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1.
Int J Oncol ; 56(2): 581-595, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894262

RESUMO

Polypeptide N­acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 6 (GALNT6), which is involved in the initiation of O­glycosylation, has been reported to play crucial roles in mammary carcinogenesis through binding to several substrates; however, its biological roles in mediating growth­promoting effects remain unknown. The present study demonstrated a crucial pathophysiological role of GALNT6 through its O­glycosylation of lectin galactoside­binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP), a secreted growth­promoting glycoprotein, in breast cancer growth. The Cancer Genome Atlas data analysis revealed that high expression levels of GALNT6 were significantly associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. GALNT6 O­glycosylated LGALS3BP in breast cancer cells, whereas knockdown of GALNT6 by siRNA led to the inhibition of both the O­glycosylation and secretion of LGALS3BP, resulting in the suppression of breast cancer cell growth. Notably, LGALS3BP is potentially O­glycosylated at three sites (T556, T571 and S582) by GALNT6, thereby promoting autocrine cell growth, whereas the expression of LGALS3BP with three Ala substitutions (T556A, T571A and S582A) in cells drastically reduced GALNT6­dependent LGALS3BP O­glycosylation and secretion, resulting in suppression of autocrine growth­promoting effect. The findings of the present study suggest that the GALNT6­LGALS3BP axis is crucial for breast cancer cell proliferation and may be a therapeutic target and biomarker for mammary tumors.

3.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 324, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to understand the trends in total and itemized medical expenses, especially of disease-modifying therapy (DMT), for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Japan through an analysis of health insurance claims data. METHODS: We analyzed a database containing health insurance claims data from hospitals that have adopted the Diagnosis Procedure Combination/Per-Diem Payment System in Japan. According to an algorithm based on diagnosis codes, data for all patients diagnosed with MS from April 2008 to July 2016 were extracted. Medical costs, rate of each medical treatment, and rate of relapses were analyzed by calendar-year. Medical costs in the month of relapse were compared with average medical costs per month of all MS patients by a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Four thousand three hundred seventy-four MS patients were identified in the database. Total medical cost per patient per month (PPPM) increased from ¥87,640 (US$787.7 or €723.0 as of May 2017) to ¥102,846 (US$924.4 or €848.4) during the study period. This increment was mainly attributed to the growth in cost of outpatient DMT prescriptions, which increased from ¥23,039 (US$207.1 or €190.1) to ¥51,351 (US$461.5 or €423.6). In contrast, the rate of hospitalizations and relapses PPPM decreased during the study period (from 0.053 to 0.030, and 0.032 to 0.019, respectively). Medical costs in the month of relapse (¥424,661, US$3816.8 or €3503.1) were 3.57 times higher than the average monthly costs for all MS patients (¥119,021, US$1069.8 or €981.8), with the majority comprising hospitalization cost. CONCLUSION: Concomitant with the increased usage of DMT, the total medical cost for treating MS is increasing in Japan. However, rates of relapse and hospitalization have shown a decreasing trend. Although this study does not show the direct causality between DMT and reduction of relapse rates/fewer hospitalizations among MS patients, a reduction in hospital costs has been revealed concomitantly with the increasing prevalence of DMT.

4.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714026

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) continues to be considered incurable, necessitating new drug discovery. The mitotic kinase T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase/PDZ-binding kinase (TOPK/PBK) is associated with proliferation of tumor cells, maintenance of cancer stem cells, and poor patient prognosis in many cancers. In this report, we demonstrate potent anti-myeloma effects of the TOPK inhibitor OTS514 for the first time. OTS514 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations in a series of human myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and prevents outgrowth of a putative CD138+ stem cell population from MM patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In bone marrow cells from MM patients, OTS514 treatment exhibited preferential killing of the malignant CD138+ plasma cells compared with the CD138- compartment. In an aggressive mouse xenograft model, OTS964 given orally at 100 mg/kg 5 days per week was well tolerated and reduced tumor size by 48%-81% compared to control depending on the initial graft size. FOXO3 and its transcriptional targets CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN1B (p27) were elevated and apoptosis was induced with OTS514 treatment of HMCLs. TOPK inhibition also induced loss of FOXM1 and disrupted AKT, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signaling. The effects of OTS514 were independent of p53 mutation or deletion status. Combination treatment of HMCLs with OTS514 and lenalidomide produced synergistic effects, providing a rationale for the evaluation of TOPK inhibition in existing myeloma treatment regimens.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17332, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757997

