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1.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 33, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588899

RESUMO

GABAergic interneurons play a critical role in tuning neural networks in the central nervous system, and their defects are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Currently, the mDlx enhancer is solely used for adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated transgene delivery into cortical interneurons. Here, we developed a new inhibitory neuron-specific promoter (designated as the mGAD65 promoter), with a length of 2.5 kb, from a mouse genome upstream of exon 1 of the Gad2 gene encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65. Intravenous infusion of blood-brain barrier-penetrating AAV-PHP.B expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the mGAD65 promoter transduced the whole brain in an inhibitory neuron-specific manner. The specificity and efficiency of the mGAD65 promoter for GABAergic interneurons, which was assessed at the motor cortex, were almost identical to or slightly higher than those of the mDlx enhancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the mGAD65 promoter preferentially transduced parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons. Notably, the mGAD65 promoter transduced chandelier cells more efficiently than the mDlx enhancer and robustly labeled their synaptic boutons, called the cartridge, targeting the axon initial segments of excitatory pyramidal neurons. To test the ability of the mGAD65 promoter to express a functional molecule, we virally expressed G-CaMP, a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, in the motor cortex, and this enabled us to monitor spontaneous and drug-induced Ca2+ activity in GABAergic inhibitory neurons. These results suggest that the mGAD65 promoter is useful for AAV-mediated targeting and manipulation of GABAergic neurons with the dominance of cortical PV-expressing neurons, including chandelier cells.

2.
Hippocampus ; 31(3): 235-243, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452849

RESUMO

In the hippocampus, spatial and nonspatial information are jointly represented as a neural map in which locations associated with salient features are over-represented by increased densities of relevant place cells. Although we recently demonstrated that experience-dependent establishment of these disproportionate maps is governed by selective stabilization of salient place cells following their conversion from non-place cells, the underlying mechanism for pre-established map reorganization remained to be understood. To this end, we investigated the changes in CA1 functional cellular maps imaged using two-photon calcium imaging in mice performing a reward-rearrangement task in virtual reality. Mice were pre-trained on a virtual linear track with a visual landmark and a reward in two distinct locations. Then, they were re-trained on the same track with the exception that the location of reward was shifted to match the landmark location. We found that, in contrast to de novo map formation, robust map reorganization occurred through parallel coordination of new place field formation, lateral shifting of existing place fields, and selective stabilization of place fields encoding salient locations. Our findings demonstrate that intricate interplay between multiple forms of cellular dynamics enables rapid updating of information stored in hippocampal maps.

3.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 5, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413507

RESUMO

Reduced expression of glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), encoded by the Gad1 gene, is a consistent finding in postmortem brains of patients with several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. The dysfunction of GAD67 in the brain is implicated in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders; however, the neurobiological consequences of GAD67 dysfunction in mature brains are not fully understood because the homozygous Gad1 knockout is lethal in newborn mice. We hypothesized that the tetracycline-controlled gene expression/suppression system could be applied to develop global GAD67 knockdown mice that would survive into adulthood. In addition, GAD67 knockdown mice would provide new insights into the neurobiological impact of GAD67 dysfunction. Here, we developed Gad1tTA/STOP-tetO biallelic knock-in mice using Gad1STOP-tetO and Gad1tTA knock-in mice, and compared them with Gad1+/+ mice. The expression level of GAD67 protein in brains of Gad1tTA/STOP-tetO mice treated with doxycycline (Dox) was decreased by approximately 90%. The GABA content was also decreased in the brains of Dox-treated Gad1tTA/STOP-tetO mice. In the open-field test, Dox-treated Gad1tTA/STOP-tetO mice exhibited hyper-locomotor activity and decreased duration spent in the center region. In addition, acoustic startle responses were impaired in Dox-treated Gad1tTA/STOP-tetO mice. These results suggest that global reduction in GAD67 elicits emotional abnormalities in mice. These GAD67 knockdown mice will be useful for elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of emotional abnormalities, such as anxiety symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171774

