Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17069, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567942

RESUMO

Although serum magnesium (Mg) levels are closely associated with the prognosis of heart failure (HF) patients, the clinical significance of sMg levels on the cardiovascular outcomes of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients is not fully understood. This study was a retrospective, single-center, observational study. We enrolled 452 consecutive HFpEF patients admitted to Kumamoto University Hospital. We defined lower sMg as <2.0 mg/dl (=0.8 mmol/L) based on recent clinical evidence and compared their clinical characteristics and prognosis. There were no significant differences between groups in the use of all medications (loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, statins, and Mg preparations). The lower sMg group showed a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), uric acid levels, and BNP levels compared with the higher sMg group. Kaplan-Meier curve revealed a significantly higher probability of HF-related events in the lower sMg group compared with the higher sMg group (log-rank test, P = .012). Multivariate Cox-proportional-hazard analysis revealed that the lower sMg group had significantly and independently higher probabilities of HF-related events compared with the higher sMg group (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence intervals = 1.27-4.41, P = .007). We reclassified the risk of HF-related events after adding the lower sMg to the other prognostic factors (age, previous hospitalization for HF, DM, Ln-BNP); the continuous net reclassification improvement was 29.0% (P = .041). sMg levels might provide important prognostic information in regard to HFpEF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Magnésio/sangue , Volume Sistólico , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We integrated clinical, histopathological, and molecular data of central nervous system germ cell tumors to provide insights into their management. METHODS: Data from the Intracranial Germ Cell Tumor Genome Analysis Consortium were reviewed. A total of 190 cases were classified as primary GCTs based on central pathological reviews. RESULTS: All but one of the cases that were bifocal (neurohypophysis and pineal glands) and cases with multiple lesions including neurohypophysis or pineal gland were germinomas (34 of 35). Age was significantly higher in patients with germinoma than other histologies. Comparison between tumor marker and histopathological diagnoses showed that 18.2% of histopathologically diagnosed germinomas were marker-positive and 6.1% of non-germinomatous GCTs were marker-negative, suggesting a limitation in the utility of markers or histopathology alone using small specimens for diagnosis. Comparison between local and central histopathological diagnoses revealed a discordance of 12.7%. Discordance was significantly less frequent in biopsy cases, implying difficulty in detecting all histopathological components of heterogeneous GCTs. Germinomas at the typical sites (neurohypophysis or pineal gland) showed a better PFS than those at atypical sites (p=0.03). A molecular clinical association study revealed frequent MAPK pathway mutations in males (51.4 vs 14.3 %, p=0.007), and PI3K/mTOR pathway mutations in basal ganglia cases (p=0.004). Basal ganglia cases also had frequent chromosomal losses. Some chromosomal aberrations (2q, 8q gain, 5q, 9p/q, 13q, 15q loss) showed potential prognostic significance. CONCLUSIONS: These in-depth findings of this study regarding the clinical and molecular heterogeneity will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of this enigmatic tumor.

3.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(11): 1082-1090, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The H2FPEF score is recognized as a simple method to diagnose heart failure (HF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). We investigated the value of the H2FPEF score in predicting subsequent cardiovascular events in HFpEF patients. METHODS: This study was a retrospective, single-center, observational study. We calculated the H2FPEF scores for 404 consecutive HFpEF patients. Subjects were subdivided into low- (0-3), intermediate- (4-6), and high-score (7-9) groups and followed for 50 months. The primary and secondary endpoints were composite cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, hospitalization for HF decompensation, and nonfatal stroke) occurrence and HF-related events (hospitalization for HF decompensation) occurrence at 50 months, respectively. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events among those with a higher H2FPEF score (log-rank test, P = 0.005). The HF-related event rate was higher in proportion to the H2FPEF score (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox hazard analyses identified the H2FPEF score (per 1 point) as an independent predictor of cardiovascular and HF-related events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.179; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.066-1.305; P = 0.001 and HR, 1.288; 95% CI, 1.134-1.463; P = 0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the H2FPEF significantly predicted cardiovascular events (area under the curve [AUC], 0.626; 95% CI, 0.557-0.693; P < 0.001) and HF-related events (AUC, 0.680; 95% CI, 0.600-0.759; P < 0.001). The cutoff H2FPEF score was 5.5 for the identification of cardiovascular and HF-related events. CONCLUSION: The H2FPEF score might be a potentially useful marker for the prediction of cardiovascular and HF-related events in HFpEF patients. CLINICAL TRAILS REGISTRATION: Trail Number UMIN000029600.

