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1.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 117(5): 375-383, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389909
2.
Liver Int ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has been newly approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We aimed to assess the effectiveness and renal safety of switching from entecavir (ETV) or nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) combination therapy to TAF. METHODS: This multicentre, retrospective, cohort study included 313 consecutive CHB patients who switched to TAF monotherapy after treatment with ETV or a nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) combination for over 2 years. Virological/laboratory responses were evaluated for 48 weeks after switchover. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Differences in longitudinal parameters were compared by the generalized estimating equation method. RESULTS: In the prior ETV group (n = 191), the HBV DNA suppression rate at week 48 was significantly increased, from 75.9% to 96.9% (P < .001). Additionally, mean changes in the HBsAg level at week 48 in HBsAg ≥ 3.0 logIU/mL and < 3.0 logIU/mL groups were -0.09 and -0.13 logIU/mL respectively. In the prior NA combination group (n = 122), the mean changes in HBsAg level at week 48 in the HBsAg ≥ 3.0 logIU/mL and <3.0 logIU/mL groups were -0.08 and -0.11 logIU/mL respectively. For patients with CKD, the eGFR at week 48 was significantly improved compared to those with non-CKD (adjusted slope coefficient difference: 2.75 mL/min/1.73 m2 /48 weeks; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Switching from ETV or an NA combination to TAF was effective for HBV suppression and continued HBsAg reduction. Moreover, the renal glomerular function of patients in the prior NA combination group with CKD was significantly improved compared to those with non-CKD. LAY SUMMARY: Nucleos(t)ide analogues, such as entecavir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and tenofovir alafenamide, inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and are recommended as first-line oral agents for chronic HBV infection. We evaluated the virological/biochemical effects and renal safety when patients are switched from entecavir or nucleoside-nucleotide analogue combination therapy to tenofovir alafenamide. Our findings suggest that switching to tenofovir alafenamide was effective for HBV suppression and the improvement in renal function for patients with chronic kidney disease.

3.
Clin Endosc ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172554

RESUMO

A 43-year-old man with rheumatic arthritis was admitted to our hospital for symptoms of cough, left chest pain, and left elbow pain, and further examination revealed an elevated level of C-reactive protein. On day 2 after admission, he underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. On the morning of day 7, he developed a high fever of 39.7°C, several hours after bronchoscopy. On day 13, he underwent colonoscopy. Five minutes after the colonoscopy, he developed a high fever of 39.9°C, accompanied by stridor, indicating a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation level. An intradermal test for peracetic acid which was used for cleaning flexible endoscopy was positive. We suspect that he suffered from an allergic reaction to peracetic acid following the flexible endoscopy. This is the first case reported on suspicious allergic reaction to peracetic acid following a flexible endoscopy procedure.