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified about 70 genomic loci associated with breast cancer. Owing to the complexity of linkage disequilibrium and environmental exposures in different populations, it is essential to perform regional GWAS for better risk prediction. This study aimed to investigate the genetic architecture and to assess common genetic risk model of breast cancer with 6,669 breast cancer patients and 21,930 female controls in the Japanese population. This GWAS identified 11 genomic loci that surpass genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5.0 × 10-8 with nine previously reported loci and two novel loci that include rs9862599 on 3q13.11 (ALCAM) and rs75286142 on 21q22.12 (CLIC6-RUNX1). Validation study was carried out with 981 breast cancer cases and 1,394 controls from the Aichi Cancer Center. Pathway analyses of GWAS signals identified association of dopamine receptor medicated signaling and protein amino acid deacetylation with breast cancer. Weighted genetic risk score showed that individuals who were categorized in the highest risk group are approximately 3.7 times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to individuals in the lowest risk group. This well-powered GWAS is a representative study to identify SNPs that are associated with breast cancer in the Japanese population.

6.
J Hum Genet ; 64(12): 1187-1194, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588121

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease predisposed to not only colorectal cancer but also other LS-related tumors. Although the clinical and genetic characteristics of LS in Western countries have been well characterized, the information of Japanese LS is limited. As a collaborative study of Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR), we registered colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who fulfilled the modified Amsterdam II criteria including gastric cancer as an LS-related tumor. Among 4030 CRC patients initially registered in this project, 85 patients (2.1%) fulfilled the modified criteria. An additional 26 patients who met the same criteria were enrolled in the analysis. We analyzed three major responsible genes, MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 by direct sequencing, and further performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for MLH1 and MSH2. Consequently, we identified pathogenic variants in 64 of the 111 patients comprising of 34 patients in MLH1, 28 in MSH2, and 2 in MSH6. It is of note that large structural alterations were found in 17 patients. Among the 64 patients, 11 patients would not have been enrolled in the analysis if gastric cancer were not included in the modified criteria. In addition, 10 of the 64 variant carriers (15.6%) had medical history of gastric cancer. Furthermore, the standardized incidence ratio of gastric cancer in the LS patients to the Japanese population is estimated to be as high as 20.2. These data underscore the importance of gastric cancer in the diagnosis and healthcare of Japanese LS patients.

7.
Neurol Ther ; 8(2): 433-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Japanese government's current policy is to encourage hospitals to discharge hospital patients with schizophrenia earlier and provide them with community care. This study aims to analyze clinical and economic outcomes of different discharge strategies in psychiatric hospitals in Japan. METHODS: A simulation was conducted to compare patient relapse and hospital revenues for different discharge plans. We constructed a decision tree where each tree consists of a different Markov chain that models hospital revenue for four different discharge plans: discharge of the patient after 1, 2, or 3 months, or 4 months or more. The simulation also included variations in the medical treatment regimen in an outpatient setting as part of the discharge strategy. In particular, we looked at the choice between risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) and generic risperidone (RIS GE). RESULTS: The use of RLAI in an outpatient setting reduced the number of rehospitalizations compared to generic risperidone use under all discharge plans. Different discharge plans were associated with differences in economic outcomes as well. One of the key revenue drivers for the hospital was the continuation of treatment in the outpatient setting after discharge. CONCLUSION: The use of RLAI in an outpatient setting could help to prevent rehospitalization, thereby contributing to better community care. FUNDING: The Rapid Service Fee was funded by Janssen KK.

8.
Oral Oncol ; 96: 77-88, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study we describe the tumor microenvironment, the signaling pathways and genetic alterations associated with the presence or absence of CD8+ T-cell infiltration in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two SCCHN multi-analyte cohorts were utilized, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Chicago Head and Neck Genomics (CHGC) cohort. A well-established chemokine signature classified SCCHN tumors into high and low CD8+ T-cell inflamed phenotypes (TCIP-H, TCIP-L respectively). Gene set enrichment and iPANDA analyses were conducted to dissect differences in signaling pathways, somatic mutations and copy number aberrations for TCIP-H versus TCIP-L tumors, stratified by HPV status. RESULTS: TCIP-H SCCHN tumors were enriched in multiple immune checkpoints irrespective of HPV-status. HPV-positive tumors were enriched in markers of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) and HPV-negative tumors in protumorigenic M2 macrophages. TCIP-L SCCHN tumors were enriched for the ß-catenin/WNT and Hedgehog signaling pathways, had frequent mutations in NSD1, amplifications in EGFR and YAP1, as well as CDKN2A deletions. TCIP-H SCCHN tumors were associated with the MAPK/ERK, JAK/STAT and mTOR/AKT signaling pathways, and were enriched in CASP8, EP300, EPHA2, HRAS mutations, CD274, PDCD1LG2, JAK2 amplifications. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that combinatorial immune checkpoint blockade and depletion strategies targeting Tregs in HPV-positive and M2 macrophages in HPV-negative tumors may lead to improved antitumor immune responses in patients with TCIP-H SCCHN. We highlight novel pathways and genetic events that may serve as candidate biomarkers and novel targeted therapies to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy in SCCHN patients.