4.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(7): 657-667, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although pulse wave velocity (PWV) is recognized to be a risk predictor for various cardiovascular diseases, the association of brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) with cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients remains uncertain. METHODS: We measured ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and baPWV values at stable condition after optimal therapy for HF in 201 consecutive HFrEF patients admitted to Kumamoto University Hospital from 2007 to 2015 who were enrolled and followed until the occurrence of cardiovascular events. We defined peripheral artery disease (PAD) as ABI value ≤ 0.9. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that HFrEF patients with peripheral artery disease PAD had a significant higher risk of total cardiovascular and HF-related events than those without PAD (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). Next, we divided HFrEF patients without PAD into 3 groups according to baPWV values. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, total cardiovascular and HF-related events in the highest baPWV group (1,800 cm/second ≤ baPWV) had a significantly higher frequency than those in the mid-level baPWV group (1,400 cm/second ≤ baPWV < 1,800 cm/second) (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively). The hazard ratio between HFrEF patients in the mid-level baPWV group and those with other baPWV groups was compared after adjustment for other cofounders. The probabilities of HF-related events were significantly higher in the lowest and highest baPWV group. CONCLUSION: Identifying complications of PAD and measuring baPWV values in HFrEF patients were useful for predicting their prognosis.Trial Registration: UMIN000034358.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4375-4387, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975663

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oligodendroglioma has a relatively favorable prognosis, however, often undergoes malignant progression. We hypothesized that preclinical models of oligodendroglioma could facilitate identification of therapeutic targets in progressive oligodendroglioma. We established multiple oligodendroglioma xenografts to determine if the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway drives tumor progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two anatomically distinct tumor samples from a patient who developed progressive anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AOD) were collected for orthotopic transplantation in mice. We additionally implanted 13 tumors to investigate the relationship between PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway alterations and oligodendroglioma xenograft formation. Pharmacologic vulnerabilities were tested in newly developed AOD models in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: A specimen from the tumor site that subsequently manifested rapid clinical progression contained a PIK3CA mutation E542K, and yielded propagating xenografts that retained the OD/AOD-defining genomic alterations (IDH1 R132H and 1p/19q codeletion) and PIK3CA E542K, and displayed characteristic sensitivity to alkylating chemotherapeutic agents. In contrast, a xenograft did not engraft from the region that was clinically stable and had wild-type PIK3CA. In our panel of OD/AOD xenografts, the presence of activating mutations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was consistently associated with xenograft establishment (6/6, 100%). OD/AOD that failed to generate xenografts did not have activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR alterations (0/9, P < 0.0001). Importantly, mutant PIK3CA oligodendroglioma xenografts were vulnerable to PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors in vitro and in vivo-evidence that mutant PIK3CA is a tumorigenic driver in oligodendroglioma. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an oncogenic driver and is associated with xenograft formation in oligodendrogliomas. These findings have implications for therapeutic targeting of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation in progressive oligodendrogliomas.

7.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 36(2): 74-83, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929113

RESUMO

Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) have relatively favorable prognosis and some resectable PLGGs, such as cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, can be cured by surgery alone. However, many PLGG cases are unresectable and some of them undergo tumor progression. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to treat PLGG patients. Recent genomic analysis revealed a broad genomic landscape underlying PLGG. Notably, the majority of PLGGs present MAPK pathway-associated genomic alterations and MAPK signaling-dependent tumor progression. Following preclinical evidence, many clinical trials based on molecular target therapy have been conducted on PLGG patients, some of whom exhibited durable response to target therapy. Here, we provide an overview of PLGG genetics and the evidence supporting the application of molecular target therapy in these patients.