4.
Hepatol Int ; 14(2): 225-238, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting anti-virals (DAAs) have markedly improved the effectiveness of anti-viral therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. In a phase III trial in Japan, treatment with the NS3/4A protease inhibitor glecaprevir and the NS5A inhibitor pibrentasvir (G/P) resulted in a small number of patients with refractory factors. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of G/P, especially among patients with these refractory factors, and the influence of these factors on treatment. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter study involving 33 medical institutions, 1439 patients were treated with G/P, and their efficacy, safety, and most frequent adverse effects (AEs) were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall SVR12 rates were 99.1% (1397/1410) in the per-protocol-analysis, and genotype sustained virologic response SVR12 rates were: genotype 1, 99.4% (707/711); genotype 2, 99.4% (670/674); genotype 3, 80.0% (16/20). DAA-naïve patients (p = 0.008) with HCV genotype except 3 (genotype 1 vs. 3, p = 2.68 × 10-5; genotype 2 vs. 3, p = 3.28 × 10-5) had significantly higher SVR12 rates. No significant difference was observed between CKD stage 1-3 (99.1% [1209/1220]) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 (98.9% [188/190]) patients, or between cirrhotic (99.0% [398/402]) and non-cirrhotic (99.1% [999/1008]) patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that genotype 3 [OR 33.404, 95% CI (7.512-148.550), p value (p = 4.06 × 10-5)] and past experience of IFN-free DAAs [OR 3.977, 95% CI (1.153-13.725), p value (p = 0.029)] were both significantly independent predictors of non-SVR12. AEs were reported in 28.2% of patients, and 1.6% discontinued treatment owing to drug-related AEs. AEs were significantly higher in CKD stage 4-5 (41.6% [79/190]) than CKD stage 1-3 (26.1% [319/1220]) patients (p = 2.00 × 10-5). AEs were also significantly higher in cirrhotic (38.6% [155/402]) than in non-cirrhotic (24.1% [243/1008]) (p = 2.91 × 10-18) patients. CONCLUSIONS: G/P regimen is highly effective and safe to treat CHC patients even with refractory factors such as CKD and advanced liver fibrosis. However, patients with past experience of IFN-free DAA treatment and genotype 3, CKD stage 4 or 5, and advanced liver fibrosis should be more closely observed.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of cirrhosis is an important factor for the management of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and it determines the duration of treatment for HCV with the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen of glecaprevir (GLE) and pibrentasvir (PIB), that is, 8 or 12 weeks, if patients do not have a history of DAA failure. However, in real-world settings, determination of cirrhosis depends on the discretion of the attending hepatologists, and it is unclear whether compensated cirrhosis was homogenously diagnosed or not. In this study, we investigated the real-world diagnosis of cirrhosis by characterizing DAA-naïve patients who underwent a 12-week GLE/PIB regimen in whom cirrhosis was diagnosed, comparing their characteristics with those of patients who underwent an 8-week regimen in whom cirrhosis was absent. METHODS: In a large, multicenter cohort study, we compared background characteristics and treatment outcomes among DAA-naïve patients who underwent an 8-week versus a 12-week GLE/PIB regimen. RESULTS: Among 977 patients enrolled, 296 (30.3%) were determined to have cirrhosis and underwent a 12-week regimen. Some patient characteristics largely overlapped between the two groups, including liver fibrosis indices. Sustained viral response rates were similar between groups after adjusting liver fibrosis index with propensity score matching. CONCLUSION: Although adequately diagnosed, the determination of cirrhosis varied widely among institutions or by hepatologists in real-world settings, and the severity of liver fibrosis overlapped significantly between patients in whom compensated cirrhosis was determined to be present and patients in whom cirrhosis was absent. Virologic efficacy was similar after adjusting for the degree of liver fibrosis.

