaining consent from all six groups, data were collected from August 2019 to June 2021. Results: A total of eight trials, JCOG9812, JCOG0301, NJLCG0601, OLCSG0007, WJTOG0105, WJOG5008L, SPECTRA, and TORG1018, were included. More than 3000 data items were integrated into 408 items by adjusting their definitions and units. The total number of collected cases was 1288: median age (range), 66 (30-93) years; sex (male/female) 1064/224; pathological type (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, other NSCLC, and unknown) 517, 629, 138, and 4; and stage IIIA and B, 536 and 752. The median overall survival was 26.0 months, with 2-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates of 53.7%, 24.8%, and 15.2%, respectively, in all enrollments. The median progression-free survival was 9.6 months, with 2-, 5-, and 10-year progression-free survival rates of 23.6%, 14.0%, and 9.4%, respectively. Part of the information in the database has been made available on the JLCS web page, and the JLCS members were provided the right to propose research using the database. Conclusions: The integration and sharing of clinical trial data for research purposes was made real by the nonprofit, academic organization, the JLCS. This database will lead to innovative researches and contribute to the improvement of lung cancer treatment and future research.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(2): 390-403, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921025

RESUMO

PURPOSE: EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a standard first-line therapy for activated EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment options for patients with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance are limited. HER3 mediates EGFR-TKI resistance. Clinical trials of the HER3-targeting antibody-drug conjugate patritumab deruxtecan (HER3-DXd) demonstrated its anticancer activity in EGFR-mutated NSCLC; however, the mechanisms that regulate HER3 expression are unknown. This study was conducted with the aim to clarify the mechanisms underlying HER3 regulation in EGFR-mutated NSCLC tumors and explored the strategy for enhancing the anticancer activity of HER3-DXd in EGFR-mutated NSCLC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Paired tumor samples were obtained from 48 patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKI(s). HER3 expression was immunohistochemically quantified with H-score, and genomic alteration and transcriptomic signature were tested in tumors from pretreatment to post-EGFR-TKI resistance acquisition. The anticancer efficacy of HER3-DXd and osimertinib was evaluated in EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells. RESULTS: We showed augmented HER3 expression in EGFR-mutated tumors with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance compared with paired pretreatment samples. RNA sequencing revealed that repressed PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling was associated with HER3 augmentation, especially in tumors from patients who received continuous EGFR-TKI therapy. An in vitro study also showed that EGFR-TKI increased HER3 expression, repressed AKT phosphorylation in multiple EGFR-mutated cancers, and enhanced the anticancer activity of HER3-DXd. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings help clarify the mechanisms of HER3 regulation in EGFR-mutated NSCLC tumors and highlight a rationale for combination therapy with HER3-DXd and EGFR-TKI in EGFR-mutated NSCLC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Camptotecina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Receptor ErbB-3 , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Receptor ErbB-3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-3/genética , Receptor ErbB-3/metabolismo
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(5): 893-902, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921023

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the efficacy of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade is generally poor for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may improve the tumor immune microenvironment. We performed a randomized study to assess whether nivolumab improves outcome compared with chemotherapy in such patients previously treated with EGFR-TKIs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC who acquired EGFR-TKI resistance not due to a secondary T790M mutation of EGFR were randomized 1:1 to nivolumab (n = 52) or carboplatin-pemetrexed (n = 50). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Median PFS and 1-year PFS probability were 1.7 months and 9.6% for nivolumab versus 5.6 months and 14.0% for carboplatin-pemetrexed [log-rank P < 001; hazard ratio (HR) of 1.92, with a 60% confidence interval (CI) of 1.61-2.29]. Overall survival was 20.7 and 19.9 months [HR, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.53-1.47)], and response rate was 9.6% and 36.0% for nivolumab and carboplatin-pemetrexed, respectively. No subgroup including patients with a high tumor mutation burden showed a substantially longer PFS with nivolumab than with carboplatin-pemetrexed. The T-cell-inflamed gene expression profile score (0.11 vs. -0.17, P = 0.036) and expression of genes related to cytotoxic T lymphocytes or their recruitment were higher in tumors that showed a benefit from nivolumab. CONCLUSIONS: Nivolumab did not confer a longer PFS compared with carboplatin-pemetrexed in the study patients. Gene expression profiling identified some cases with a favorable tumor immune microenvironment that was associated with nivolumab efficacy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nivolumabe , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 161: 44-54, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour burden (TB) is implicated in resistance to programmed cell death-1/PD-L1 inhibitor (immune checkpoint inhibitor [ICI]) therapy. However, whether TB contributes to such resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has remained unknown. METHODS: A total of 260 treatment-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC who started ICI monotherapy (ICI cohort), platinum-doublet therapy (Chemo cohort) or ICI and platinum-doublet therapy (ICI+Chemo cohort) as first-line treatment were consecutively included. TB was estimated on the basis of the sum of the diameters of measurable target lesions as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours. Progression-free survival (PFS) in the ICI cohort was evaluated as per TB as a preplanned primary objective, with the analysis based on propensity score-weighted survival curves and estimation of restricted mean survival time (RMST). The Chemo cohort served as a control to determine whether TB is predictive of ICI treatment outcomes. The ICI+Chemo cohort was exploratory. The relation of TB to tumour immune status was assessed by immune-related gene expression profiling (irGEP) of pretreatment tumour tissue. RESULTS: In the ICI cohort, patients with a low TB showed a significantly longer PFS than did those with a high TB (median, 17.9 vs 4.3 months; weighted hazard ratio, 0.32 [95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.53]). No such difference was apparent in the other cohorts. A significant difference in overall survival was also observed only in the ICI cohort. RMST-based analysis confirmed these results. The irGEP analysis implicated M2-type macrophages, angiogenesis and transforming growth factor-ß as well as protumourigenic signalling pathways in ICI resistance conferred by a high TB. CONCLUSION: A high TB was associated with a poor outcome of ICI therapy for advanced NSCLC as a result of immunosuppressive phenotypes. Development of combination or novel treatment strategies for such disease is thus warranted.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral
17.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 3(4): 100303, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369607

