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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6767, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799586

RESUMO

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is one of the orally bioavailable NAD+ precursors and has been demonstrated to exhibit beneficial effects against aging and aging-associated diseases. However, the metabolic pathway of NR in vivo is not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that orally administered NR increases NAD+ level via two different pathways. In the early phase, NR was directly absorbed and contributed to NAD+ generation through the NR salvage pathway, while in the late phase, NR was hydrolyzed to nicotinamide (NAM) by bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST1), and was further metabolized by the gut microbiota to nicotinic acid, contributing to generate NAD+ through the Preiss-Handler pathway. Furthermore, we report BST1 has a base-exchange activity against both NR and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR) to generate NAR and NR, respectively, connecting amidated and deamidated pathways. Thus, we conclude that BST1 plays a dual role as glycohydrolase and base-exchange enzyme during oral NR supplementation.

2.
JCI Insight ; 6(22)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806649

RESUMO

Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are primary auditory neurons in the spiral ganglion that transmit sound information from the inner ear to the brain and play an important role in hearing. Impairment of SGNs causes sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and it has been thought until now that SGNs cannot be regenerated once lost. Furthermore, no fundamental therapeutic strategy for SNHL has been established other than inserting devices such as hearing aids and cochlear implants. Here we show that the mouse spiral ganglion contains cells that are able to proliferate and indeed differentiate into neurons in response to injury. We suggest that SRY-box transcription factor 2/SRY-box transcription factor 10-double-positive (Sox2/Sox10-double-positive) Schwann cells sequentially started to proliferate, lost Sox10 expression, and became neurons, although the number of new neurons generated spontaneously was very small. To increase the abundance of new neurons, we treated mice with 2 growth factors in combination with valproic acid, which is known to promote neuronal differentiation and survival. This treatment resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of SGNs, accompanied by a partial recovery of the hearing loss induced by injury. Taken together, our findings offer a step toward developing strategies for treatment of SNHL.

3.
Neurosci Res ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808248

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal swallowing is centrally mediated by a swallowing central pattern generator (Sw-CPG) in the medulla oblongata. The activity of the Sw-CPG depends on the sensory inputs determined by physical and chemical bolus properties. Here we investigate the sensory-motor integration during swallowing arising from different sensory sources. To do so we electrically stimulated the superior laryngeal nerve and we triggered swallowing with oral injections of distilled water or capsaicin solution and extracellularly recorded from swallowing interneurons in arterially perfused brainstem preparations of rats. We recorded the activities of 40 neurons, while monitoring the motor activities of the phrenic, vagal and hypoglossal nerves. Eighteen neurons responded to electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral superior laryngeal nerve, and 6 neurons were excited by oral fluid injection, while 16 non-respiratory neurons did not receive afferent inputs to either electrical or physiological stimuli. The cellular activities displayed by swallowing interneurons during electrical and physiological stimulation of pharyngeal and laryngeal afferent input reveal complex adaptations of the timing of firing patterns and frequencies. The modulation of neuronal activity is likely to contribute to the coordination of efficient bolus transfer during the pharyngeal stage of swallowing.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 585: 191-195, 2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813979

RESUMO

Impairment of pancreatic ß cells is a principal driver of the development of diabetes. Restoring normal insulin release from the ß cells depends on the ATP produced by the intracellular mitochondria. In maintaining mitochondrial function, the tumor suppressor p53 has emerged as a novel regulator of metabolic homeostasis and participates in adaptations to nutritional changes. In this study, we used orotic acid, an intermediate in the pathway for de novo synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotide, to reduce genotoxicity. Administration of orotic acid reduced p53 activation of MIN6 ß cells and subsequently reduced ß cell death in the db/db mouse. Orotic acid intake helped to maintain the islet size, number of ß cells, and protected insulin secretion in the db/db mouse. In conclusion, orotic acid treatment maintained ß cell function and reduced cell death, and may therefore, be a future therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