6.
Hepatol Res ; 50(2): 174-181, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634412

RESUMO

AIM: Hepatitis C virus genotype 2 is common in East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. However, many countries in these areas lag behind other areas of the world in government approval for new direct-acting antivirals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 2 infection. METHODS: This is a two-part multicenter, real-world cohort study. Study 1 consisted of 58 consecutive patients who were treated with LDV/SOF for 12 weeks. Study 2 used propensity score matching for LDV/SOF (n = 58) and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (n = 207) treatment groups (1:1) with a set of clinically important variables. Sustained viral response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) and adverse events were evaluated in both studies. RESULTS: In study 1, the overall SVR12 rates of the intention-to-treat and modified intention-to-treat populations were 94.8% (55/58) and 96.5% (55/57), respectively. High SVR12 rates were observed in almost all subgroups, including older age, compensated cirrhosis, and treatment experience. In study 2, propensity score matching of the entire study population yielded 52 matched pairs with similar baseline characteristics. There were no statistically significant differences between the LDV/SOF (96.1%) and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (98.0%) groups in the overall SVR12 rates of the modified intention-to-treat populations, and their rates of treatment discontinuation and adverse events were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with LDV/SOF for hepatitis C virus genotype 2 resulted in a high rate of SVR12 and excellent tolerability. The outcomes of LDV/SOF were very similar to those of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cure rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for patients with active and inactive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may differ, but well-controlled studies are limited. We aimed to evaluate DAA outcomes in a large East Asian HCV/HCC population compared to HCV/non-HCC patients. METHODS: Using data from the REAL-C registry (Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan), we used propensity score matching (PSM) to match HCC and non-HCC (1:1) groups for age, sex, cirrhosis, prior treatment, HCV genotype, treatment regimen, baseline platelet count, HCV RNA, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and albumin level to evaluate DAA treatment outcomes in a large population of HCV/HCC compared to HCV/non-HCC patients. RESULTS: We included 6,081 patients (HCC, n=465; non-HCC, n=5,616) treated with interferon-free DAAs. PSM of the entire study population yielded 436 matched pairs with similar baseline characteristics. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall SVR rate of the HCC (92.7%) and non-HCC (95.0%) groups. Rates of treatment discontinuation, adverse effects, and death were also similar between the HCC and non-HCC groups. Among patients with HCC, those with active HCC had a lower SVR than inactive HCC cases (85.5% vs. 93.7%, P=0.03). On multivariable analysis, active HCC, but not inactive HCC, was significantly associated with lower SVR (OR 0.28, P=0.01) when compared to non-HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Active HCC but not inactive HCC was independently associated with lower SVR compared to non-HCC patients undergoing DAA therapy, though cure rate was still relatively high (85%) in active HCC patients.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical trials, a pangenotype direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen consisting of glecaprevir (GLE) and pibrentasvir (PIB) exhibited high virologic efficacy and tolerability in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study sought to confirm these findings in real-world settings, focusing on patients with cirrhosis, history of DAA failure, or HCV genotype 3 who were treated with a 12-week regimen in a large multicenter study from Japan. METHODS: In a nationwide multicenter prospective cohort study, we analyzed background characteristics, tolerability, and treatment outcome of patients who underwent a 12-week GLE/PIB regimen. RESULTS: Of 1190 patients, 509 (42.8%) underwent the 12-week regimen, and the remaining patients underwent an 8-week regimen. The rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) of patients treated with the 12-week regimen was 99.0%, comparable with that of patients treated with the 8-week regimen. The adverse events were observed in 29.1% of patients. The main adverse event was pruritus, which was observed in 14.7%. Ten patients (2.0%) discontinued therapy during treatment period. CONCLUSION: The 12-week GLE/PIB regimen was well-tolerated with high virologic efficacy in patients with cirrhosis, experience of DAA, or HCV genotype 3; tolerability and SVR rate were comparable with those of DAA-naïve, non-cirrhotic, non-genotype 3 patients who underwent 8-week regimen.

9.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 116(9): 754-763, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511462

RESUMO

A 51-year-old woman underwent endoscopic biliary drainage with a plastic stent for obstructive jaundice due to unresectable pancreatic head cancer. During chemotherapy following heavy ion therapy for the cancer, she presented with acute cholangitis and massive rectal bleeding. The massive hemorrhage was caused by rupture of the biliary duct due to a pseudoaneurysm in the right hepatic artery. The position of the aneurysm coincided with the liver-side end of the plastic stent. Sustained irritation of the arterial and bile duct walls by the stent was considered to have contributed to formation of the aneurysm.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma/diagnóstico , Icterícia Obstrutiva/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Feminino , Artéria Hepática , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plásticos , Stents
10.
Hepatol Int ; 13(5): 587-598, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One-third of the global hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden is found in Asia. Real-world data from diverse East Asian cohorts remain limited. This study addressed the real-world status of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy among patients from East Asia. METHODS: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients from clinical sites in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and Hong Kong were recruited in the REAL-C registry, an observational chart review registry. The primary outcome was sustained virologic response (SVR12, HCV RNA PCR < 25 IU/mL 12 week post-therapy). RESULTS: A total of 6287 CHC patients were enrolled. Compared to other East Asian patients, patients from Japan were older (66.3 vs. 61.5 years, p < 0.0001), had lower body mass indices (22.9 kg/m2 vs. 24.6 kg/m2, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have non-liver malignancy history (12.2% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001).The overall SVR12 rate was 96.4%, similar to patients both inside and outside Japan (96.6% vs. 96%, p = 0.21). The SVR12 rate ranged from 91.1 to 99.4% except treatment-experienced cirrhotic HCV genotype-1 patients who received daclatasvir/asunaprevir (85.9%) and the treatment-experienced cirrhotic HCV genotype-2 patients treated with sofosbuvir/ribavirin (87%). The overall rate of drug discontinuation was 1.9%, also similar across regions. On multivariate regression analyses, there was no significant association between geographic region and SVR outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multinational CHC cohort from the East Asia, oral DAAs were highly effective and well tolerated across the region. Policies should encourage treatment for all CHC patients with DAAs in Asia with its heavy burden of HCV.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Isoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Taiwan , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Viral Hepat ; 26(11): 1266-1275, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278795