Assuntos
Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Adolescente , Astrocitoma/genética , Astrocitoma/patologia , Astrocitoma/terapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Glioma/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf
8.
Nature ; 566(7743): 264-269, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700906

RESUMO

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) coordinates regulation of growth, metabolism, protein synthesis and autophagy1. Its hyperactivation contributes to disease in numerous organs, including the heart1,2, although broad inhibition of mTORC1 risks interference with its homeostatic roles. Tuberin (TSC2) is a GTPase-activating protein and prominent intrinsic regulator of mTORC1 that acts through modulation of RHEB (Ras homologue enriched in brain). TSC2 constitutively inhibits mTORC1; however, this activity is modified by phosphorylation from multiple signalling kinases that in turn inhibits (AMPK and GSK-3ß) or stimulates (AKT, ERK and RSK-1) mTORC1 activity3-9. Each kinase requires engagement of multiple serines, impeding analysis of their role in vivo. Here we show that phosphorylation or gain- or loss-of-function mutations at either of two adjacent serine residues in TSC2 (S1365 and S1366 in mice; S1364 and S1365 in humans) can bidirectionally control mTORC1 activity stimulated by growth factors or haemodynamic stress, and consequently modulate cell growth and autophagy. However, basal mTORC1 activity remains unchanged. In the heart, or in isolated cardiomyocytes or fibroblasts, protein kinase G1 (PKG1) phosphorylates these TSC2 sites. PKG1 is a primary effector of nitric oxide and natriuretic peptide signalling, and protects against heart disease10-13. Suppression of hypertrophy and stimulation of autophagy in cardiomyocytes by PKG1 requires TSC2 phosphorylation. Homozygous knock-in mice that express a phosphorylation-silencing mutation in TSC2 (TSC2(S1365A)) develop worse heart disease and have higher mortality after sustained pressure overload of the heart, owing to mTORC1 hyperactivity that cannot be rescued by PKG1 stimulation. However, cardiac disease is reduced and survival of heterozygote Tsc2S1365A knock-in mice subjected to the same stress is improved by PKG1 activation or expression of a phosphorylation-mimicking mutation (TSC2(S1365E)). Resting mTORC1 activity is not altered in either knock-in model. Therefore, TSC2 phosphorylation is both required and sufficient for PKG1-mediated cardiac protection against pressure overload. The serine residues identified here provide a genetic tool for bidirectional regulation of the amplitude of stress-stimulated mTORC1 activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/química , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Ativação Enzimática , Everolimo/farmacologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Células HEK293 , Cardiopatias/genética , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrofia/patologia , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Mutação , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fosforilação , Fosfosserina/metabolismo , Pressão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serina/genética , Serina/metabolismo , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1903, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760837

RESUMO

To elucidate the mechanisms of malignant progression of lower-grade glioma, molecular profiling using methylation array, whole-exome sequencing, and RNA sequencing was performed for 122, 36 and 31 gliomas, respectively. This cohort included 24 matched pairs of initial lower-grade gliomas and recurrent tumors, most of which showed malignant progression. Nearly half of IDH-mutant glioblastomas that had progressed from lower-grade gliomas exhibited characteristic partial DNA demethylation in previously methylated genomic regions of their corresponding initial tumors, which had the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP). In these glioblastomas, cell cycle-related genes, RB and PI3K-AKT pathway genes were frequently altered. Notably, late-replicating domain was significantly enriched in the demethylated regions that were mostly located in non-regulatory regions, suggesting that the loss of DNA methylation during malignant transformation may involve mainly passive demethylation due to a delay in maintenance of methylation during accelerated cell division. Nonetheless, a limited number of genes including IGF2BP3, which potentially drives cell proliferation, were presumed to be upregulated due to demethylation of their promoter. Our data indicated that demethylation of the G-CIMP profile found in a subset of recurrent gliomas reflects accelerated cell divisions accompanied by malignant transformation. Oncogenic genes activated by such epigenetic change represent potential therapeutic targets.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 110(2): 828-832, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609203

