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Microsyst Nanoeng ; 9: 47, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37064166


We show three-dimensional reconstructions of a region of an integrated circuit from a 130 nm copper process. The reconstructions employ x-ray computed tomography, measured with a new and innovative high-magnification x-ray microscope. The instrument uses a focused electron beam to generate x-rays in a 100 nm spot and energy-resolving x-ray detectors that minimize backgrounds and hold promise for the identification of materials within the sample. The x-ray generation target, a layer of platinum, is fabricated on the circuit wafer itself. A region of interest is imaged from a limited range of angles and without physically removing the region from the larger circuit. The reconstruction is consistent with the circuit's design file.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(8): 9919-9931, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616383


Electrode-electrolyte interfaces (EEIs) affect the rate capability, cycling stability, and thermal safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Designing stable EEIs with fast Li+ transport is crucial for developing advanced LIBs. Here, we study Li+ kinetics at EEIs tailored by three nanoscale polymer thin films via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization. Small binding energy with Li+ and the presence of sufficient binding sites for Li+ allow poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) based artificial coatings to enable fast charging of LiCoO2. Operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments suggest that the superior Li+ transport property in PEDOT further improves current homogeneity in the LiCoO2 electrode during cycling. PEDOT also forms chemical bonds with LiCoO2, which reduces Co dissolution and inhibits electrolyte decomposition. As a result, the LiCoO2 4.5 V cycle life tested at C/2 increases over 1700% after PEDOT coating. In comparison, the other two polymer coatings show undesirable effects on LiCoO2 performance. These insights provide us with rules for selecting/designing polymers to engineer EEIs in advanced LIBs.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529769


Feature sizes in integrated circuits have decreased substantially over time, and it has become increasingly difficult to three-dimensionally image these complex circuits after fabrication. This can be important for process development, defect analysis, and detection of unexpected structures in externally sourced chips, among other applications. Here, we report on a non-destructive, tabletop approach that addresses this imaging problem through x-ray tomography, which we uniquely realize with an instrument that combines a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a transition-edge sensor (TES) x-ray spectrometer. Our approach uses the highly focused SEM electron beam to generate a small x-ray generation region in a carefully designed target layer that is placed over the sample being tested. With the high collection efficiency and resolving power of a TES spectrometer, we can isolate x-rays generated in the target from background and trace their paths through regions of interest in the sample layers, providing information about the various materials along the x-ray paths through their attenuation functions. We have recently demonstrated our approach using a 240 Mo/Cu bilayer TES prototype instrument on a simplified test sample containing features with sizes of ∼ 1 µm. Currently, we are designing and building a 3000 Mo/Au bilayer TES spectrometer upgrade, which is expected to improve the imaging speed by factor of up to 60 through a combination of increased detector number and detector speed.

RSC Adv ; 8(35): 19348-19352, 2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35541006


Oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) is a versatile technique that can simultaneously tailor properties (e.g., electrical, thermal conductivity) and morphology of polymer films at the nanoscale. In this work, we report the thermal conductivity of nanoscale oCVD grown poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films for the first time. Measurements as low as 0.16 W m-1 K-1 are obtained at room temperature for PEDOT films with thicknesses ranging from 50-100 nm. These values are lower than those for solution processed PEDOT films doped with the solubilizing agent PSS (polystyrene sulfonate). The thermal conductivity of oCVD grown PEDOT films show no clear dependence on electrical conductivity, which ranges from 1 S cm-1 to 30 S cm-1. It is suspected that at these electrical conductivities, the electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity is extremely small and that phonon transport is dominant. Our findings suggest that CVD polymerization is a promising route towards engineering polymer films that combine low thermal conductivity with relatively high electrical conductivity values.