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1.
Mol Biotechnol ; 62(1): 1-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538309

RESUMO

Introduction of more than one gene into crop plants simultaneously or sequentially, called transgene stacking, has been a more effective strategy for conferring higher and durable insect and disease resistance in transgenic plants than single-gene technology. Transgenes can be stacked against one or more pathogens or for traits such as herbicide tolerance or anthocyanin pigmentation. Polygenic agronomic traits can be improved by multiple gene transformation. The most widely engineered stacked traits are insect resistance and herbicide tolerance as these traits may lead to lesser use of pesticides, higher yield, and efficient control of weeds. In this review, we summarize transgene stacking of two or more transgenes into crops for different agronomic traits, potential applications of gene stacking, its limitations and future prospects.

2.
Ecol Evol ; 9(5): 2964-2977, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891229

RESUMO

Oryza rufipogon Griff. is a perennial species of wild rice widely distributed along the channels and rivers of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. This study attempted to find centers of diversity among wild rice populations in this area and their inter-relationships. The highest genetic diversity was found in the Dong Thap population and the lowest in the Can Tho population. Maternal diversity evaluated using chloroplast INDELs detected ten plastid types, five of which were novel relative to other Asian countries. The mitochondrial genome suggested two unique deletions. One 699-bp deletion via short tandem repeats was accompanied by another deletion including orf153. All accessions carrying the mitochondrial type were found in a particular plastid type. This unique maternal lineage was confined to specific channels where it showed vigorous vegetative growth in comparison to upstream areas where various maternal lineages and maximum genetic diversity occurred. This area along the Mekong Delta is a center of not only nuclear but also maternal diversity.

3.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis ; 28(1): 63-71, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversially reported in the literature. The primary endpoints of this study were to clarify the cumulative incidence and recurrence rate of HCC after DAA treatment. The secondary endpoints were to identify the factors associated with the occurrence or recurrence of HCC after DAAs treatment. METHODS: Of 234 HCV patients, 211 with no history of HCC (no-HCC-history group) and 23 with previous treated HCC history (HCC-history group) were treated with DAAs and followed for more than 24 weeks to determine the incidence of HCC. Platelet count, albumin, α-fetoprotein (AFP) level, L3%, the FIB-4 index and APRI scores were analyzed as possible factors associated with HCC occurrence and recurrence. An intergroup comparison was made of the cumulative incidence of HCC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine associations between blood test values and risk of HCC. RESULTS: The median observation period was 21 months. Cumulative incidence of HCC was higher in the HCC-history group than in the no-HCC-history group (p < 0.0001, 19.0 and 0.52 per 100 patient-years, respectively). Univariate analysis revealed platelet count, albumin, α-fetoprotein (AFP) level, AFP-L3%, and FIB-4 index and APRI scores at the end of DAA treatment as being significantly associated with occurrence/recurrence of HCC. Multivariate analysis revealed that AFP levels before and after the administration of DAAs and AFP-L3% after DAA were independently associated with the occurrence/recurrence of HCC (p = 0.045, 0.043, 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSION: The HCC occurrence rate after DAA treatment was very low, and the recurrence rate lower than that in previous interferon reports. The AFP level and AFP-L3% were identified as important factors in predicting occurrence/recurrence of HCC. Careful observation is needed when increased levels of AFP or AFP-L3% after DAAs treatment are observed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo
4.
Hum Pathol ; 83: 77-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172911