5.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704338

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer and a significant cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Further improvements of CRC therapeutic approaches are needed. BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6), a multifunctional scaffold protein, plays an important role in tumor progression. However, regulation of BAG6 in malignancies remains unclear. This study showed that guided entry of tail-anchored proteins factor 4 (GET4), a component of the BAG6 complex, regulates the intercellular localization of BAG6 in CRC. Furthermore, GET4 was identified as a candidate driver gene on the short arm of chromosome 7, which is often amplified in CRC, by our bioinformatics approach using the CRC dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Clinicopathologic and prognostic analyses using CRC datasets showed that GET4 was overexpressed in tumor cells due to an increased DNA copy number. High GET4 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor in CRC, whereas BAG6 was mainly overexpressed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells without gene alteration. The biological significance of GET4 was examined using GET4 KO CRC cells generated with CRISPR-Cas9 technology or transfected CRC cells. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that GET4 promoted tumor growth. It appears to facilitate cell cycle progression by cytoplasmic enrichment of BAG6-mediated p53 acetylation followed by reduced p21 expression. In conclusion, we showed that GET4 is a novel driver gene and a prognostic biomarker that promotes CRC progression by inducing the cytoplasmic transport of BAG6. GET4 could be a promising therapeutic molecular target in CRC.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572783

RESUMO

Currently, only lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) and subtotal temporal bone resection (STBR) are widely utilized for the surgical treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal (EAC-SCC). However, there are few descriptions of variations on these surgical approaches. This study aimed to elucidate the variations of en bloc resection for advanced EAC-SCC. We dissected the four sides of cadaveric heads to reveal the anatomical structures related to temporal bone resection. From the viewpoint of surgical anatomy, surgical patterns of temporal bone cutting can be divided into four categories: conventional LTBR, extended LTBR, conventional STBR, and modified STBR. Extended LTBR is divided into four types: superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior extensions. Several extension procedures can be combined based on the extension of the tumor. Furthermore, en bloc resection with the temporomandibular joint or glenoid fossa increases the technical difficulty of a surgical procedure because the exposure and manipulation of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery are limited from the middle cranial fossa. Surgical approaches for advanced SCC of the temporal bone are diverse. They require accurate preoperative evaluation of the tumor extension and preoperative consideration of the exact line of resection to achieve marginal negative resection.

7.
Mol Metab ; 54: 101328, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Expansion of adipose tissue during obesity through the recruitment of newly generated adipocytes (hyperplasia) is metabolically healthy, whereas that through the enlargement of pre-existing adipocytes (hypertrophy) leads to metabolic complications. Accumulating evidence from genetic fate mapping studies suggests that in animal models receiving a high-fat diet (HFD), only adipocyte progenitors (APs) in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) have proliferative potential. However, the proliferative potential and differentiating capacity of APs in the inguinal WAT (iWAT) of male mice remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the proliferative and adipogenic potential of APs in the iWAT of HFD-fed male mice. METHODS: We generated PDGFRα-GFP-Cre-ERT2/tdTomato (KI/td) mice and traced PDGFRα-positive APs in male mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. We performed a comprehensive phenotypic analysis, including the histology, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and gene expression analysis, of KI/td mice fed HFD. RESULTS: Contrary to the findings of others, we found an increased number of newly generated tdTomato+ adipocytes in the iWAT of male mice, which was smaller than that observed in the gWAT. We found that in male mice, the iWAT has more proliferating tdTomato+ APs than the gWAT. We also found that tdTomato+ APs showed a higher expression of Dpp4 and Pi16 than tdTomato- APs, and the expression of these genes was significantly higher in the iWAT than in the gWAT of mice fed HFD for 8 weeks. Collectively, our results reveal that HFD feeding induces the proliferation of tdTomato+ APs in the iWAT of male mice. CONCLUSION: In male mice, compared with gWAT, iWAT undergoes hyperplasia in response to 8 weeks of HFD feeding through the recruitment of newly generated adipocytes due to an abundance of APs with a high potential for proliferation and differentiation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462366

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal small-cell carcinoma (OPSmCC) is a rare malignancy with aggressive behavior, whereas HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (OPSqCC) displays a favorable prognosis. Notably, these two malignancies occasionally arise in an identical tumor. In this case study, we explored the molecular characteristics that distinguishes these two carcinomas using a rare case of HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) with the combined histology of SmCC and SqCC. Immunohistochemical analysis and HPV-RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) suggested that both SmCC and SqCC were HPV-related malignancies. Targeted exome sequencing revealed that SmCC and SqCC had no significant difference in mutations of known driver genes. In contrast, RNA sequencing followed by bioinformatic analyses suggested that aberrant transcriptional programs may be responsible for the neuroendocrine differentiation of HPV-related OPC. Compared to SqCC, genes up-regulated in SmCC were functionally enriched in inflammatory and immune responses (e.g., arachidonic acid metabolism). We then developed a SmCC-like gene module (top 10 up-regulated genes) and found that OPC patients with high module activity showed poor prognosis in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and GSE65858 cohort. Gene set enrichment analysis of the SmCC-like gene module suggested its link to MYC proto-oncogene in the TCGA data set. Taken together, these findings suggest that the SmCC-like gene module may contribute to acquisition of aggressive phenotypes and tumor heterogeneity of HPV-related OPC. The present case study is the first report of genetic and transcriptomic aberrations in HPV-related OPSmCC combined with SqCC.