RESUMO

Neuritogenesis is the process underling nervous system regeneration; however, optimal extracellular signals that can promote neuronal regenerative activities require further investigation. Previously, we developed a novel method for inducing neuronal differentiation in rat PC12 cells using temperature-controlled repeated thermal stimulation (TRTS) with a heating plate. Based on neurogenic sensitivity to TRTS, PC12 cells were classified as either hyper- or hyposensitive. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of hyposensitivity by establishing two PC12-derived subclones according to TRTS sensitivity during differentiation: PC12-P1F1, a hypersensitive subclone, and PC12-P1D10, a hyposensitive subclone. To characterize these subclones, cell size and neuritogenesis were evaluated in subclones treated with nerve growth factor (NGF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), or various TRTS. No significant differences in cell size were observed among the parental cells and subclones. BMP4- or TRTS-induced neuritogenesis was increased in PC12-P1F1 cells compared to that in the parental cells, while no neuritogenesis was observed in PC12-P1D10 cells. In contrast, NGF-induced neuritogenesis was observed in all three cell lines. Furthermore, a BMP inhibitor, LDN-193189, considerably inhibited TRTS-induced neuritogenesis. These results suggest that the BMP pathway might be required for TRTS-induced neuritogenesis, demonstrating the useful aspects of these novel subclones for TRTS research.

5.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 633, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127951

RESUMO

Unravelling the secrets of wild animals is one of the biggest challenges in ecology, with bio-logging (i.e., the use of animal-borne loggers or bio-loggers) playing a pivotal role in tackling this challenge. Bio-logging allows us to observe many aspects of animals' lives, including their behaviours, physiology, social interactions, and external environment. However, bio-loggers have short runtimes when collecting data from resource-intensive (high-cost) sensors. This study proposes using AI on board video-loggers in order to use low-cost sensors (e.g., accelerometers) to automatically detect and record complex target behaviours that are of interest, reserving their devices' limited resources for just those moments. We demonstrate our method on bio-loggers attached to seabirds including gulls and shearwaters, where it captured target videos with 15 times the precision of a baseline periodic-sampling method. Our work will provide motivation for more widespread adoption of AI in bio-loggers, helping us to shed light onto until now hidden aspects of animals' lives.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18590, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122709

RESUMO

Tunicate larvae have a non-reproductive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. In Ciona intestinalis type A larvae, one of the gnrh genes, gnrh2, is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord, respectively, of vertebrates. The gnrh2 gene is also expressed in the proto-placodal sensory neurons, which are the proposed homologue of vertebrate olfactory neurons. Tunicate larvae occupy a non-reproductive dispersal stage, yet the role of their GnRH system remains elusive. In this study, we investigated neuronal types of gnrh2-expressing cells in Ciona larvae and visualized the activity of these cells by fluorescence imaging using a calcium sensor protein. Some cholinergic neurons and dopaminergic cells express gnrh2, suggesting that GnRH plays a role in controlling swimming behavior. However, none of the gnrh2-expressing cells overlap with glycinergic or GABAergic neurons. A role in motor control is also suggested by a relationship between the activity of gnrh2-expressing cells and tail movements. Interestingly, gnrh2-positive ependymal cells in the nerve cord, known as a kind of glia cells, actively produced Ca2+ transients, suggesting that active intercellular signaling occurs in the glia cells of the nerve cord.