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are an important constituent of the cancer stroma. In intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the features of CAFs at the primary site and in the metastatic lymph nodes (Met-LNs) and their origin have been unclear. In the present study, we characterized CAFs at the primary site (n = 42) and in the Met-LNs (n = 10) of human ICC by immunohistochemistry using potential molecular markers of CAFs, portal fibroblasts (PFs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and bone marrow-derived fibrocytes (BMDFs). At the primary site, the stroma was strongly positive for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; marker for CAFs), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-ß (PDGFR-ß) (common marker for HSCs and PFs), fibulin-2, and thymus cell antigen-1 (Thy-1; PF marker), whereas immunoreactivity for fascin (HSC marker) was scarce. Most of the α-SMA-positive cells were found to express PDGFR-ß, Thy-1, and fibulin-2 by double immunostaining. A small population of BMDF marker-positive (α-SMA+CD45+CD34+) cells was found by triple immunostaining. In the micro-Met-LNs, α-SMA-positive cells were absent in cancer aggregates of the LN sinus, whereas they were present in the invasion area of cancer cells from the LN sinus to the LN parenchyma. In the macro-Met-LNs, there were abundant α-SMA-positive cells that were also positive for PDGFR-ß and Thy-1 but negative for fibulin-2 and fascin. Thus, regarding the expression of molecular markers, CAFs at the primary site of ICC are similar to PFs and different from those of HSCs or CAFs in the Met-LNs. CAFs at the primary sites and in the Met-LN are thought to be derived from PFs/BMDFs and resident cells of LNs, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica
5.
Hepatol Res ; 48(11): 855-861, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732688

RESUMO

AIM: Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy is an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CH(C)) patients. Activity of natural killer (NK) cells was reported to be impaired in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The aim of this study was to examine whether DAA therapy could restore NK activity in patients with CH(C). METHODS: Direct-acting antiviral therapy was given to 31 CH(C) patients as asunaprevir/daclatasvir (ASV/DCV) (n = 15), ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (n = 7), ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (n = 6), or elbasvir/grazoprevir (n = 3). Prior to therapy (0M), at the completion of the therapy (EOT), and at 24 weeks after completion (AFTER), NK activity and the frequency of CD56dim NK and CD56bright NK cells in peripheral blood were estimated by Cr release assay and flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was carried out by anova and the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: In one of the ASV/DCV-treated patients, treatment was stopped 12 weeks after initiation of therapy because of viral breakthrough. The anova showed that NK activity significantly improved at EOT (vs. 0M, P < 0.01) and at AFTER (vs. 0M, P < 0.001) in 30 patients with sustained virologic response. It also showed that the frequency of CD56dim NK cells was significantly increased at EOT and at AFTER (vs. 0M, P < 0.05). In addition, the NK activity ratio (AFTER/0M) had no significant difference between patient groups with higher and lower Fibrosis-4 scores. CONCLUSION: Direct-acting antiviral therapy in CH(C) patients could improve NK activity by increasing the frequency of CD56dim NK cells. Additionally, our results might imply that DAAs therapy could reduce the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis by restoring innate immune responses.

6.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 11(2): 150-155, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318565