RESUMO

Introduction: Ramucirumab (RAM) plus erlotinib was found to have superior progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus erlotinib in untreated EGFR-mutated metastatic NSCLC in the global phase 3 RELAY study. RELAY+ was an open-label, two-period, single-arm, exploratory study of RAM plus gefitinib (GEF; period 1) and RAM plus osimertinib (period 2) in East Asia (NCT02411448). Methods: Period 1 evaluated RAM (10 mg/kg) plus GEF (250 mg/d) in patients with untreated EGFR-mutated metastatic NSCLC. Period 2 evaluated RAM plus osimertinib (80 mg/d) in patients with disease progression who acquired T790M mutation in period 1. Exploratory end points included 1-year PFS rate (primary), other efficacy parameters, safety, and biomarker analyses of plasma (baseline, on-treatment, follow-up) using next-generation sequencing. Results: From December 2017 to August 2018, a total of 82 patients were enrolled and started treatment (period 1, RAM + GEF). The 1-year PFS rate was 62.9% (95% confidence interval: 50.3-73.1). Treatment-emergent adverse events of grade three or higher were reported with RAM plus GEF in 60 of 82 patients (73.2%; five patients [6.1%] grade four). There were two deaths owing to adverse events that occurred (acute cardiac failure, congestive cardiac failure). T790M rate at disease progression in plasma was 81.0% (13 of 16 patients). Conclusions: RELAY+ was found to have a favorable benefit-risk profile for RAM plus GEF in first-line treatment of East Asian patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

18.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887192

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osimertinib is a standard first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR). However, tumors with the L858R mutation appear to be less sensitive to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) than those with exon-19 deletions, and subgroup analysis of the FLAURA study revealed that osimertinib did not significantly prolong overall survival (OS) compared with gefitinib or erlotinib in patients with the L858R. The RELAY study revealed a similar high efficacy of combination therapy with erlotinib plus ramucirumab (E+RAM) in patients with L858R and in those with exon-19 deletions. Patients who acquire the TKI resistance-associated T790M mutation during E+RAM treatment can also expect to receive benefit from second-line osimertinib. We have therefore planned a phase III study to evaluate the clinical efficacy of E+RAM compared with osimertinib monotherapy for untreated patients with advanced NSCLC harboring L858R. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 230 patients will be enrolled. The primary end point is time to failure of strategy (TFS), which is defined for this study as the time from randomization of treatment until disease progression or death on osimertinib, or the time from randomization until first disease progression or death of the primary treatment when osimertinib is not administered in the E+RAM group. Secondary end points include OS and progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: This is the first phase III clinical trial to target only NSCLC patients with the L858R mutation. Its results may establish an optimal treatment for such individuals.

19.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 9167-9173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934361

RESUMO

Durvalumab (anti-programmed cell death ligand-1) administration after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) has improved the survival of patients with unresectable, locally advanced (LA) stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Some patients are unable to complete cCRT and cannot receive immunotherapy due to poor performance status based on adverse events after cCRT. Immunotherapy plays an important role in anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1)-positive advanced NSCLC and is replacing chemotherapy. In addition, radiotherapy and immunotherapy have been reported to have a synergistic effect. This Phase II, multicenter study (DOLPHIN, WJOG11619L, JapicCTI-194840) is designed to assess the efficacy and safety of durvalumab plus concurrent curative radiation therapy for PD-L1-positive unresectable LA-NSCLC without chemotherapy. Unresectable LA stage III NSCLC patients aged 20 years or older with a World Health Organization/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0 or 1 and PD-L1 positivity are enrolled. The patients will receive curative radiation therapy (60 Gy) plus durvalumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks (q2w) for up to 12 months until there is evidence of disease progression (PD) or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint is the 12-month progression-free survival rate as assessed by an independent central review. The secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, treatment completion rate, and safety. Recruitment began in September 2019.

20.
Front Oncol ; 11: 763468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778085

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become the standard of care for several cancers. However, ICI therapy has also been associated with various immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Clinical manifestations of immune-related colitis resemble those of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis (UC). The composition of the bowel microflora is thought to influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease and irAE colitis. We profiled the gene expressions and microbe compositions of colonic mucosa from patients with solid cancers receiving anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment; we then compared the expression profiles associated with irAE colitis with those associated with UC. The pathway enrichment analysis revealed functional similarities between inflamed regions of irAE colitis and UC. The common enriched pathways included leukocyte extravasation and immune responses, whereas non-inflamed mucosa from patients with irAE colitis was distinct from patients with UC and was characterized by the recruitment of immune cells. A similarity between the microbiota profiles was also identified. A decreased abundance of Bacteroides species was observed in inflamed regions from both irAE colitis and UC based on a microbiota composition analysis of 16S rDNA sequencing. Pathways associated with molecule transport systems, including fatty acids, were enriched in inflamed and non-inflamed irAE colitis and inflamed UC, similar to Piphillin-inferred KEGG pathways. While UC is characterized by local regions of inflammation, ICI treatment extends to non-inflammatory regions of the colonial mucosa where immune cells are reconstituted. This analysis of the similarity and heterogeneity of irAE colitis and UC provides important information for the management of irAE colitis.

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