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1.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 6(10): 3283-3295, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558666

RESUMO

Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species' reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index ([Formula: see text]) of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c), among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Genes de Insetos , Variação Genética , Tephritidae/genética , Transcriptoma , Alelos , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Sci Rep ; 6: 17480, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818909

RESUMO

The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control strategies. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of three OBP genes, Obp19d_2, Obp56a and Obp99c, across different phases of A. obliqua development by qPCR. In order to do so, we tested eight and identified three reference genes for data normalization, rpl17, rpl18 and ef1a, which displayed stability for the conditions here tested. All OBPs showed differential expression on adults and some differential expression among adult stages. Obp99c had an almost exclusive expression in males and Obp56a showed high expression in virgin females. Thereby, our results provide relevant data not only for other gene expression studies in this species, as well as for the search of candidate genes that may help in the development of new pest control strategies.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tephritidae/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Masculino , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência , Reprodução/genética
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