RESUMO

A 27-year-old woman with colon cancer and liver metastasis was referred to our hospital. Colectomy and colostomy were performed to improve her ileus. Following 13 sessions of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (OC) with mFOLFOX6 + bevacizumab, thrombocytopenia and frequent peristomal bleeding occurred. Computed tomography showed severe ascites, splenomegaly, significant collateral veins around the stoma, and severe stenosis of the hepatic veins (HV) and inferior vena cava (IVC). Ultrasound elastography showed high liver (and spleen) stiffness values. Repeated OC appeared to cause IVC stenosis as a result of worsening sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and peristomal variceal bleeding. After ultrasound-guided percutaneous embolization, bleeding did not recur. Unfortunately, the patient died of liver dysfunction caused by severe SOS. The incidence of OC-induced SOS is reported to be about 50%; however, there is apparently no report of OC-induced HV and IVC stenosis, and in most cases, portal hypertension is improved after OC cessation. This is the first report of OC-induced severe HV and IVC stenosis resulting in refractory peristomal variceal bleeding and eventual death.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Constrição Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Veias Hepáticas/patologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Estomas Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Varizes/induzido quimicamente , Veia Cava Inferior/patologia , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Embolização Terapêutica , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Varizes/terapia
7.
Eur Surg Res ; 59(1-2): 12-22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was recently defined with the corresponding recommendations as follows: grade A, no change in clinical management; grade B, clinical management with noninvasive treatment; and grade C, clinical management with invasive treatment. In this study, we identified the risk factors for grade B and C PHLF in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Of 339 HCC patients who underwent curative hepatic resection, 218 were included for analysis. The LHL15 index (uptake ratio of the liver to that of the liver and heart at 15 min) was measured by 99m Tc-GSA (99m technetium-labelled galactosyl human serum albumin); remnant LHL15 was calculated as LHL15 × [1 - (resected liver weight - tumor volume)/whole liver volume without tumor]. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients were classified as having no PHLF, whereas 17, 37, and 1 patient had PHLF grade A, B, and C, respectively. There were significant differences in indocyanine green R15, serum albumin, prothrombin time, Child-Pugh classification, LHL15 and remnant LHL15 between patients with grades B/C PHLF and patients with grade A or no PHLF. Only remnant LHL15 was identified as an independent risk factor for grades B/C PHLF (p = 0.023), with a cut-off value of 0.755. CONCLUSIONS: Remnant LHL15 was an independent risk factor for grades B/C PHLF. Patients with impaired remnant LHL15 value of <0.755 should be carefully monitored for PHLF.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Falência Hepática/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Agregado de Albumina Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m , Pentetato de Tecnécio Tc 99m , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Surg Today ; 48(1): 58-65, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of the Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: The subjects of this study were 12 patients who underwent the Frey procedure for CP between January, 2000 and December, 2016. We assessed pain relief, weight gain, and exocrine/endocrine insufficiency during follow-up. RESULTS: The study population comprised 11 men and 1 woman (91.7% vs. 8.3%; mean age, 50.3 ± 6.8 years; range 39-61 years). Pancreatitis was caused by alcohol in 9 (75%) patients and was idiopathic in 3 (25%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 82.5 ± 46.5 months (range 16.9-152.1 months). There was no operative mortality, but three patients (25%) suffered postoperative morbidity. All patients were pain-free at the time of discharge. There was no case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after surgery, although one patient (8.3%) suffered exocrine insufficiency. The body weight and body mass index of all patients improved during follow-up. Only one patient continued to suffer pain in the long term. CONCLUSION: The findings of this long-term follow-up of patients who underwent the Frey procedure suggest that it offers effective pain relief and is a safe technique for the management of CP.


Assuntos
Pancreatectomia/métodos , Pancreaticojejunostomia/métodos , Pancreatite Crônica/cirurgia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 10(4): 331-335, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500570

RESUMO

A 58-year-old man with hepatitis B cirrhosis noticed black stools and underwent an endoscopy at a community hospital. The presence of esophageal varices (EVs) was confirmed, but the bleeding point was not found. He was referred to our institution and underwent a second endoscopy. Extensive white patches of esophageal candidiasis were visible on endoscopy by white-light imaging (WLI), but it was difficult to find the fibrin cap of the EVs. This was easier under narrow-band imaging (NBI), however, as the color turned red from absorption by hemoglobin adhered to it. We retrospectively measured the color differences (CD) between the fibrin cap and the surrounding mucosa 10 times using the CIE (L*a*b*) color space method. The median value of CD increased after NBI (13.9 â†’ 43.0, p < 0.001), with increased visibility. However, the median CD between the white patch and surrounding mucosa decreased after NBI (44.8 â†’ 30.3, p < 0.001). The fibrin cap was paler than the white patch of candidiasis, but the increased visibility of the fibrin cap by NBI enabled it to be found more easily. This is the first report of a case in which NBI was helpful in locating a fibrin cap of EVs.


Assuntos
Candidíase/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Banda Estreita/métodos , Candidíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Cor , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Fibrina/metabolismo , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 11(3): 803-811, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606939

RESUMO

An epithelial cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS) is rare. We herein report a case of a patient with ECIAS who underwent laparoscopic surgery. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a pancreatic tail tumor. She was asymptomatic, and a physical examination revealed no remarkable abnormalities. The levels of the tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and s-pancreas-1 antigen (SPan-1) were elevated. Ultrasonography showed a well-defined homogeneous cystic tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-demarcated cystic tumor in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cystic tumor exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. The cystic tumor was diagnosed as mucinous cystic neoplasm preoperatively. The patient underwent laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination revealed the cyst wall to be lined by stratified squamous epithelium within splenic parenchyma, and the ultimate diagnosis was ECIAS. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. ECIAS is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Laparoscopic surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure for patients with difficult-to-diagnose pancreatic tail tumor suspected of having low-grade malignancy.