9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228130

RESUMO

Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can be differentiated into a wide variety of functional cells, is underway and some clinical trials have already been performed or are ongoing. On the other hand, the risk of carcinogenesis is an issue and the mechanism of cellular reprograming remains unknown. When iPSCs and differentiated cells are used for medical applications, quality control is also important. Here we discuss the possibility of performing quality control of iPSCs by evaluation of phospholipids, which are not just structural components of lipid bilayer membranes, but also have multiple physiological functions. Recently, methods for analysis of lipids have become more widely available and easier to perform. This article reviews the role of iPSCs in regenerative medicine and examines the possibility of using phospholipids for quality control of iPSCs and differentiated cells.

11.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(6): e1588085, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069156

RESUMO

Tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) are located in the routes of lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor and have the highest risk of metastasis in various types of solid tumors. TDLNs are also considered as a tissue to activate the antitumor immunity, where antigen-specific effector T cells are generated. However, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires in TDLNs have not been well characterized. We collected 23 colorectal cancer tumors with 203 lymph nodes with/without metastatic cancer cells (67 were metastasis-positive and the remaining 136 were metastasis-negative) and performed TCR sequencing. Metastasis-positive TDLNs showed a significantly lower TCR diversity and shared TCR clonotypes more frequently with primary tumor tissues compared to metastasis-negative TDLNs. Principal component analysis indicated that TDLNs with metastasis showed similar TCR repertoires. These findings suggest that cancer-reactive T cell clones could be enriched in the metastasis-positive TDLNs.

12.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(7): 596-603, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135897

RESUMO

The advancement of cancer genomics research due to the development of next generation sequencing technologies is going to bring the promise of cancer precision medicine, in turn revolutionizing cancer detection and treatment. In this review, we will discuss the possible road map for implementation of cancer precision medicine into the clinical practice by mainly focusing on the role of liquid biopsy, particularly circulating tumor DNA, as a potential tool for cancer screening, selection of an appropriate drug(s), surveillance of minimal residual diseases, and early detection of recurrence. We will also review the current status of genome-driven oncology and emerging field of immunotherapies that could be provided to patients to improve their clinical outcome and quality of life. Lastly, we will discuss the usefulness of artificial intelligence that facilitate complex data integration in our health care/medical care system.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Imunoterapia , Invenções , Neoplasias/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos
13.
Org Lett ; 21(8): 2663-2667, 2019 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958676

RESUMO

Umpolung reactions of N-trimethylsilyl α-iminoester with organometallics gave directly N-alkylaminoesters in high yields without the need for removing a protecting group at the nitrogen atom. Efficient syntheses of pyrrolidines, piperidines, and iminodiacetate derivatives were also developed via tandem N,N- or N, C-dialkylation reactions utilizing characteristics of the silyl substituent. Furthermore, under the influence of silica gel, the addition of an enolate to the imino nitrogen proceeded to give an iminodiacetate derivative.

14.
Pathol Int ; 69(4): 211-218, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990957

RESUMO

We aimed to propose a biosafety algorithm for the protection of pathology staff during intraoperative examinations of pulmonary lesions when working with cytological imprints and/or frozen sections for the intraoperative diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. We examined 148 pulmonary surgical tissues obtained intraoperatively for imprint cytology (IC) and for frozen sectioning and compared the diagnoses against the final pathological diagnoses. We analyzed concordance and non-concordance rates and then used the data to produce a biosafety algorithm. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of scratch-IC were 91%, 100%, 100%, 50% and 92%, respectively, and those of frozen sectioning were 99%, 100%, 100%, 96% and 99%, respectively. Our data indicate that frozen sectioning is unnecessary if scratch-IC yields a 'malignant' diagnosis but recommended with a 'benign' diagnosis. When a scratch-IC preparation deemed inadequate for a diagnosis or an abscess, the pathologist must consult the surgeon concerning the possibility of granuloma with caseous necrosis and should ask the surgeon to be prepared for a frozen section. If granuloma with caseous necrosis is found in the frozen section, the pathologist must immediately communicate the information to entire staff and perform a PCR test before making a permanent section.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Abscesso Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Citodiagnóstico , Feminino , Secções Congeladas , Granuloma/patologia , Granuloma/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Abscesso Pulmonar/patologia , Abscesso Pulmonar/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes
15.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(4): e1568813, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906664

