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1.
J Vis Exp ; (151)2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566602

RESUMO

In this protocol, two deep breathing patterns were shown to 15 participants to determine an easy yet effective method of breathing exercise for future application in a clinical setting. The women in their twenties were seated comfortably in a chair with back support. They were fitted with an airtight mask connected to a gas analyzer. Three electrodes were placed on the chest connected to a wireless transmitter for relaying to the electrocardiograph. They executed a 5 min rest phase, followed by 5 min of deep breathing with a natural breathing pattern, terminating with a 5 min rest phase. This was followed by a 10 min intermission before commencing the second instruction phase of substituting the natural breathing pattern with the diaphragmatic breathing pattern. Simultaneously, the following took place: a) continuous collection, measurement and analysis of the expired gas to assess the ventilatory parameters on a breath-by-breath basis; b) measurement of the heart rate by an electrocardiograph; and c) videotaping of the participant's thoracoabdominal movement from a lateral aspect. From the video capture, the investigators carried out visual observation of the fast-forward motion-images followed by classification of the breathing patterns, confirming that the participants had carried out the method of deep breathing as instructed. The amount of oxygen uptake revealed that, during deep breathing, the work of breathing decreased. The results from the expired minute ventilation, respiration rate and tidal volume confirmed increased ventilatory efficiency for deep breathing with the natural breathing pattern compared to that with the diaphragmatic breathing pattern. This protocol suggests a suitable method of instruction for assessing deep breathing exercises on the basis of oxygen consumption, ventilatory parameters, and chest wall excursion.

2.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 31(7): 540-544, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417218

RESUMO

[Purpose] This study aimed to verify the relationship between foot range of motion and the amount of physical activity in diabetic patients. [Participants and Methods] There were twenty-eight male patients with diabetes (age ranged from 50 to 69 years old) and 10 healthy, non-diabetic male individuals within the same age range in the diabetes group and control group, respectively. The passive ranges of motion of the following joints were measured in the right foot of each participant: the ankle joint, the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and the subtalar joint. The amount of daily physical activity was estimated using the short Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. [Results] The mean range of motion of the ankle joints in the diabetic and control groups was 55.4 ± 8.4° and 69.1 ± 9.2°, respectively, whereas the mean range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joints in the diabetic and control groups was 82.9 ± 9.6° and 96.3 ± 8.9°, respectively. The diabetic group showed a significantly higher restriction in joint range of motion than did the control group. The amount of physical activity was a contributing factor toward the ankle range of motion according to multiple regression analysis. [Conclusion] We determined that the range of motion in the ankle joints of diabetic patients was affected by their level of physical activity.

3.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 55(1): 8-18, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) to the ankle plantar flexors in patients with hemiplegia reduces the strength of knee extension, which may decrease their walking ability. Studies have reported improvements in walking ability with physical therapy following BoNT-A administration. However, no previous studies have evaluated from an exercise physiology perspective the efficacy of physical therapy after BoNT-A administration for adult patients with hemiplegia. AIM: To investigate the effects of physical therapy following BoNT-A administration on gait electromyography for patients with hemiparesis secondary to stroke. DESIGN: Non-randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Single center. POPULATION: Thirty-five patients with chronic stroke with spasticity were assigned to BoNT-A monotherapy (N.=18) or BoNT-A plus physical therapy (PT) (N.=17). METHODS: On the paralyzed side of the body, 300 single doses of BoNT-A were administered intramuscularly to the ankle plantar flexors. Physical therapy was performed for 2 weeks, starting from the day after administration. Gait electromyography was performed and gait parameters were measured immediately before and 2 weeks after BoNT-A administration. Relative muscle activity, coactivation indices, and walking time/distance were calculated for each phase. RESULTS: For patients who received BoNT-A monotherapy, soleus activity during the loading response decreased 2 weeks after the intervention (P<0.01). For those who received BoNT-A+PT, biceps femoris activity and knee coactivation index during the loading response and tibialis anterior activity during the pre-swing phases increased, whereas soleus and rectus femoris activities during the swing phase decreased 2 weeks after the intervention (P<0.05). These rates of change were significantly greater than those for patients who received BoNT-A monotherapy (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Following BoNT-A monotherapy, soleus activity during the stance phase decreased and walking ability either remained unchanged or deteriorated. Following BoNT-A+PT, muscle activity and knee joint stability increased during the stance phase, and abnormal muscle activity during the swing phase was suppressed. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: If botulinum treatment of the ankle plantar flexors in stroke patients is targeted to those with low knee extension strength, or if it aims to improve leg swing on the paralyzed side of the body, then physical therapy following BoNT-A administration could be an essential part of the treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Marcha/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Paresia/terapia
4.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 30(10): 1257-1261, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349160