11.
Plant Biotechnol (Tokyo) ; 34(1): 29-38, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275005

RESUMO

An increase in plant biomass production is desired to reduce emission of carbon dioxide emissions and arrest global climate change because it will provide a more source of energy production than fossil fuels. Recently, we found that forced expression of the rice 45S rRNA gene increased aboveground growth by ca. 2-fold in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Here, we created transgenic tobacco plants harboring the rice 45S rRNA driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter (UbiP::Os45SrRNA) or cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35SP::Os45SrRNA). In 35SP::Os45SrRNA and UbiP::Os45SrRNA transgenic tobacco plants, the leaf length and size were increased compared with control plants, leading to an increase of aboveground growth (dry weight) up to 2-fold at the early stage of seedling development. Conversely, leaf physiological traits, such as photosynthetic capacity, stomatal characteristics, and chlorophylls and RuBisCO protein contents, were similar between the transgenic and control plants. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the transgenic plants had enhanced cell-proliferation especially in seedling root and leaf primordia. Microarray analysis revealed that genes encoding transcription factors, such as GIGANTEA-like, were more than 2-fold up-regulated in the transgenic plants. Although the mechanism underlying the increased growth has yet to be elucidated, this strategy could be used to increase biomass production in cereals, vegetables, and bio-energy plants.

12.
J Gastroenterol ; 52(5): 568-576, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27502189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual red imaging (DRI) is a new technology that can increase the visibility of deeper veins compared with narrow band imaging (NBI). As esophageal varices (EVs) are a vascular disease occurring in the submucosal layer, their visibility might be increased by DRI. We prospectively clarified whether the visibility of EVs with red color sign (RCS) can be increased by DRI, and clarified the relation between the visibility scores and the obtained endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) images. METHODS: Forty patients were enrolled. The visibility of the EVs on DRI and NBI endoscopic images was evaluated by five observers in a blinded manner and was compared with a white light image (bad, 0; equal, 1; good, 2). The diameter of the lumen and the depth of the EVs and RCS from the epithelium were measured by EUS. The relation between the visibility scores and the EUS findings was investigated. RESULTS: The DRI scores were 1.66 ± 0.34 for the EV substance and 1.79 ± 0.28 for the RCS, whereas the NBI scores were 0.68 ± 0.38 and 0.41 ± 0.28, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between the depth and the visibility score (r = -0.505, p = 0.001 for EVs; r = -0.458, p = 0.003 for RCS). CONCLUSIONS: DRI increased the visibility of the EVs and RCS. The visibility of the EVs or RCS in the shallower position was more enhanced by DRI. Visual recognition of the changing degrees of visibility by DRI enables the prediction of the depth of EVs.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Endossonografia/instrumentação , Endossonografia/métodos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/patologia , Esofagoscopia/instrumentação , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Banda Estreita/instrumentação , Imagem de Banda Estreita/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
13.
Cancer Res ; 77(3): 632-645, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872089

RESUMO

Existing antiangiogenic approaches to treat metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are weakly effectual, prompting further study of tumor angiogenesis in this disease setting. Here, we report a novel role for sulfatase 2 (SULF2) in driving HCC angiogenesis. Sulf2-deficient mice (Sulf2 KO) exhibited resistance to diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC and did not develop metastases like wild-type mice (Sulf2 WT). The smaller and less numerous tumors formed in Sulf2 KO mice exhibited a markedly lower microvascular density. In human HCC cells, SULF2 overexpression increased endothelial proliferation, adhesion, chemotaxis, and tube formation in a paracrine fashion. Mechanistic analyses identified the extracellular matrix protein periostin (POSTN), a ligand of αvß3/5 integrins, as an effector protein in SULF2-induced angiogenesis. POSTN silencing in HCC cells attenuated SULF2-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo The TGFß1/SMAD pathway was identified as a critical signaling axis between SULF2 and upregulation of POSTN transcription. In clinical HCC specimens, elevated levels of SULF2 correlated with increased microvascular density, POSTN levels, and relatively poorer patient survival. Together, our findings define an important axis controlling angiogenesis in HCC and a mechanistic foundation for rational drug development. Cancer Res; 77(3); 632-45. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Western Blotting , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
14.
Plant Cell Rep ; 36(2): 243-254, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864606