RESUMO

To develop a practically applicable method for T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cell immunotherapy targeting neoantigens, we have been attempting to identify neoantigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) and establish TCR-engineered T cells in a 3-4-month period. In this study, we report the characterization of T cell repertoires in tumor microenvironment (TME) and identification of neoantigen-specific TCRs after stimulation of patient-derived T cells. We screened 15 potential neoantigen peptides and successfully identified two CD8+HLA-dextramer+ T cells, which recognized MAGOHBG17A and ZCCHC14P368L. All three dominant TCR clonotypes from MAGOHBG17A-HLA dextramer-sorted CD8+ T cells were also found in T cells in TME, while none of dominant TCR clonotypes from ZCCHC14P368L-HLA dextramer-sorted CD8+ T cells was found in the corresponding TME. The most dominant TCRA/TCRB pairs for these two neoantigens were cloned into HLA-matched healthy donors' T lymphocytes to generate TCR-engineered T cells. The functional assay showed MAGOHBG17A TCR-engineered T cells could be significantly activated in a mutation-specific, HLA-restricted and peptide-dose-dependent manner while ZCCHC14P368L TCR-engineered T cells could not. Our data showed neoantigen-reactive T cell clonotypes that were identified in the patient's peripheral blood could be present in the corresponding TME and might be good TCRs targeting neoantigens.

16.
Oncol Rep ; 41(4): 2540-2548, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720113

RESUMO

Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) has been reported to serve critical roles in the maintenance of stemness of cancer cells, although its mechanism remains unclear. Since SRY­box 2 (SOX2) was demonstrated to be involved in self­renewal and tumorigenicity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is aberrantly expressed in HNSCC tumors, the association between MELK and SOX2 was examined. Firstly, MELK inhibition was performed by small interfering RNA or MELK inhibitor OTS167, and it was determined that MELK inhibition by these approaches could decrease the SOX2 expression in HNSCC cells and OTS167 could suppress the SOX2 expression in a dose­dependent manner. The present results indicated that MELK inhibition may target cancer stem cells (CSCs) through downregulation of the SOX2 gene. To further confirm the transcriptional regulation of SOX2, the transcription factors (TFs) were screened for SOX2 using a promoter­binding TF assay followed by reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a decrease of the majority of the SOX2 TFs following MELK knockdown was observed. The present results provide evidence that MELK serves a key role in CSCs through the regulation of SOX2 and further indicates that MELK inhibition may also be promising for clinical applications in the treatment of HNSCC.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo
17.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(3): 507-516, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674566

RESUMO

Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) activates pathways that mediate aggressive tumor growth and therapy resistance in many types of adult cancers. Pharmacologic and genomic inhibition of MELK impairs tumor growth and increases sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy. On the basis of these promising preclinical studies, early-phase adult clinical trials testing the MELK inhibitor OTS167 are ongoing. To investigate whether MELK is also a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma, we analyzed MELK expression in primary tumors and cell lines, and examined the effects of OTS167 on neuroblastoma growth. In primary tumors, high levels of MELK were associated with advanced stage disease and inferior survival. Higher levels of MELK were also detected in tumorigenic versus nontumorigenic neuroblastoma cell lines, and cells with higher levels of MELK expression were more sensitive to OTS167 than low-MELK expressing cells. OTS167 suppressed the growth of neuroblastoma xenografts, and in a preclinical model of minimal residual disease, survival was prolonged with MELK inhibition. OTS167 treatment downregulated MELK and its target enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that is known to modulate the DNA damage response. We also show that OTS167 reduced the formation of collapsed replication forks induced by camptothecin or radiation. Taken together, our results indicate that MELK indirectly mediates efficient processing of replication-associated DNA lesions in neuroblastoma, and that OTS167 sensitizes cells to DNA-damaging agents by abrogating this process. Further studies evaluating the activity of combination treatment regimens with OTS167 in neuroblastoma are warranted.