RESUMO

In the revised World Health Organization classification 2016, anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) has been newly defined as a variant of the PXA entity. Furthermore, some anaplastic PXA were reported to have extremely poor prognosis which showed a type of pediatric glioblastoma (GBM) molecular profile. Recent integrated molecular classification for primary central nervous system tumors proposed some differences between histological and molecular features. Herein, in a genome-wide molecular analysis, we show an extreme aggressive anaplastic PXA that resulted in a pediatric GBM molecular profile. A full implementation of the molecular approach is the key to predict prognosis and decide the treatment strategy for anaplastic PXA.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Adolescente , Astrocitoma/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
11.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 134, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514397

RESUMO

Extensive molecular analyses of ependymal tumors have revealed that supratentorial and posterior fossa ependymomas have distinct molecular profiles and are likely to be different diseases. The presence of C11orf95-RELA fusion genes in a subset of supratentorial ependymomas (ST-EPN) indicated the existence of molecular subgroups. However, the pathogenesis of RELA fusion-negative ependymomas remains elusive. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and validate the molecular classification of ependymal tumors, we conducted thorough molecular analyses of 113 locally diagnosed ependymal tumors from 107 patients in the Japan Pediatric Molecular Neuro-Oncology Group. All tumors were histopathologically reviewed and 12 tumors were re-classified as non-ependymomas. A combination of RT-PCR, FISH, and RNA sequencing identified RELA fusion in 19 of 29 histologically verified ST-EPN cases, whereas another case was diagnosed as ependymoma RELA fusion-positive via the methylation classifier (68.9%). Among the 9 RELA fusion-negative ST-EPN cases, either the YAP1 fusion, BCOR tandem duplication, EP300-BCORL1 fusion, or FOXO1-STK24 fusion was detected in single cases. Methylation classification did not identify a consistent molecular class within this group. Genome-wide methylation profiling successfully sub-classified posterior fossa ependymoma (PF-EPN) into PF-EPN-A (PFA) and PF-EPN-B (PFB). A multivariate analysis using Cox regression confirmed that PFA was the sole molecular marker which was independently associated with patient survival. A clinically applicable pyrosequencing assay was developed to determine the PFB subgroup with 100% specificity using the methylation status of 3 genes, CRIP1, DRD4 and LBX2. Our results emphasized the significance of molecular classification in the diagnosis of ependymomas. RELA fusion-negative ST-EPN appear to be a heterogeneous group of tumors that do not fall into any of the existing molecular subgroups and are unlikely to form a single category.

12.
Brain Nerve ; 70(11): 1301-1305, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416124

RESUMO

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection that mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients. We present the first case of cryptococcal meningitis in a patient who was being administered everolimus for breast cancer. Everolimus, a selective inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, is a molecular targeting agent that is administered not only as an immunosuppressive agent, but also as an anticancer therapeutic. A 72-year-old woman with recurrent breast cancer had been receiving everolimus. She was admitted to our hospital with headache and vomiting. Lumbar puncture revealed high opening pressure, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluation diagnosed cryptococcal meningitis. She was administered liposomal amphotericin-B, followed by fosfluconazole. Daily lumbar puncture was insufficient to reduce the high intracranial pressure; thus, continuous lumbar drainage was needed to improve her symptoms. The indwelling catheter was replaced regularly to prevent bacterial infection. She was treated successfully with extracorporeal CSF drainage for 86 days and fosfluconazole administration over 17 weeks. The patient recovered fully and was discharged on day 153 of hospitalization. As patients who receive everolimus are potentially immunocompromised hosts, we recommend that the medicine be administered with caution considering opportunistic infections when used in patients with cancer. (Received April 19, 2018; Accepted August 9, 2018; Published November 1, 2018).