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Forced expression of rice 45S rRNA gene conferred ca. 2-fold increase of above-ground growth in transgenic Arabidopsis . This growth increase was probably brought by cell proliferation, not by cell enlargement. Recent increase in carbon dioxide emissions is causing global climate change. The use of plant biomass as alternative energy source is one way to reduce these emissions. Therefore, reinforcement of plant biomass production is an urgent key issue to overcome both depletion of fossil energies and emission of carbon dioxide. Here, we created transgenic Arabidopsis with a 2-fold increase in above-ground growth by forced expression of the rice 45S rRNA gene using the maize ubiquitin promoter. Although the size of guard cells and ploidy of leaf-cells were similar between transgenic and control plants, numbers of stomata and pavement cells were much increased in the transgenic leaf. This data suggested that cell number, not cell expansion, was responsible for the growth increase, which might be brought by the forced expression of exogenous and full-length 45S rRNA gene. The expression level of rice 45S rRNA transcripts was very low, possibly triggering unknown machinery to enhance cell proliferation. Although microarray analysis showed enhanced expression of ethylene-responsive transcription factors, these factors might respond to ethylene induced by abiotic/biotic stresses or genomic incompatibility, which might be involved in the expression of species-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences within rice 45S rRNA transcripts. Further analysis of the mechanism underlying the growth increase will contribute to understanding the regulation of the cell proliferation and the mechanism of hybrid vigor.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genes de RNAr , Oryza/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Contagem de Células , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Estômatos de Plantas/citologia , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ploidias , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transgenes , Regulação para Cima/genética
15.
Med Mycol ; 55(5): 555-562, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811180

RESUMO

Molecular evolution has dominated taxonomic studies for decades, replacing traditional methods for identification and classification. However, there is a need for better markers to resolve the problems that have limited their usefulness. In this report, we introduce the protein tag (Ptag) sequence, a highly polymorphic amino acid sequence within the C-terminal region of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I, as a new systematic tag sequence for delineating the evolutionary history of medically important fungi. As Ptag sequences are highly polymorphic between species and low within species, 42 fungal species representing the main taxonomic groups in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were tested. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the Ptag sequences showed high consistency with the accepted classification of the Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life (AFTOL) project. Moreover, it could resolve the interspecies phylogenetic relationships of the tested taxa. In contrast, the phylogeny inferred from the nucleotide tag (Ntag) sequence, encoding the Ptag peptide, displayed lesser discriminatory power in resolving the phylogenetic relationships among distantly related taxa. In the case of closely related fungal species, the phylogenetic trees for Ptag and Ntag sequences were consistent with the tree for ITS1 sequences of 11 dermatophytic species. Taken together, the Ptag sequences should contribute to inferring phylogeny among species whereas the Ntag sequences should be useful to analyze variations among closely related species to resolve taxonomic issues in fungi.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Micoses/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Polimerase I/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , RNA Polimerase I/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 749, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27386232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal bolus injection rate of ultrasound (US) contrast agent in vascular imaging for focal liver lesions. METHODS: Thirteen patients with 13 focal liver lesions (5 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with cirrhosis, 4 liver metastases, 2 hemangiomas, 1 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 1 focal nodular hyperplasia) received two bolus injections of Sonazoid (at 0.5 and 2.0 mL/s) using an automatic power injector. The lesion-to-liver contrast ratio at peak enhancement was quantitatively evaluated. Enhancement of the lesions compared to liver parenchyma was assessed by two independent readers using a five-point scale and qualitatively evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: For all lesions, the contrast ratio was not significantly different between the two injection rates. For HCCs, the contrast ratio was higher at 0.5 mL/s (7.41 ± 6.56) than at 2.0 mL/s (4.28 ± 4.66, p = 0.025). For all lesions, the mean area under the ROC curve (AUC) was not significantly different between the two injection rates. For HCCs, the AUC was greater at 0.5 mL/s than at 2.0 mL/s (AUC: 0.86, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: In contrast-enhanced US, an injection rate of 0.5 mL/s is superior to an injection rate of 2.0 mL/s for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of HCCs in the cirrhotic liver.