18.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(5): 582-590, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FeNO) is widely used to support diagnosis and monitoring of bronchial asthma (BA). Tsoukias and George proposed a two-compartment model (2CM) for assessing the alveolar concentration of NO, referred to as CANO(2CM), while Condorelli et al proposed a model based on the trumpet shape of the airway tree and axial diffusion (TMAD), referred to as CANO(TMAD). In addition, Högman et al proposed non-linear model, referred to as CANO(non-linear). OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in airway cells (ACs) by bronchoscopy and NO-parameters calculated by the three methods and identified which of them accurately reflected expression of iNOS mRNA from different airway portions. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data of 18 patients with stable, mild-moderate asthma, including 10 steroid-naïve BA (snBA) patients. Samples were obtained from airway brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Expressions of iNOS protein in tissue samples were evaluated by immunostaining. The iNOS mRNA in ACs was measured by qPCR. NO-parameters calculated by the three methods above and evaluated whether they were associated with iNOS mRNA in ACs derived from proximal (2nd carina), distal (10-15th) airways and alveolar regions. RESULTS: Immunostaining revealed expression of iNOS proteins mainly in epithelial cells in the airways, while it was mainly expressed in macrophages in the alveolar region in the snBA group. The iNOS mRNA expression was increased in both proximal and distal ACs in the snBA group compared with steroid-treated BA group (stBA). CANO(2CM) negatively associated with FEV1 (%predicted) and also associated with iNOS mRNA in distal ACs significantly. However, CANO(TMAD) and CANO(non-linear) showed no correlation with lung function nor iNOS mRNA expression in any portions of ACs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that CANO(2CM) reflected distal airway inflammation in steroid-naïve asthma.

19.
Cytopathology ; 30(1): 74-81, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the reliability of imprint cytology (IC) for intraoperative diagnosis of pulmonary lesions. METHODS: We reviewed 113 cases of pulmonary lesion resection for which a scratch imprint was made intraoperatively. We divided the specimens into two groups (benign and malignant) and compared the scratch IC-based diagnoses against the final histopathological diagnoses in each group for concordance. We also analysed those cases in which the scratch IC preparation was classified as inadequate. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of IC diagnoses among the patient cohort were 87.7% (72/82), 100% (7/7), 100% (72/72), 41.2% (7/17) and 88.8% (79/89), respectively. IC yielded some false-negative results in terms of malignancy, although most of these imprints were of early cancer or cancer with mild cytological atypia. Five (41.6%) of 12 lesions for which the imprint was deemed inadequate were diagnosed histologically as granulomas with caseous necrosis. CONCLUSION: IC-based diagnoses of pulmonary lesions as malignant corresponded well with the final histopathological diagnoses, but IC-based diagnoses of negative (ie, without malignant cells) were not as reliable. Thus, pathologists should recognise the limitations of IC, especially for identifying malignant lesions. Also, the possibility of latent bacterial infection in a granuloma with caseous necrosis indicates that an IC preparation deemed inadequate for diagnosis should not be ignored.


Assuntos
Citodiagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha , Feminino , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia
20.
Cancer Sci ; 110(3): 867-874, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582659

RESUMO

Recent clinical trials of non-small cell lung cancer with immune checkpoint inhibitors revealed that patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations had more unfavorable outcomes compared with those with wild-type EGFR. However, the underlying mechanism for the link between EGFR mutations and immune resistance remains unclear. We performed T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire analysis of resected lung adenocarcinoma tissues with and without EGFR mutations to investigate the characteristics of TCR repertoires. We collected a total of 39 paired (normal and tumor) lung tissue samples (20 had EGFR mutations) and conducted TCR repertoire analysis as well as whole-exome sequencing (WES) and transcriptome analysis. The TCR diversity index in EGFR-mutant tumors was significantly higher than that in EGFR-wild-type tumors (median [range] 552 [162-1,135] vs 230 [30-764]; P < .01), suggesting higher T cell clonal expansion in EGFR-wild-type tumors than in EGFR-mutant tumors. In WES, EGFR-mutant tumors showed lower numbers of non-synonymous mutations and predicted neoantigens than EGFR-wild-type tumors (P < .01, P = .03, respectively). The number of non-synonymous mutations revealed a positive correlation with the sum of frequencies of the TCRß clonotypes of 1% or higher in tumors (r = .52, P = .04). The present study demonstrates significant differences in TCR repertoires and the number of predicted neoantigens between EGFR-mutant and wild-type lung tumors. Our findings provide important information for understanding the molecular mechanism behind EGFR-mutant patients showing unfavorable responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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