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombus formation is one of the main pathogeneses of acute coronary syndrome with atherosclerotic rupture. Previous studies have reported that atherosclerosis increases platelet aggregability and that vascular endothelial dysfunction reflects early change of atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between coronary endothelial dysfunction and platelet reactivity remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship between them in non-obstructive ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients. METHODS: Three hundred sixty-eight consecutive stable patients with suspected angina presenting non-obstructive coronary arteries (<50% diameter) in coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test and measured adenosine triphosphate-induced coronary flow reserve. Finally, 25 non-obstructive IHD patients who had no anti-platelet agents were assessed for the relationship between coronary blood flow volume (CBFV) change and platelet aggregability as P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) by VerifyNow P2Y12 assay system. RESULTS: CBFV change by intracoronary 20 µg/kg per minute acetylcholine provocation showed a significant negative correlation with platelet aggregability as PRU (r = 0.44, P = 0.03). Conversely, there was no significant correlation between PRU and endothelial function as coronary flow reserve. Furthermore, multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that an incremental CBFV change was independently associated with PRU (ß = 0.63, P < 0.001) in non-obstructive IHD patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with non-obstructive IHD, CBFV change was significantly associated with platelet aggregability, indicating that coronary endothelial dysfunction might mediate higher platelet aggregability.

14.
Circ J ; 82(11): 2905-2912, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise has beneficial effects for patients with peripheral arterial diseases. The hypothesis that muscle growth promotes angiogenesis by interacting with neighboring cells in ischemic lesions was assessed. Methods and Results: Skeletal muscle-specific inducible Akt1 transgenic (Akt1-TG) mice that induce growth of functional skeletal muscles as a model of resistance training were used. Proteomics analysis identified significant upregulation of heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) in muscle tissue in Akt1-TG mice compared with control mice. Blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia was significantly increased in Akt1-TG mice compared with control mice. Enhanced blood flow and capillary density in Akt1-TG mice were completely abolished by the HO-1 inhibitor, Tin-mesoporphyrin. Immunohistochemistry showed that HO-1 expression was not increased in muscle cells, but it was increased in macrophages and endothelial cells. Consistent with these findings, blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia was similar between control mice and skeletal muscle-specific HO-1-knockout mice. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of Akt1 did not increase HO-1 protein expression in C2C12 myotubes; however, the conditioned medium from Akt1-overexpressing C2C12 myotubes increased HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. Cytokine array demonstrated that a panel of cytokine secretion was upregulated in Akt1-overexpressing C2C12 cells, suggesting paracrine interaction between muscle cells and endothelial cells and macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Akt1-mediated muscle growth improves blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia by enhancing HO-1 expression in neighboring cells.

15.
JCI Insight ; 3(15)2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089721

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRs) posttranscriptionally regulate mRNA and its translation into protein, and are considered master controllers of genes modulating normal physiology and disease. There is growing interest in how miRs change with drug treatment, and leveraging this for precision guided therapy. Here we contrast 2 closely related therapies, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 or type 9 (PDE5-I, PDE9-I), given to mice subjected to sustained cardiac pressure overload (PO). Both inhibitors augment cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) to activate protein kinase G, with PDE5-I regulating nitric oxide (NO) and PDE9-I natriuretic peptide-dependent signaling. While both produced strong phenotypic improvement of PO pathobiology, they surprisingly showed binary differences in miR profiles; PDE5-I broadly reduces more than 120 miRs, including nearly half those increased by PO, whereas PDE9-I has minimal impact on any miR (P < 0.0001). The disparity evolves after pre-miR processing and is organ specific. Lastly, even enhancing NO-coupled cGMP by different methods leads to altered miR regulation. Thus, seemingly similar therapeutic interventions can be barcoded by profound differences in miR signatures, and reversing disease-associated miR changes is not required for therapy success.