7.
Arch Toxicol ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074372

RESUMO

Chloromethylisothiazolinone (CMIT) and methylisothiazolinone (MIT) are biocidal preservatives and the active ingredients in Kathon CG, which contains ca. 1.5% mixture of CMIT and MIT at a ratio of 3:1 (CMIT/MIT). CMIT/MIT was misused as humidifier disinfectant products, which caused serious health problems in Korea. Here, the vascular effects of CMIT/MIT were investigated to evaluate claims of putative cardiovascular toxicity observed in humidifier disinfectant users. CMIT/MIT did not affect the basal tension of the rat thoracic aorta up to 2.5 µg/mL in myograph experiments. Instead, pretreatment with CMIT/MIT impaired phenylephrine- or 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced vasoconstriction in a range of 0.5-2.5 µg/mL, which was largely irreversible and not recovered by washing out the CMIT/MIT. Similarly, the application of CMIT/MIT to pre-contracted aorta caused a gradual loss of tension. In primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), CMIT/MIT caused thiol depletion, which in turn led to cytosolic Zn2+ elevation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. CMIT/MIT-induced shrinkage, detachment, and lysis of VSMCs depending on the concentration and the treatment time. All events induced by CMIT/MIT were prevented by a thiol donor N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Cytolysis could be inhibited by a Zn2+ chelator TPEN and a superoxide scavenger TEMPOL, whereas they did not affect shrinkage and detachment. In accordance with these results, CMIT/MIT-exposed aortas exhibited dissociation and collapse of tissue in histology analysis. Taken together, CMIT/MIT causes functional impairment and tissue damage to blood vessels by depleting thiol and thereby elevating cytosolic Zn2+ and generating ROS. Therefore, exposure to CMIT/MIT in consumer products may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders.

8.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000584, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956387

RESUMO

The insular cortex (IC) participates in diverse complex brain functions, including social function, yet their cellular bases remain to be fully understood. Using microendoscopic calcium imaging of the agranular insular cortex (AI) in mice interacting with freely moving and restrained social targets, we identified 2 subsets of AI neurons-a larger fraction of "Social-ON" cells and a smaller fraction of "Social-OFF" cells-that change their activity in opposite directions during social exploration. Social-ON cells included those that represented social investigation independent of location and consisted of multiple subsets, each of which was preferentially active during exploration under a particular behavioral state or with a particular target of physical contact. These results uncover a previously unknown function of AI neurons that may act to monitor the ongoing status of social exploration while an animal interacts with unfamiliar conspecifics.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos
9.
Sci Adv ; 6(30): eaba1195, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743070

RESUMO

Immotile cilia sense extracellular signals such as fluid flow, but whether Ca2+ plays a role in flow sensing has been unclear. Here, we examined the role of ciliary Ca2+ in the flow sensing that initiates the breaking of left-right (L-R) symmetry in the mouse embryo. Intraciliary and cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients were detected in the crown cells at the node. These Ca2+ transients showed L-R asymmetry, which was lost in the absence of fluid flow or the PKD2 channel. Further characterization allowed classification of the Ca2+ transients into two types: cilium-derived, L-R-asymmetric transients (type 1) and cilium-independent transients without an L-R bias (type 2). Type 1 intraciliary transients occurred preferentially at the left posterior region of the node, where L-R symmetry breaking takes place. Suppression of intraciliary Ca2+ transients delayed L-R symmetry breaking. Our results implicate cilium-derived Ca2+ transients in crown cells in initiation of L-R symmetry breaking in the mouse embryo.

10.
Cell Rep ; 32(1): 107864, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640229

RESUMO

In the hippocampus, locations associated with salient features are represented by a disproportionately large number of neurons, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this over-representation remain elusive. Using longitudinal calcium imaging in mice learning to navigate in virtual reality, we find that the over-representation of reward and landmark locations are mediated by persistent and separable subsets of neurons, with distinct time courses of emergence and differing underlying molecular mechanisms. Strikingly, we find that in mice lacking Shank2, an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-linked gene encoding an excitatory postsynaptic scaffold protein, the learning-induced over-representation of landmarks was absent whereas the over-representation of rewards was substantially increased, as was goal-directed behavior. These findings demonstrate that multiple hippocampal coding processes for unique types of salient features are distinguished by a Shank2-dependent mechanism and suggest that abnormally distorted hippocampal salience mapping may underlie cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in a subset of ASDs.