17.
Hepatol Res ; 46(11): 1129-1136, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857535

RESUMO

AIM: Protein and energy malnutrition is a severe problem for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and fasting often induces starvation which is a vitally important outcome. Dietary restriction is essential for endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) in patients with risky esophageal varices, thereby creating the possible exacerbation of nutritional state and inducing liver dysfunction. Whether EIS induces nutritional deficiency in LC patients and the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched nutrient are prospectively investigated. METHODS: A total of 61 LC patients were randomly divided into an EIS monotherapy group (non-BCAA group, n = 31) and an EIS combined with BCAA therapy group (n = 30). Platelet count, blood chemistry and somatometry values were prospectively measured at five time points. RESULTS: The platelet counts before treatment were at the same level in both groups (P = 0.72). Three months after treatment, the counts decreased in the non-BCAA group; however, they increased in the BCAA group (P = 0.019). Body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness and arm muscle circumference significantly decreased in both groups. The BCAA and tyrosine ratio value increased only in the BCAA group (P < 0.01). The skeletal muscle volume measured by InBody720 significantly decreased in the non-BCAA group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: EIS induced protein-energy malnutrition, however, skeletal muscle volume was maintained by taking BCAA. Administration of BCAA had some effect in maintaining the nutritional state, and may improve the platelet count. Taking a greater amount of nutrients and shorter dietary restriction period or hospitalization was desirable.

18.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 43(3): 355-60, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate two methods of determining liver stiffness in rats with various degrees of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet by comparing each finding with reference to histopathological liver findings. METHODS: Twenty male Wister rats were fed an MCD diet for up to 32 weeks, and four were fed a normal diet. Ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) and mechanical compression testing using an Instron Universal Testing machine were performed on each rat at designated time points. After each examination, liver histopathology was analyzed to evaluate the degrees of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score, and each finding was compared with reference to liver histopathologic findings. RESULTS: Median liver stiffness values measured using SWE showed a stepwise increase with increasing histological inflammation score (P = 0.002), hepatic fibrosis stage (P = 0.029), ballooning score (P = 0.012), and steatosis grade (P = 0.030). Median liver stiffness measured using an Instron machine showed a stepwise increase only with increasing histological fibrosis stage (P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Degree of liver stiffness measured by SWE and the Instron machine differed. SWE reflected mainly inflammation, whereas Instron machine-derived values primarily reflected fibrosis. This is the main source of discrepancies between measurements made with these two modalities.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Animais , Deficiência de Colina , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Metionina/deficiência , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Ratos Wistar , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 42(3): 341-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26576785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Some patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CH-C). The aim of this study was to examine the linkage between liver elasticity and the presence/absence of HCC in patients after SVR. METHODS: We enrolled 42 patients who underwent real-time mapping shear wave elastography (SWE) after SVR to interferon therapy for CH-C. Of the 42 patients, six had HCC and 36 did not. We retrospectively compared the elasticity modulus and other clinical parameters between patients with and without HCC. RESULTS: Elasticity modulus measured by SWE, age, and serum albumin was significantly different between patients with and without HCC. Age, Fibrosis-4 index, serum gamma-globulin, total protein, and albumin levels were significantly correlated with the elasticity modulus. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves of elasticity modulus, gamma-globulin, and age for the presence of HCC were 0.963, 0.888, and 0.778, respectively. In patients with an elasticity modulus ≥6.5 kPa, both sensitivity and specificity for the presence of HCC were 83.3 %. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated the close linkage between the elasticity modulus measured by SWE and the presence of HCC in patients after SVR.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Módulo de Elasticidade , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Sistemas Computacionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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