9.
Audiol Res ; 11(2): 263-274, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no guideline for hearing compensation after temporal bone resection. This study aimed to retrospectively analyze surgical cases with reconstruction for hearing preservation after temporal bone malignancy resection and propose a new alternative to compensate for hearing loss. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients who underwent lateral temporal bone surgery for temporal bone malignancy at our institution and examined their hearing abilities after surgery. RESULT: The hearing outcomes of patients with an external auditory meatus reconstruction varied widely. The mean postoperative air-bone gap at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ranged from 22.5 dB to 71.25 dB. On the other hand, the average difference between the aided sound field thresholds with cartilage conduction hearing aid and bone conduction thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz ranged from -3.75 to 41.25. More closely located auricular cartilage and temporal bone resulted in smaller differences between the aided sound field and bone conduction thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: There is still room for improvement of surgical techniques for reconstruction of the auditory meatus to preserve hearing after temporal bone resection. The cartilage conduction hearing aid may provide non-invasive postoperative hearing compensation after lateral temporal bone resection.

10.
Case Rep Oncol ; 14(2): 1097-1102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326748

RESUMO

Re-irradiation with X-rays and particle beams can be used to treat localized recurrence of unresectable head and neck cancer after initial irradiation therapy. However, re-irradiation therapy increases the risk of severe and late sequelae by 4-to 8-fold. It can also result in fatal outcomes, such as rupture of the carotid artery and cerebral necrosis or abscess. A 41-year-old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. The patient was initially treated with X-ray irradiation. However, the patient underwent re-irradiation with heavy particle beams and neutron rays for a recurrent tumor. The patient developed necrosis of the skull base involving the facial skin and temporal bone 2 months after the last session of re-irradiation therapy. The tissue in the parapharyngeal and masticatory regions also became completely necrotic, resulting in extensive exposure of the brain parenchyma. Although the patient underwent conservative and surgical treatment, necrosis of the tissue progressed, and a large part of the brain was exposed. Approximately 2.5 years later, although the brain is still exposed, the patient is alive without disease. Although the tumor had subsided and long-term survival was achieved, our patient developed serious osteoradionecrosis of the skull base with extensive brain exposure. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, re-irradiation alone is an option, albeit with poor prospects. This approach should be discussed with the patient while balancing the potential survival gain against the burden of treatment and the risk of complications.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 34(11): 1966-1978, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218257

RESUMO

The antitumor efficacies of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the usefulness of potential predictive markers such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) have not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively analyzed 131 SNSCCs with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression, TIL subpopulations and loss of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins as a surrogate for MSI-high. We also comprehensively evaluated the mutual relationships among these immuno-markers, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene status, and KRAS mutation. PD-L1 expression (tumor proportion score ≥ 1%) was detected in 60 (45.8%) SNSCC cases and was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0240). High density of cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)-positive TILs was significantly associated with better progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0368), and high density of forkhead box protein P3-positive TILs was significantly associated with better PFS and OS (p = 0.0007 and 0.0143, respectively). With respect to the combination of CD8 + TIL and PD-L1 expression, the high-CD8/PD-L1-negative group showed the most favorable prognosis, whereas the low-CD8/PD-L1-positive group showed the worst prognosis. MMR loss was detected in 3 (2.3%) of the 131 cases. HPV infection (6.1%), EGFR mutation (14.5%), EGFR copy number gain (26%), and MMR loss were essentially mutually exclusive; patients in these molecular groups showed significant differences in prognosis but not in the degree of PD-L1 expression or TILs. Among the nine ICI-treated patients, three (33.3%) were responders, and the EGFR-wild type cases (n = 7) showed better clinical responses to an ICI compared to the EGFR-mutant cases (n = 2). Among the patients with residual/recurrent EGFR-wild type tumors (n = 43), ICI treatment significantly improved OS (p = 0.0281). The results suggest that the evaluation of immuno-markers and molecular subclassification may be helpful for prognostic prediction and selecting an individualized therapeutic strategy for patients with SNSCC.