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 527(2): 447-452, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336546

RESUMO

Fluorescence microendoscopy is becoming a standard technique in neuroscience for visualizing neuronal activity in the deep brain. Gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses are increasingly used for fluorescence microendoscopy; however, they inherently suffer from strong aberrations and distortion. Aspherical lenses change their radius of curvature with distance from the optical axis and can effectively eliminate spherical aberrations. The use of these lenses has not been fully explored in deep brain fluorescence microendoscopy due to technical difficulties in manufacturing miniature aspherical lenses. In this study, we fabricated a novel microendoscope lens assembly comprised two nested pairs of aspherical microlenses made by precision glass molding. This assembly, which was 0.6 mm in diameter and 7.06 mm in length, was assembled in a stainless steel tube of 0.7 mm outer diameter. This assembly exhibited marked improvements in monochromatic and chromatic aberrations compared with a conventional GRIN lens, and is useful for deep brain fluorescence microendoscopy, as demonstrated by two-photon microendoscopic calcium imaging of R-CaMP1.07-labeled mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons. Our aspherical-lens-based approach offers a non-GRIN-lens alternative for fabrication of microendoscopic lenses.

12.
FEBS Open Bio ; 10(6): 1031-1043, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237043

RESUMO

The ATP1A2 coding α2 subunit of Na,K-ATPase, which is predominantly located in astrocytes, is a causative gene of familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2). FHM2 model mice (Atp1a2tmCKwk/+ ) are susceptible to cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is profoundly related to migraine aura and headache. However, astrocytic properties during CSD have not been examined in FHM2 model mice. Using Atp1a2tmCKwk/+ crossed with transgenic mice expressing G-CaMP7 in cortical neurons and astrocytes (Atp1a2+/- ), we analyzed the changes in Ca2+ concentrations during CSD. The propagation speed of Ca2+ waves and the percentages of astrocytes with elevated Ca2+ concentrations in Atp1a2+/- were higher than those in wild-type mice. Increased percentages of astrocytes with elevated Ca2+ concentrations in Atp1a2+/- may contribute to FHM2 pathophysiology.

13.
J Anat ; 236(4): 622-629, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840255

RESUMO

In the vertebrate body, a metameric structure is present along the anterior-posterior axis. Zebrafish tbx6-/- larvae, in which somite boundaries do not form during embryogenesis, were shown to exhibit abnormal skeletal morphology such as rib, neural arch and hemal arch. In this study, we investigated the role of somite patterning in the formation of anterior vertebrae and ribs in more detail. Using three-dimensional computed tomography scans, we found that anterior vertebrae including the Weberian apparatus were severely affected in tbx6-/- larvae. In addition, pleural ribs of tbx6 mutants exhibited severe defects in the initial ossification, extension of ossification, and formation of parapophyses. Two-colour staining revealed that bifurcation of ribs was caused by fusion or branching of ribs in tbx6-/- . The parapophyses in tbx6-/- juvenile fish showed irregular positioning to centra and abnormal attachment to ribs. Furthermore, we found that the ossification of the distal portion of ribs proceeded along myotome boundaries even in irregularly positioned myotome boundaries. These results provide evidence of the contribution of somite patterning to the formation of the Weberian apparatus and rib in zebrafish.

14.
Neurosci Res ; 151: 53-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790590

RESUMO

Most imaging studies of the enteric nervous system (ENS) that regulates the function of the gastrointestinal tract are so far performed using preparations isolated from animals, thus hindering the understanding of the ENS function in vivo. Here we report a method for imaging the ENS cellular network activity in living mice using a new transgenic mouse line that co-expresses G-CaMP6 and mCherry in the ENS combined with the suction-mediated stabilization of intestinal movements. With confocal or two-photon imaging, our method can visualize spontaneous and pharmacologically-evoked ENS network activity in living animals at cellular and subcellular resolutions, demonstrating the potential usefulness for studies of the ENS function in health and disease.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8366, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182818