16.
No Shinkei Geka ; 46(7): 575-581, 2018 07.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma(PCNSL)is a primary brain tumor, which appears commonly and occupies around 4.6% of all primary brain tumors. The standard therapy for this tumor is high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy(HD-MTX)and whole-brain irradiation. No salvage therapies for HD-MTX therapy-refractory or recurrent PCNSLs have been standardized. In our institution, ESHAP therapy(high-dose cytarabine:2,000mg, cisplatin:25mg/m2, etoposide:40mg/m2, methylprednisolone:500mg)was administered as a secondary chemotherapy, and the efficiency was examined. METHODS: We administered ESHAP therapy as secondary chemotherapy for patients with refractory/recurrent PCNSL after HD-MTX therapy. Patients with PCNSL who were diagnosed and treated at our institute since 1996 were retrospectively studied. Clinical evaluations were performed based on Karnofsky Performance Status and overall survival, and the effect of ESHAP therapy was evaluated using the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. RESULTS: The number of patients with refractory/recurrent PCNSLs were 18(28-77 years of age, median age of 58.5 years). The response rate(RR)after the first course of salvage ESHAP therapy was 77.8%(14 cases), and complete response(CR)was achieved in 6 cases. The RR after the final course of ESHAP therapy was as high as 61.1%(11 cases), and 4 patients retained CR status. In patients with refractory PCNSL who were treated with HD-MTX, the RR in the final course of salvage ESHAP therapy was as high as 77.8%(7 cases), and 3 patients retained CR status during the periods. The occurrence rate of Grade 3 or higher adverse events, according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0, was 66.7%(12 cases);all events that were associated with blood and lymphatic system disorders were quickly alleviated, and no fatal adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: In this study, we retrospectively examined the efficacy of ESHAP therapy as a secondary chemotherapy for patients with refractory/recurrent PCNSL after receiving HD-MTX therapy. Based on our findings, we suggest that ESHAP therapy should be considered as an encouraging secondary chemotherapy for patients with refractory/recurrent PCNSL.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 268: 216-221, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is frequently observed and associated with poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A simple screening test for sarcopenia using age, grip strength, and calf circumference was recently developed. However, the clinical utility of this sarcopenia score in patients with CKD remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated the sarcopenia score of 265 patients with CKD and followed the patients for cardiovascular events. The endpoint of this study was the composite of cardiovascular hospitalization and total mortality. We divided all participants into high (n = 166) and low (n = 99) sarcopenia score groups using a simple scoring system. Patients in the high sarcopenia score group showed significantly higher plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels than those in the low sarcopenia score group (median: 103.1, interquartile range: 46.3-310.0 vs. 46.7, 18.0-91.8 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). The Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly greater in the high sarcopenia score group (log-rank test: p < 0.0001), even after potential confounding factors were corrected using propensity score matching. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis identified a high sarcopenia score (hazard ratio: 3.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.45-6.38, p = 0.003) as an independent predictor of the primary endpoints. Furthermore, the combination of a high sarcopenia score and high BNP level identified patients with a significantly higher probability of future events (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that this simple screening score for sarcopenia could be a useful tool for estimating the future adverse event risk in patients with CKD.

18.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(3): e004740, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stimulation of sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) or inhibition of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) activates PKG (protein kinase G)-1α to counteract cardiac hypertrophy and failure. PKG1α acts within localized intracellular domains; however, its oxidation at cysteine 42, linking homomonomers, alters this localization, impairing suppression of pathological cardiac stress. Because PDE5 and sGC reside in separate microdomains, we speculated that PKG1α oxidation might also differentially influence the effects from their pharmacological modulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Knock-in mice expressing a redox-dead PKG1α (PKG1αC42S) or littermate controls (PKG1αWT) were subjected to transaortic constriction to induce pressure overload and treated with a PDE5 inhibitor (sildenafil), sGC activator (BAY602770 [BAY]), or vehicle. In PKG1αWT controls, sildenafil and BAY similarly enhanced PKG activity and reduced pathological hypertrophy/fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction after transaortic constriction. However, sildenafil failed to protect the heart in PKG1αC42S, unlike BAY, which activated PKG and thereby facilitated protective effects. This corresponded with minimal PDE5 activation in PKG1αC42S exposed to transaortic constriction versus higher activity in controls and little colocalization of PDE5 with PKG1αC42S (versus colocalization with PKG1αWT) in stressed myocytes. CONCLUSIONS: In the stressed heart and myocytes, PKG1α C42-disulfide formation contributes to PDE5 activation. This augments the pathological role of PDE5 and so in turn enhances the therapeutic impact from its inhibition. PKG1α oxidation does not change the benefits from sGC activation. This finding favors the use of sGC activators regardless of PKG1α oxidation and may help guide precision therapy leveraging the cyclic GMP/PKG pathway to treat heart disease.