12.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(5): ytab129, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124560

RESUMO

Background: Coronary artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare disease that can rupture and cause haemopericardium. It can occur principally as a complication after coronary artery instrumentation, but it can also result from trauma. Case summary: A 15-year-old male patient with a history of spontaneous pneumothoraces treated twice with video-assisted thoracoscopic thoracic surgery presented with pericarditis and increasing haemopericardium. During the hospitalization, he had developed cardiogenic shock and he underwent emergent pericardiocentesis. Coronary angiography revealed a small right coronary artery pseudoaneurysm. We successfully coil embolized the pseudoaneurysm. Discussion: This is a rare case of a ruptured coronary artery pseudoaneurysm associated with prior tube thoracostomy. The treatments for a coronary pseudoaneurysm should be tailored based on the pathologic and anatomical characteristics.

13.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115931

RESUMO

There are no human cancer cell lines of external auditory canal origin available for research use. This report describes the establishment of a culture condition for external auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma, derived from human tumor tissue. Successive squamous cell carcinoma colonies were dissociated by trypsin, subcultured, and maintained on a feeder layer (MMC-TIG-1-20), yielding a clonally proliferating cell culture. Two morphological types of colony were observed: (a) densely packed colonies and (b) colonies with indistinct boundaries characterized by cell-cell complexes with fibroblast feeder cells. The SCC-like characteristics of these cells were evidenced by positivity for p53, SCCA1/2, cytokeratin, and vimentin, and cancer stem cell properties were indicated by positivity for CD44, CD133, Oct3/4, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). One of the unique properties of cell cultures is their tendency to form steric colonies in vitro on feeder layer cells. In addition, in the presence of fresh macrophages, the cells very slowly transform to break away from colonies as free cells, a process that resembles the epidermal-mesenchymal transition, whereby cell-cell interactions are weakened and migration activity is enhanced. These factors are purported to play a key role in cancer cell metastasis.

14.
Laryngoscope ; 131(12): 2674-2683, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The tumor immune microenvironment in temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TBSCC), including the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), has not been established. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry analyses to retrospectively analyze 123 TBSCC cases for PD-L1 expression and TILs and their prognostic significance. We also evaluated the prognostic correlations between these immunomarkers and the therapeutic responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). RESULTS: PD-L1 expression (≥1%) was detected in 62 (50.4%) TBSCC cases and was significantly associated with worse prognosis: progression-free survival (PFS), P < .0001; overall survival (OS), P = .0009. A high density of CD8+ TILs was significantly associated with better prognosis (PFS, P = .0012; OS, P = .0120). In contrast, a high density of Foxp3+ TILs tended to be associated with an unfavorable prognosis (PFS, P = .0148; OS, P = .0850). With regard to the tumor microenvironment subtypes defined by CD8+ TILs and PD-L1 expression, the CD8low /PD-L1+ group showed significantly worse prognosis. Among the 36 neoadjuvant CRT-treated cases, PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with worse OS (P = .0132). Among the 32 CRT-treated cases without surgery, a high density of CD8+ TILs tended to be more highly associated with complete response to CRT compared to a low density of CD8+ TILs (P = .0702). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the evaluation of the tumor immune microenvironment may contribute to the prediction of prognoses and the selection of an individualized therapeutic strategy for patients with TBSCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2674-2683, 2021.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Cranianas/imunologia , Osso Temporal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cranianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cranianas/patologia , Neoplasias Cranianas/cirurgia , Osso Temporal/imunologia , Osso Temporal/cirurgia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
16.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(4): 103081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052059