RESUMO

Wearable technologies for functional whole brain imaging in freely moving animals would advance our understanding of cognitive processing and adaptive behavior. Fluorescence imaging can visualize the activity of individual neurons in real time, but conventional microscopes have limited sample coverage in both the width and depth of view. Here we developed a novel head-mounted laser camera (HLC) with macro and deep-focus lenses that enable fluorescence imaging at cellular resolution for comprehensive imaging in mice expressing a layer- and cell type-specific calcium probe. We visualized orientation selectivity in individual excitatory neurons across the whole visual cortex of one hemisphere, and cell assembly expressing the premotor activity that precedes voluntary movement across the motor cortex of both hemispheres. Including options for multiplex and wireless interfaces, our wearable, wide- and deep-imaging HLC technology could enable simple and economical mapping of neuronal populations underlying cognition and behavior.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/metabolismo , Movimento/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/metabolismo , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/tendências
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2637, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201332

RESUMO

The brain stores and recalls memories through a set of neurons, termed engram cells. However, it is unclear how these cells are organized to constitute a corresponding memory trace. We established a unique imaging system that combines Ca2+ imaging and engram identification to extract the characteristics of engram activity by visualizing and discriminating between engram and non-engram cells. Here, we show that engram cells detected in the hippocampus display higher repetitive activity than non-engram cells during novel context learning. The total activity pattern of the engram cells during learning is stable across post-learning memory processing. Within a single engram population, we detected several sub-ensembles composed of neurons collectively activated during learning. Some sub-ensembles preferentially reappear during post-learning sleep, and these replayed sub-ensembles are more likely to be reactivated during retrieval. These results indicate that sub-ensembles represent distinct pieces of information, which are then orchestrated to constitute an entire memory.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Microscopia Intravital/métodos , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Modelos Animais , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Optogenética/métodos , Sono/fisiologia
17.
Cell Rep ; 26(5): 1213-1226.e7, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699350

RESUMO

Pancreatic ß cells secrete insulin by Ca2+-triggered exocytosis. However, there is no apparent secretory site similar to the neuronal active zones, and the cellular and molecular localization mechanism underlying polarized exocytosis remains elusive. Here, we report that ELKS, a vertebrate active zone protein, is used in ß cells to regulate Ca2+ influx for insulin secretion. ß cell-specific ELKS-knockout (KO) mice showed impaired glucose-stimulated first-phase insulin secretion and reduced L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC) current density. In situ Ca2+ imaging of ß cells within islets expressing a membrane-bound G-CaMP8b Ca2+ sensor demonstrated initial local Ca2+ signals at the ELKS-localized vascular side of the ß cell plasma membrane, which were markedly decreased in ELKS-KO ß cells. Mechanistically, ELKS directly interacted with the VDCC-ß subunit via the GK domain. These findings suggest that ELKS and VDCCs form a potent insulin secretion complex at the vascular side of the ß cell plasma membrane for polarized Ca2+ influx and first-phase insulin secretion from pancreatic islets.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citosol/efeitos dos fármacos , Citosol/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/deficiência
18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3550, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177699

RESUMO

Wide-field imaging of neural activity at a cellular resolution is a current challenge in neuroscience. To address this issue, wide-field two-photon microscopy has been developed; however, the field size is limited by the objective size. Here, we develop a micro-opto-mechanical device that rotates within the post-objective space between the objective and brain tissue. Two-photon microscopy with this device enables sub-second sequential calcium imaging of left and right mouse sensory forelimb areas 6 mm apart. When imaging the rostral and caudal motor forelimb areas (RFA and CFA) 2 mm apart, we found high pairwise correlations in spontaneous activity between RFA and CFA neurons and between an RFA neuron and its putative axons in CFA. While mice performed a sound-triggered forelimb-movement task, the population activity between RFA and CFA covaried across trials, although the field-averaged activity was similar across trials. The micro-opto-mechanical device in the post-objective space provides a novel and flexible design to clarify the correlation structure between distant brain areas at subcellular and population levels.