RESUMO

[Purpose] To examine the influence of different exercise intensities on cortical activity. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-six healthy adults aged 20-30 years performed exercise at three intensities on a bicycle ergometer as follows: (a) 15-minute exercise at 40% peak oxygen uptake, (b) same as (a) but at 60% peak oxygen uptake, and (c) 15 minutes of rest. The cognitive function of the participants was measured before and after exercise by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) under these three conditions. The cerebral blood flow in the left prefrontal and temporal cortices was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy during the PASAT. [Results] The PASAT score was significantly higher after exercise under condition (b) than before exercise (41.4 ± 9.1 vs. 47.7 ± 8.3). The cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex under condition (b) was significantly increased compared to that under condition (c), as determined by the Tukey method (0.019 ± 0.030 vs. -0.008 ± 0.044). Significant differences were not observed in the cerebral blood flow in the temporal cortex under these three conditions. [Conclusion] Cortical activation of the frontal lobe increased after high-intensity aerobic exercise with no change in the cortical activity of the temporal lobe.

5.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 30(4): 614-618, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706718

RESUMO

[Purpose] Breathing exercises are frequently prescribed to reduce pulmonary complications after abdominal and thoracic surgery. Appropriate instructions ensuring the integrity of the self-exercise are important. This study compared the effects of two instructions, focusing on non-specific breathing (NB) and diaphragmatic breathing (DB) patterns, respectively, on the ventilatory efficiency and work of breathing. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were healthy men (n=15) and women (n=15). Ventilatory parameters, heart rate, and autonomic nervous system activity were measured during natural and deep breathing phases performed under the two instructions (NB and DB), with the deep breathing phase following the natural breathing phase. [Results] For both men and women, ventilatory efficiency was increased during deep breathing relative to natural breathing, regardless of the instructions. In women, the increment in ventilatory efficiency during deep breathing was greater under NB compared to that under DB. The work of breathing decreased during deep breathing in women under both instructions, but did not change in men under DB. [Conclusion] Under NB instruction, deep breathing elicits similar or greater effects on ventilatory efficiency compared to that under DB instruction.

6.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 30(1): 119-123, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410580

RESUMO

[Purpose] It has been reported that exercises focusing upon the transversus abdominis (TrA) ameliorate low back pain (LBP). We investigated whether expiratory muscle training (EMT) can promote activity of the TrA to the same degree as the abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) in elderly individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one elderly subjects (9 males, 12 females; mean age, 84.9 ± 6.6 years) without LBP symptoms were included. Using ultrasound imaging we measured changes in thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles, TrA, internal oblique muscle (IO), and external oblique muscle (EO) during ADIM and EMT. The load in EMT was set to 15% of maximal expiratory pressure. [Results] TrA showed a significant increase in muscle thickness during ADIM and EMT compared with at rest. A significant increase in muscle thickness was noted for EMT in comparison with ADIM. No significant differences were found for IO and EO. [Conclusion] In elderly people, EMT may be an effective alternative to ADIM for promoting activity of the TrA and can be used as an exercise to maintain TrA function.

7.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 29(8): 1381-1386, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878467

RESUMO

[Purpose] To evaluate various key functions related to obstacle crossing motions in hemiplegic people based on the paralysis degree. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven patients with maintenance-stage hemiplegia who could independently ambulate outdoors were included. Subjects' crossing movements were measured using obstacles with heights of 10%, 20%, and 30% of the trochanter length. The relationship among maximal crossing height and isometric knee extension muscle strength, one leg standing time, Trunk Impairment Scale score, disease duration, and subject age was examined, as was the target variable of maximum crossing height and the top four measurement items, to determine the explanatory variables. The participants were grouped based on Brunnstrom Recovery Stages III-IV (severe spasticity) and V-VI (mild spasticity). [Results] The explanatory variables were the Trunk Impairment Scale in the severe spasticity group and unaffected side-knee extension muscle strength in the mild spasticity group (contribution rates: 75.6% and 21.0%, respectively). [Conclusion] Trunk function in the severe spasticity group majorly contributed to crossing obstacles. Furthermore, knee extension muscle strength on the unaffected side in the mild spasticity group moderately contributed to crossing obstacles. Selecting and implementing a physical therapy routine that is aimed at improving function, depending on the severity of paralysis, is necessary.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27812295

RESUMO

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT), which was developed to measure the health status of patients with COPD, was applied to patients with interstitial lung disease, aiming to examine the CAT as a predictor of outcome. Over a follow-up period of more than one year, 101 consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease were evaluated by the CAT. The CAT scores of 40 in total were categorized into four subsets according to the severity. Patients with higher (more severe) scores exhibited lower forced vital capacity and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. The survival rate was significantly lower in patients with higher scores (log-rank test, P = 0.0002), and the hazard ratios for death of the higher scores and lower lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide were independently significant. These findings suggest that CAT can indicate the risk of mortality in patients with interstitial lung disease.

9.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 27(11): 3445-50, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26696716

RESUMO

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-repetition maximum, respectively. [Results] Three weeks of training did not alter the one-repetition maximum, and muscle fibers were injured while measuring the one-repetition maximum and reloading. The decrease in cross-sectional area in the rectus femoris muscle induced by unloading for 2 weeks was significantly recovered after training at 70% of the one-repetition maximum. The levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower in muscles trained at 70% of the one-repetition maximum than in untrained muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training can promote atrophic muscle recovery, which provides a scientific basis for therapeutic exercise methods for treatment of atrophic muscle in physical therapy.

10.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 27(7): 2349-52, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26311981

RESUMO

[Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effects of short muscle strength exercise on hepatocyte growth factor expression and satellite cell activation. [Subjects] The study included 72 2-12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. [Methods] The rat plantaris muscle was contracted with a 5-min electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve, and then, the mRNA expressions of hepatocyte growth factor and myogenic regulatory factors in the plantaris muscle were determined, and the phosphorylation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) was examined. [Results] The mRNA expressions of hepatocyte growth factor and myogenic regulatory factors increased after a short muscle contraction compared to that un-contraction. Immunofluorescence analysis showed the expression of hepatocyte growth factor protein and the possibility that downstream biological changes occurred in the hepatocyte growth factor-bound c-Met. [Conclusion] Our results demonstrated that activation of satellite cells induced hepatocyte growth factor expression during muscle contraction with a short 5-min electrical stimulation, which simulates short muscle strength exercise in physical therapy. The present study provides evidence for the use of short muscle strength exercise in physical therapy.

11.
Appl Opt ; 54(16): 5193-202, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26192683

RESUMO

An immersion grating composed of a transmissive material with a high refractive index (n>2) is a powerful device for high-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared region. Although the original idea is attributed to Fraunhofer about 200 years ago, an immersion grating with high diffraction efficiency has never been realized due to the difficulty in processing infrared crystals that are mostly brittle. While anisotropic etching is one successful method for fabricating a fine groove pattern on Si crystal, machining is necessary for realizing the ideal groove shape on any kind of infrared crystal. In this paper, we report the realization of the first, to the best of our knowledge, machined immersion grating made of single-crystal CdZnTe with a high diffraction efficiency that is almost identical to that theoretically predicted by rigorous coupled-wave analysis.

12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 865: 39-52, 2015 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25732583

RESUMO

The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman, tabun and nitrogen mustards were higher. Some CWA simulants and organic solvents gave the ion peaks eluting at the similar positions of the CWAs, resulting in false positive alarms.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Temperatura , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Pressão , Volatilização
13.
Respir Care ; 59(1): 75-80, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23764864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is a good marker of disease severity in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and is associated with oxygen saturation; however, little is known about DLCO in systemic sclerosis patients with interstitial lung disease. We studied potential predictors of exercise-induced oxygen desaturation in patients with systemic sclerosis. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from 80 of 110 consecutive systemic sclerosis patients with normal oxygen saturation (> 95%) at rest, who could perform the 6-min walk test without physical discomfort, including leg pain. Pulmonary function tests and echocardiography were collected from all subjects. RESULTS: Thirty subjects showed a ≥ 4% decline in oxygen saturation during the 6-min walk test (desaturation group). The other subjects were assigned to the normoxic group. The percent-of-predicted values for FVC, FEV1, total lung capacity, DLCO, and DLCO/alveolar volume were lower, and FEV1/FVC was higher, in the desaturation group. Logistic regression analysis showed the percent-of-predicted DLCO as a highly accurate predictor of exercise-induced oxygen desaturation: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92 (cutoff point 56.3%, sensitivity 0.83, specificity 0.86). Five subjects over the cutoff point of the percent-of-predicted DLCO in the desaturation group could not be distinguished from the normoxic subjects with the lung-volume measurements or right-ventricular systolic pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The factor underlying exercise-induced oxygen desaturation appeared to be reduced percent-of-predicted DLCO, which was useful as a predictor in over 80% of the subjects.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/sangue , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Capacidade Pulmonar Total , Capacidade Vital
14.
Appl Opt ; 52(26): 6458-66, 2013 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24085120

RESUMO

The authors studied the quality evaluation technology of a spaceborne large-scale lightweight mirror that was made of silicon carbide (SiC)-based material. To correlate the material property of a mirror body and the mirror accuracy, the authors evaluated the mirror surface deviation of a prototype mirror by inputting actually measured coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) data into a finite element analysis model. The CTE data were obtained by thermodilatometry using a commercial grade thermal dilatometer for the samples cut from all over the mirror surface. The computationally simulated contour diagrams well reproduced the mirror accuracy profile that the actual mirror showed in cryogenic testing. Density data were also useful for evaluating the mirror surface deviation because they had a close relationship with the CTE.

15.
Appl Opt ; 52(20): 4797-805, 2013 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23852191

RESUMO

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has studied a large-scale lightweight mirror constructed of reaction-bonded silicon carbide-based material as a key technology in future astronomical and earth observation missions. The authors selected silicon carbide as the promising candidate due to excellent characteristics of specific stiffness and thermal stability. One of the most important technical issues for large-scale ceramic components is the uniformity of the material's property, depending on part and processing. It might influence mirror accuracy due to uneven thermal deformation. The authors conducted systematic case studies for the conditions of CTE by finite element analysis to know the typical influence of material property nonuniformity on mirror accuracy and consequently derived a comprehensive empirical equation for the series of CTE's main factors. In addition, the authors computationally reproduced the mirror accuracy profile of a small prototype mirror shown in cryogenic testing and hereby verified wide-range practical computational evaluation technology of mirror accuracy.

16.
Nature ; 498(7455): 487-91, 2013 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23719379

RESUMO

Female mosquitoes of some species are generalists and will blood-feed on a variety of vertebrate hosts, whereas others display marked host preference. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti have evolved a strong preference for humans, making them dangerously efficient vectors of malaria and Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Specific host odours probably drive this strong preference because other attractive cues, including body heat and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2), are common to all warm-blooded hosts. Insects sense odours via several chemosensory receptor families, including the odorant receptors (ORs), membrane proteins that form heteromeric odour-gated ion channels comprising a variable ligand-selective subunit and an obligate co-receptor called Orco (ref. 6). Here we use zinc-finger nucleases to generate targeted mutations in the orco gene of A. aegypti to examine the contribution of Orco and the odorant receptor pathway to mosquito host selection and sensitivity to the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). orco mutant olfactory sensory neurons have greatly reduced spontaneous activity and lack odour-evoked responses. Behaviourally, orco mutant mosquitoes have severely reduced attraction to honey, an odour cue related to floral nectar, and do not respond to human scent in the absence of CO2. However, in the presence of CO2, female orco mutant mosquitoes retain strong attraction to both human and animal hosts, but no longer strongly prefer humans. orco mutant females are attracted to human hosts even in the presence of DEET, but are repelled upon contact, indicating that olfactory- and contact-mediated effects of DEET are mechanistically distinct. We conclude that the odorant receptor pathway is crucial for an anthropophilic vector mosquito to discriminate human from non-human hosts and to be effectively repelled by volatile DEET.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Aedes/fisiologia , DEET/farmacologia , Genes de Insetos/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Mutação/genética , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DEET/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Mel , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Odorantes/análise , Condutos Olfatórios/citologia , Condutos Olfatórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Volatilização
17.
Rheumatol Int ; 33(11): 2913-6, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23124730