RESUMO

Primary temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma is sporadic. According to previous studies, margin-negative resection provides the best prognosis (Nakagawa et al., 2006; Moody et al., 2000; Yin et al., 2006; Komune et al., 2021 [1-4]). When tumors extend behind the tympanic membrane, lateral temporal bone resection, which is a well-established procedure, is insufficient to achieve a tumor-free margin. For these cases, subtotal temporal bone resection (STBR) can achieve a complete en bloc resection with a tumor-free margin. Furthermore, STBR en bloc with surrounding structures, including the temporomandibular joint and parotid gland, complicates surgical techniques. We previously reported this surgical procedure in a stepwise manner using cadaveric dissection (Komune et al., 2014 [5]). The STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint is composed of three approaches according to our previous report: high cervical exposure (neck dissection), a subtemporal-infratemporal fossa approach, and a retromastoid-paracondylar approach. However, we currently lack demonstrative surgical videos. According to our previous report, this video first demonstrates STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint (Komune et al., 2014 [5]). The histopathological diagnosis of a 57-year-old woman suffering from a large tumor protruding from her auricle indicated squamous cell carcinoma; after the diagnosis she was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed the full extent of the tumor, which was about 8 cm in diameter and had damaged the middle cranial base, mastoid bone, and middle ear cavity. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated invasion of the glenoid fossa and parotid gland, equivalent to a Pittsburg stage cT4 tumor. The patient underwent STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint. Lower cranial nerves (CN IX-XII) were preserved, and the patient achieved normal oral intake without additional procedures after surgery. At six months post-operation, no recurrence was noted. In this video, we first demonstrate the surgical procedure of the STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint for far-advanced temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma, and it can be one of the surgical options to achieve the complete resection without exposure of the tumor. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. The video was reproduced with the written informed consent of the patient. Primary temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma is sporadic. According to previous studies, margin-negative resection provides the best prognosis (Nakagawa et al., 2006; Moody et al., 2000; Yin et al., 2006; Komune et al., 2021 [1-4]). When tumors extend behind the tympanic membrane, lateral temporal bone resection, which is a well-established procedure, is insufficient to achieve a tumor-free margin. For these cases, subtotal temporal bone resection (STBR) can achieve a complete en bloc resection with a tumor-free margin. Furthermore, STBR en bloc with surrounding structures, including the temporomandibular joint and parotid gland, complicates surgical techniques. We previously reported this surgical procedure in a stepwise manner using cadaveric dissection (Komune et al., 2014 [5]). The STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint is composed of three approaches according to our previous report: high cervical exposure (neck dissection), a subtemporal-infratemporal fossa approach, and a retromastoid-paracondylar approach. However, we currently lack demonstrative surgical videos. According to our previous report, this video first demonstrates STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint (Komune et al., 2014 [5]). The histopathological diagnosis of a 57-year-old woman suffering from a large tumor protruding from her auricle indicated squamous cell carcinoma; after the diagnosis she was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed the full extent of the tumor, which was about 8 cm in diameter and had damaged the middle cranial base, mastoid bone, and middle ear cavity. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated invasion of the glenoid fossa and parotid gland, equivalent to a Pittsburg stage cT4 tumor. The patient underwent STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint. Lower cranial nerves (CN IX-XII) were preserved, and the patient achieved normal oral intake without additional procedures after surgery. At six months post-operation, no recurrence was noted. In this video, we first demonstrate the surgical procedure of the STBR en bloc with the parotid gland and temporomandibular joint for far-advanced temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma, and it can be one of the surgical options to achieve the complete resection without exposure of the tumor. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. The video was reproduced with the written informed consent of the patient.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otológicos/métodos , Glândula Parótida/cirurgia , Osso Temporal/cirurgia , Articulação Temporomandibular/cirurgia , Gravação em Vídeo , Feminino , Humanos , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(6): 1168-1174, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To obtain new insights into research questions on how executive function and social interaction would be observed to change after the introduction of hearing aids (HAs) in older people with hearing impairment. DESIGN: Multi-institutional prospective single-arm observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients with complaints of hearing difficulty who visited HA clinics between October 18, 2017, and June 30, 2019, in 7 different university hospitals in Japan. METHODS: The inclusion criteria of the study named Hearing-Aid Introduction for Hearing-Impaired Seniors to Realize a Productive Aging Society-A Study Focusing on Executive Function and Social Activities Study (HA-ProA study) were age ≥60 years and no history of HA use. A series of multi-institution common evaluations including audiometric measurements, the digit symbol substitution test to assess executive functions, convoy model as an index of social relations, and hearing handicap inventory for the elderly (HHIE) were performed before (pre-HA) and after 6 months of the HA introduction (post-HA). RESULTS: Out of 127 enrollments, 94 participants completed a 6-month follow-up, with a mean age of 76.9 years. The digit symbol substitution test score improved significantly from 44.7 at baseline to 46.1 at 6 months (P = .0106). In the convoy model, the social network size indicated by the number of persons in each and whole circles were not significantly different between pre- and post-HA; however, the total count for kin was significantly increased (P = .0344). In the analyses of HHIE, the items regarding the family and relatives showed significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: HA use could benefit older individuals beginning to use HAs in executive function and social interaction, though the results should be interpreted cautiously given methodological limitations such as a single-arm short 6 months observation. Reduction in daily hearing impairment would have a favorable effect on relationships with the family.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Auxiliares de Audição , Idoso , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Interação Social
18.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211013084, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early detection of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is important for both an improved prognosis and less-invasive treatment. We retrospectively analyzed the detection rates of early hypopharyngeal SCCs according to the evaluation methods and the clinical management of early hypopharyngeal SCCs. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with early hypopharyngeal SCC who were diagnosed were reviewed. RESULTS: The number of early hypopharyngeal cancer patients with asymptomatic or synchronous or metachronous esophageal cancer examined by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (NBI) was significantly higher than those examined by laryngopharyngeal endoscopy with NBI. The 3-year disease-specific survival rates according to T classification were as follows: Tis, 100%; T1, 100%; T2, 79.8%; and overall, 91.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early-stage hypopharyngeal SCC can be cured by minimally invasive transoral surgery or radiotherapy. Observation of the pharynx using NBI in patients with a history of head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, or pharyngeal discomfort is very important, and routinely examining the pharynx with NBI, even in patients undergoing endoscopy for screening purposes, is recommended.