Assuntos
Microscopia/instrumentação , Córtex Motor/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Dispositivos Ópticos , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Membro Anterior , Camundongos , Microscopia/métodos , Córtex Motor/anatomia & histologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos
19.
Zoological Lett ; 4: 19, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065850

RESUMO

Background: Tyramine, known as a "trace amine" in mammals, modulates a wide range of behavior in invertebrates; however, the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms are not well understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), tyramine affects key behaviors, including foraging, feeding, and escape responses. The touch-evoked backward escape response is often coupled with a sharp omega turn that allows the animal to navigate away in the opposite direction. Previous studies have showed that a metabotropic tyramine receptor, SER-2, in GABAergic body motor neurons controls deep body bending in omega turns. In this study, we focused on the role of tyramine in GABAergic head motor neurons. Our goal is to understand the mechanism by which tyraminergic signaling alters neural circuit activity to control escape behavior. Results: Using calcium imaging in freely moving C. elegans, we found that GABAergic RME motor neurons in the head had high calcium levels during forward locomotion but low calcium levels during spontaneous and evoked backward locomotion. This calcium decrease was also observed during the omega turn. Mutant analyses showed that tbh-1 mutants lacking only octopamine had normal calcium responses, whereas tdc-1 mutants lacking both tyramine and octopamine did not exhibit the calcium decrease in RME. This neuromodulation was mediated by SER-2. Moreover, tyraminergic RIM neuron activity was negatively correlated with RME activity in the directional switch from forward to backward locomotion. These results indicate that tyramine released from RIM inhibits RME via SER-2 signaling. The omega turn is initiated by a sharp head bend when the animal reinitiates forward movement. Interestingly, ser-2 mutants exhibited shallow head bends and often failed to execute deep-angle omega turns. The behavioral defect and the abnormal calcium response in ser-2 mutants could be rescued by SER-2 expression in RME. These results suggest that tyraminergic inhibition of RME is involved in the control of omega turns. Conclusion: We demonstrate that endogenous tyramine downregulates calcium levels in GABAergic RME motor neurons in the head via the tyramine receptor SER-2 during backward locomotion and omega turns. Our data suggest that this neuromodulation allows deep head bending during omega turns and plays a role in the escape behavior in C. elegans.

20.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 412, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970983

RESUMO

In vivo optical imaging is a powerful tool for revealing brain structure and function at both the circuit and cellular levels. Here, we provide a systematic review of findings obtained from in vivo imaging studies of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders, including the monogenic disorders fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, and Angelman syndrome, which are caused by genetic abnormalities of FMR1, MECP2, and UBE3A, as well as disorders caused by copy number variations (15q11-13 duplication and 22q11.2 deletion) and BTBR mice as an inbred strain model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most studies visualize the structural and functional responsiveness of cerebral cortical neurons to sensory stimuli and the developmental and experience-dependent changes in these responses as a model of brain functions affected by these disorders. The optical imaging techniques include two-photon microscopy of fluorescently labeled dendritic spines or neurons loaded with fluorescent calcium indicators and macroscopic imaging of cortical activity using calcium indicators, voltage-sensitive dyes or intrinsic optical signals. Studies have revealed alterations in the density, stability, and turnover of dendritic spines, aberrant cortical sensory responses, impaired inhibitory function, and concomitant failure of circuit maturation as common causes for neurological deficits. Mechanistic hypotheses derived from in vivo imaging also provide new directions for therapeutic interventions. For instance, it was recently demonstrated that early postnatal administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) restores impaired cortical inhibitory function and ameliorates the aberrant social behaviors in a mouse model of ASD. We discuss the potential use of SSRIs for treating ASDs in light of these findings.

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