RESUMO

Autoantibodies have been detected in systemic sclerosis patients, and typical clinical features regarding organ involvement by each autoantibody have been reported. To reveal differences in exercise intolerance in patients with either anti-topoisomerase-I or anti-centromere antibodies, 53 systemic sclerosis patients were investigated retrospectively. A 6-min walking distance showed no significant differences (P = 0.090) between autoantibodies, while exercise-induced hypoxia during the 6-min walking test was significant in subjects with the anti-topoisomerase-I antibody (P = 0.033). The percent predicted of vital capacity, the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and the modified Rodnan skin score were affected more in subjects with the anti-topoisomerase-I antibody than the anti-centromere antibody. The main parameter affecting the 6-min walking distance was the percent predicted of vital capacity for each autoantibody, and there was a significant positive relationship for all subjects (R (2) = 0.30, P < 0.0001). Exercise-induced hypoxia was also shown in the more affected subjects in the percent predicted of vital capacity and the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. Lung parameters were suggested to be more important factors determining exercise intolerance and induced hypoxia than detected autoantibodies.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/imunologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia
18.
Appl Opt ; 49(20): 3941-8, 2010 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20648171

RESUMO

We tested the optical performance at cryogenic temperatures of an 800 mm diameter lightweight mirror, consisting of carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbide and with a mass of 11.2 kg. The ceramic composite of the mirror was HB-Cesic, developed by ECM, Germany, and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan. The test was carried out while the mirror was mounted, via Invar stress relief supports, on a lightweight optical bench also made of HB-Cesic. During the test, both the mirror and the optical bench were cooled to 18 K in a liquid-helium chamber. The test consisted of measuring the mirror's change of surface figure with an interferometer installed outside the cryo-chamber. The cryogenic deformation of the mirror was 110 nm RMS with no significant residual deformation after cooling, which is very promising for the applicability of the HB-Cesic composite to large lightweight cryogenic space optics.

19.
Nat Neurosci ; 13(5): 615-21, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20364145

RESUMO

Many neurons release classical transmitters together with neuropeptide co-transmitters whose functions are incompletely understood. Here we define the relationship between two transmitters in the olfactory system of C. elegans, showing that a neuropeptide-to-neuropeptide feedback loop alters sensory dynamics in primary olfactory neurons. The AWC olfactory neuron is glutamatergic and also expresses the peptide NLP-1. Worms with nlp-1 mutations show increased AWC-dependent behaviors, suggesting that NLP-1 limits the normal response. The receptor for NLP-1 is the G protein-coupled receptor NPR-11, which acts in postsynaptic AIA interneurons. Feedback from AIA interneurons modulates odor-evoked calcium dynamics in AWC olfactory neurons and requires INS-1, a neuropeptide released from AIA. The neuropeptide feedback loop dampens behavioral responses to odors on short and long timescales. Our results point to neuronal dynamics as a site of behavioral regulation and reveal the ability of neuropeptide feedback to remodel sensory networks on multiple timescales.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Odorantes , Condutos Olfatórios/citologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Retroalimentação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Mutação/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção/métodos
20.
J Vis Exp ; (36): 1-5, 2010 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20164822

RESUMO

The sense of smell is essential for insects to find foods, mates, predators, and oviposition sites. Insect olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are enclosed in sensory hairs called sensilla, which cover the surface of olfactory organs. The surface of each sensillum is covered with tiny pores, through which odorants pass and dissolve in a fluid called sensillum lymph, which bathes the sensory dendrites of the OSNs housed in a given sensillum. The OSN dendrites express odorant receptor (OR) proteins, which in insects function as odor-gated ion channels. The interaction of odorants with ORs either increases or decreases the basal firing rate of the OSN. This neuronal activity in the form of action potentials embodies the first representation of the quality, intensity, and temporal characteristics of the odorant. Given the easy access to these sensory hairs, it is possible to perform extracellular recordings from single OSNs by introducing a recording electrode into the sensillum lymph, while the reference electrode is placed in the lymph of the eye or body of the insect. In Drosophila, sensilla house between one and four OSNs, but each OSN typically displays a characteristic spike amplitude. Spike sorting techniques make it possible to assign spiking responses to individual OSNs. This single sensillum recording (SSR) technique monitors the difference in potential between the sensillum lymph and the reference electrode as electrical spikes that are generated by the receptor activity on OSNs. Changes in the number of spikes in response to the odorant represent the cellular basis of odor coding in insects. Here, we describe the preparation method currently used in our lab to perform SSR on Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae, and show representative traces induced by the odorants in a sensillum-specific manner.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Eletrodos , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Microscopia , Odorantes
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