19.
World Neurosurg ; 150: 197-204.e1, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We devised a new surgical alternative to the conventional nasoseptal flap, a pedicled posterior septal-nasal floor flap that we named the Kegon flap. We evaluated the effectiveness of this flap for skull base reconstruction in patients with high-flow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage after sellar/parasellar tumor resection. METHODS: The Kegon flap with a novel rescue flap was designed to preserve blood flow and mucosa anterior to the nasal septum and to avoid flap damage during surgery. We retrospectively evaluated postoperative flap perfusion with T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and characterized complications and wound healing in 5 patients who experienced high-flow CSF leakage after sellar/parasellar tumor resection requiring reconstruction. RESULTS: Postoperative T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated good flap perfusion in all patients. The area reconstructed with the Kegon flap healed within the first month following surgery. No postoperative CSF leakage or nasal hemorrhage was observed. There was no perforation of the anterior nasal septum after surgery. The mucosal defect had completely epithelialized in all patients by 3 months after surgery. There were no instances of prolonged nasal crusting or any subjective decrease in olfactory function 3 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a Kegon flap with a novel rescue flap was effective and helped preserve nasal structure and function in patients undergoing skull base reconstruction after sellar/parasellar tumor resection associated with high-flow CSF leakage.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/cirurgia , Septo Nasal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Laryngoscope ; 131(8): 1782-1789, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the temporal bone is an extremely rare condition. This rarity has led to a delay in the establishment of a standard treatment protocol and adequate staging system. Identification of prognostic markers of this disease from a variety of fields is desirable in the establishment of treatment guidelines for temporal bone SCC. The aim of this study is to assess the prognostic role of inflammation-based prognostic scores in cases of temporal bone SCC. STUDY DESIGN: Case reries with chart review. METHODS: A total of 71 cases of primary malignancy eligible for curative treatment at a single tertiary medical institute were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate regression analyzes were used to investigate the association between the inflammation-based scores and 5-year overall survival. RESULTS: Univariate Cox regression analyzes showed that a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, high platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, low lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio, a Glasgow prognostic score of 2, and the systemic inflammation score of 2 were significantly associated with a poor prognosis, as well as a classification of T4 stage, presence of cervical lymph node metastasis, high white blood cell counts, and high C-reactive protein levels. The multivariate analysis showed that a clinical stage of T4 and a systemic inflammation score of 2 were independent prognostic markers. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation-based prognostic markers are associated with the survival of patients with temporal bone SCC, as well as other head and neck SCCs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:1782-1789, 2021.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cranianas/sangue , Osso Temporal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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