19.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 34(4): 160-164, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831588

RESUMO

Ependymomas are primary neuroepithelial malignancies that mainly occur during childhood, and arise from ependymal cells along the ventricular systems of the CNS. Recently, it was elucidated that two-thirds of supratentorial (ST) ependymomas harbor oncogenic fusions of RELA, whose protein product is the principal effector of canonical NF-κB signaling. RELA fusion proteins activate signaling for tumor proliferation and malignant progression, resulting in poorer prognoses in these patients compared to those in patients with other ST ependymomas. In this study, we encountered a case of C11orf-RelA fusion-positive ST anaplastic ependymoma that was diagnosed in first tumor resection surgery of multi-staged gross total resection with molecular evidence. In ependymomas, regardless of tumor location or pathological grade, subtotal resection is associated with higher rates of mortality compared with GTR. Molecular analysis based on the application of recent molecular knowledge for ST ependymomas performs a role in appropriate and individualized treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Ventrículos Cerebrais , Ependimoma/diagnóstico , Ependimoma/genética , Ependimoma/cirurgia , Fusão Gênica/genética , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Proteínas/genética , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/genética , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/cirurgia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Ependimoma/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , NF-kappa B , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Supratentoriais/patologia
20.
Acta Neuropathol ; 134(6): 941-956, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852847

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor-driving alterations are often different among gliomas that originated from different brain regions and have underscored the importance of analyzing molecular characteristics of gliomas stratified by brain region. Therefore, to elucidate molecular characteristics of diffuse cerebellar gliomas (DCGs), 27 adult, mostly glioblastoma cases were analyzed. Comprehensive analysis using whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and Infinium methylation array (n = 17) demonstrated their distinct molecular profile compared to gliomas in other brain regions. Frequent mutations in chromatin-modifier genes were identified including, noticeably, a truncating mutation in SETD2 (n = 4), which resulted in loss of H3K36 trimethylation and was mutually exclusive with H3F3A K27M mutation (n = 3), suggesting that epigenetic dysregulation may lead to DCG tumorigenesis. Alterations that cause loss of p53 function including TP53 mutation (n = 9), PPM1D mutation (n = 2), and a novel type of PPM1D fusion (n = 1), were also frequent. On the other hand, mutations and copy number changes commonly observed in cerebral gliomas were infrequent. DNA methylation profile analysis demonstrated that all DCGs except for those with H3F3A mutations were categorized in the "RTK I (PDGFRA)" group, and those DCGs had a gene expression signature that was highly associated with PDGFRA. Furthermore, compared with the data of 315 gliomas derived from different brain regions, promoter methylation of transcription factors genes associated with glial development showed a characteristic pattern presumably reflecting their tumor origin. Notably, SOX10, a key transcription factor associated with oligodendroglial differentiation and PDGFRA regulation, was up-regulated in both DCG and H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline glioma, suggesting their developmental and biological commonality. In contrast, SOX10 was silenced by promoter methylation in most cerebral gliomas. These findings may suggest potential tailored targeted therapy for gliomas according to their brain region, in addition to providing molecular clues to identify the region-related cellular origin of DCGs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Neoplasias Cerebelares/metabolismo , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/cirurgia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/cirurgia , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA