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1.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(1): 34-40, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336717

RESUMO

Some illegal dietary supplements contain phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil, for exerting "therapeutic" effects in erectile dysfunction. This is apparently dangerous, and thus, should be appropriately regulated. Identification of descarbonsildenafil was first reported in Singapore in a coffee sample labeled to exert male sexual performance enhancement effects. However, it is unclear whether the compound possesses PDE5 inhibitory activity. We encountered during our survey of dietary supplements, a sexual enhancement product commercially available in Tokyo, in which a peak presumed to be of descarbonsildenafil was detected by LC-UV and electrospray ionization-tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS). The compound was isolated and identified as descarbonsildenafil with liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), NMR, and X-ray crystal structural analysis. In addition, descarbonsildenafil showed PDE5 inhibitory activity in PDE5 inhibition assay, and its IC50 value for PDE5A1 was found to be 30 nmol/L. The results of INADEQUATE NMR and X-ray crystal structural analysis in this study provide information for the identification of descarbonsildenafil. Since this study indicates that this compound is a PDE5 inhibitor having adequate activity, it is regulated as a drug component in Japan.

2.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 96-107, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474657

RESUMO

LC/Tribrid Orbitrap was developed to determine phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogs as adulterants in dietary supplements. High-resolution MS/MS and MS3 spectra of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs were obtained by LC/Tribrid Orbitrap using both higher-energy collisional dissociation and collision-induced dissociation. We investigated dietary supplements that claim to enhance men's sexual performance, and detected PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs. We also estimated the structures of the PDE-5 inhibitor analogs and the impurities of PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogs in the dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5
3.
Drug Test Anal ; 10(2): 284-293, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544560

RESUMO

Despite the implementation of a new blanket scheduling system in 2013, new psychoactive substance (NPS) abuse remains a serious social concern in Japan. We present a fatal intoxication case involving 5F-ADB (methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) and diphenidine. Postmortem blood screening by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOFMS) in the information-dependent acquisition mode only detected diphenidine. Further urinary screening using an in-house database containing NPS and metabolites detected not only diphenidine but also possible 5F-ADB metabolites; subsequent targeted screening by LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) allowed for the detection of a very low level of unchanged 5F-ADB in postmortem heart blood. Quantification by standard addition resulted in the postmortem blood concentrations being 0.19 ± 0.04 ng/mL for 5F-ADB and 12 ± 2.6 ng/mL for diphenidine. Investigation of the urinary metabolites revealed pathways involving ester hydrolysis (M1) and oxidative defluorination (M2), and further oxidation to the carboxylic acid (M3) for 5F-ADB. Mono- and di-hydroxylated diphenidine metabolites were also found. The present case demonstrates the importance of urinary metabolite screening for drugs with low blood concentration. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) fluorinated at the terminal N-alkyl position are known to show higher cannabinoid receptor affinity relative to their non-fluorinated analogues; 5F-ADB is no exception with high CB1 receptor activity and much greater potency than Δ9 -THC and other earlier SCs, thus we suspect its acute toxicity to be high compared to other structurally related SC analogues. The low blood concentration of 5F-ADB may be attributed to enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic degradation, and further investigation into these possibilities is underway.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Indazóis/química , Piperidinas/química , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Canabinoides/química , Humanos , Indazóis/metabolismo , Japão , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Psicotrópicos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/química , Urinálise
4.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 137(8): 1005-1015, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768940

RESUMO

We developed a new inhalation exposure method to evaluate effects of synthetic cannabimimetics that are being distributed as new, unregulated drugs in the Tokyo area. We selected the commercial product "SOUTOU" containing AB-CHMINACA and 5F-AMB as the test drug and dried marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) leaves as the negative control. A half cigarette packed with dried marshmallow leaves or SOUTOU was ignited, then mainstream smoke from each was delivered to five mice in an exposure box. After the cigarettes were fully consumed, neurobehavioral observations and a catalepsy test were performed at 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure. The effluent air from the exposure box was poured into impingers containing acetonitrile (first impinger) and dimethyl sulfoxide (second impinger). The resulting solutions were analyzed to assess decomposition of the synthetic cannabimimetics. Mice exposed to SOUTOU smoke showed many excitement behaviors and some suppressive behaviors at 15, 30 and 60 min. These clearly included cannabimimetic specific pharmacological actions. Negative control mice also showed some suppressive behaviors at 15 min but these were attenuated at later times, nearly disappearing at 60 min. In addition, the behavioral effects observed in controls were less pronounced than those in SOUTOU exposed mice. The inhalation exposure method developed in our study would be effective for determining cannabinoid specific pharmacological effects of illegal drugs, as well as for assessing the presence of active compound(s) by comparing the test substance with a negative control.


Assuntos
Câmaras de Exposição Atmosférica , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Acatisia Induzida por Medicamentos , Althaea , Animais , Canabinoides/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Folhas de Planta , Fatores de Tempo , Produtos do Tabaco
5.
J Nat Med ; 68(4): 677-85, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24952707

RESUMO

In May 2011, numerous poppy plants closely resembling Papaver bracteatum Lindl., a type of narcotic plant that is illegal in Japan, were distributed directly from several large flower shops or through online shopping throughout Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolitan area. In order to better identify the narcotic plants, the relative nuclear DNA content at the vegetative stage was measured by flow cytometric (FCM) analysis in 3 closely-related species of the genus Papaver section Oxytona, namely P. orientale, P. pseudo-orientale, and P. bracteatum, based on the difference between the chromosome numbers of these species. The results showed that the nuclear DNA content differed between these 3 species, and that most of the commercially distributed plants examined in this study could be identified as P. bracteatum. The remaining plants were P. pseudo-orientale, a non-narcotic plant. In addition, the FCM results for the identification of P. bracteatum completely agreed with the results obtained by the morphological analysis, the inter-genic spacer sequence of rpl16-rpl14 (PS-ID sequence) of chloroplast DNA, and the presence of thebaine. These results clearly indicate the usefulness of FCM analysis for the identification of P. bracteatum plants, including when they are in their vegetative stage.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Papaver/classificação , DNA de Cloroplastos/química , Flores/química , Japão , Entorpecentes/análise , Papaver/anatomia & histologia , Papaver/química , Papaver/genética , Tebaína/análise
6.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 65(8): 1223-30, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23837590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Whether and how synthetic cannabinoids affect inflammation and carcinogenesis has not been well studied. The present study was thus conducted to assess effects of synthetic cannabinoids on inflammation and carcinogenesis in vivo in mice. METHODS: Twenty-three analogues of synthetic cannabinoids were isolated from, and identified as adulterants in, illegal drugs distributed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and were examined for their inhibitory effects on the induction of oedema in mouse ears by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Furthermore, selected cannabinoids, JWH-018, -122 and -210, were studied for their effects on carcinogenesis induced in mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by TPA. KEY FINDINGS: Among cannabinoids, naphthoylindoles mostly exhibited superior inhibitory effects against TPA-induced ear oedema and, especially, JWH-018, -122 and -210 showed potent activity with 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) values of 168, 346 and 542 nm, respectively (an activity corresponding to that of indometacin (ID50 = 908 nm)). Furthermore these three compounds also markedly suppressed the tumour-promoting activity of TPA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report indicating the structure-activity relationships for the anti-inflammatory activity of synthetic cannabinoids on TPA-induced inflammation in mice. Naphthoylindoles, JWH-018, -122 and -210, had the most potent anti-inflammatory activity and also markedly inhibited tumour promotion by TPA in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. The present results suggest that synthetic cannabinoids, such as JWH-018, -122 and -210, may be used as cancer chemopreventive agents in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/toxicidade , 9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Canabinoides/síntese química , Canabinoides/química , Cocarcinogênese , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
J Nat Med ; 65(1): 103-10, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20890669

RESUMO

Genus Lophophora (Cactaceae) has two species: Lophophora williamsii Coulter, which is called peyote, and L. diffusa Bravo. Although it was reported that L. williamsii contained mescaline and L. diffusa did not, we found L. williamsii specimens that did not contain mescaline. This finding indicated that the two species could not be differentiated in terms of mescaline content. Moreover, the relationship between mescaline content and morphology of the two species is also unknown. In this study, we attempted to clarify the difference in morphology, mescaline content, and DNA alignment of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region between L. williamsii and L. diffusa. As a result, L. williamsii specimens were classified into two groups. Group 1 had small protuberances on the epidermis, contained mescaline, and the analyzed region on the trnL/trnF sequence was 881 base pairs (bp) long in all except one (877 bp). Group 2 had large protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 893 bp long. On the other hand, L. diffusa had medium-sized protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 903 bp long. Also investigated was the potential application of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method as a means of identification based on the trnL/trnF sequence. By applying the PCR-RFLP method, the two species could be distinguished and L. williamsii specimens could be differentiated into group 1 and group 2.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/genética , Mescalina/química , Cactaceae/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
8.
J AOAC Int ; 94(6): 1770-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22320083

RESUMO

An analog of aildenafil, which is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5, was found in a dietary supplement marketed for enhancement of sexual function. The compound was isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and its structure was identified by means of 13C-NMR spectrometry, 1H-NMR spectrometry, high-resolution MS, and X-ray structure determination. The compound was identified to be sulfoaildenafil (other names: thioaildenafil, dimethyl sildenafil thione, and thiomethisosildenafil). Sulfoaildenafil is very similar to the compound thiohomosildenafil. As it is difficult to distinguish between them by LC-photodiode array detector analysis, ultra-performance LC (UPLC)/MS, ion trap LC/MS/MS (LC/IT-MS/MS), and GC/MS were performed. The mass spectra of thiohomosildenafil by UPLC/MS and LC/IT-MS/MS showed mass fragments of m/z 58, 72, and 355, and the mass spectrum by GC/MS showed mass fragments of m/z 56, 72, and 420. Some of these fragments had low intensities, but they were useful for distinguishing between the two compounds. The relationship between aildenafil (other names: dimethylsildenafil and methisosildenafil) and homosildenafil is similar to that between sulfoaildenafil and thiohomosildenafil. Therefore, these compounds were also examined.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Piperazinas/análise , Sulfonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
9.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2(10): 1500-3, 2004 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15136806

RESUMO

Persistent triplet diphenylcarbenes with considerable stability have been shown to be trapped by tetramethylpiperidine N-oxides (TEMPOs) to give the corresponding benzophenones as major products along with tetramethylpiperidine, which indicates that the reaction pattern is essentially identical with that observed for parent triplet diphenylcarbene. The absolute rate constants for the quenching reaction were measured by a laser flash photolysis technique and compared with those for quenching by other typical triplet carbene quenchers. The results showed that the reactivity of TEMPOs toward triplet carbenes was lower than that of oxygen but higher than that of 1,4-cyclohexadiene. The advantages of TEMPOs as a triplet carbene quencher as opposed to the other quenchers are discussed, and TEMPOs are shown to be very convenient reagents to estimate the reactivity of triplet carbenes.


Assuntos
Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Metano/análogos & derivados , Metano/química , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Diazometano/química , Hidrocarbonetos , Cinética , Lasers , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Fotólise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Termodinâmica
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