RESUMO

Based on high efficacy and safety demonstrated in clinical trials, treatment with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) for 8 weeks is recommended for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients who are direct-acting antiviral (DAA) naïve, genotype 1 or 2, and noncirrhotic. The aim of this study was to validate real-world experience with 8-week G/P treatment in Japan. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in 554 patients who underwent 8-week treatment from among 1,022 patients who initiated G/P therapy. The majority (54.5%) were male, with a median age of 66 years, and HCV genotype distribution was genotype 1, 43.8%; genotype 2, 55.3%; and mixed subtype, 0.9%. Overall, the sustained virologic response rate at 12 weeks (SVR12) was 92.8% (530/571) in the intention-to-treat population and 99.3% (526/530) in the per-protocol population. The SVR12 rates by subgroups were as follows: subtype 1a, 100% (6/6); 1b, 100% (189/189); 2a, 99.3% (150/151); 2b, 99.0% (103/104); and mixed subtype, 50% (2/4). Among four patients with virologic failure following 8-week treatment with G/P, none had baseline polymorphisms or treatment-emergent amino acid substitutions in NS3. However, 2 of 4 patients with virologic failure had treatment-emergent amino acid substitutions in NS5A. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 21.5% of patients and 1.2% of patients discontinued due to drug-related AEs. In conclusion, G/P treatment for 8 weeks was safe and effective for DAA-naïve noncirrhotic genotype 1 or 2 patients in a real-world clinical setting in Japan.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e023405, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A number of publications have demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) compared with the former standard therapy with interferon (IFN)-containing regimens. Unlike these cost-effective analyses, where efficacy parameters were obtained from registration trials for drug approval, this analysis is a cost-effectiveness analysis of SOF+RBV for genotype (GT) 2 non-cirrhosis (NC) and compensated cirrhosis (CC) patients using efficacy parameters obtained from a multicentre cohort study (Kyushu University Liver Disease Study; KULDS) in Kyushu area in Japan in order to reflect real-world clinical practice in Japan. METHOD: A Markov model followed 10 000 patients (62 years old) over their lifetime. Four populations were followed: treatment-naïve (TN)-NC, treatment-experienced (TE)-NC, TN-CC and TE-CC. Comparators were Peg-IFNα2b+RBV for TN-NC and CC patients and telaprevir (TVR)+Peg-IFNα2b+RBV for TE-NC patients. The sustained virological response (SVR) rates of SOF+RBV were taken from KULDS and those of comparators were obtained from systematic literature reviews. There were nine states (NC, CC, decompensated cirrhosis [DC], hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], SVR [NC], SVR [CC], liver transplantation [LT], post-LT and death) in this model, and an increase in the progression rate to HCC due to ageing was also considered. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of a public healthcare payer, and a discount rate of 2% was set for both cost and effectiveness. RESULTS: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of SOF+RBV versus Peg-IFNα2b+RBV were ¥323 928 /quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for TN-NC patients, ¥92 256/QALY for TN-CC patients and ¥1 519 202/QALY for TE-CC patients. The ICER of SOF+RBV versus TVR+Peg-IFNα2b+RBV was ¥849 138/QALY for TE-NC patients. The robustness of the results was determined by sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis strongly demonstrate the robustness of our previous findings that SOF+RBV regimens are cost-effective in the real world and clinical trial settings for Japanese GT2 NC and CC patients.

13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(5): ofz185, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123693

RESUMO

Background: We investigated changes in patient characteristics, rate of sustained virologic response (SVR), and factors associated with SVR after anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens in real-world practice in Japan, where patients with HCV are characterized by older age and high prevalence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Changes in patient characteristics and SVR rates were evaluated from medical records among 10 688 patients who started interferon (IFN)-free DAA therapy between September 2014 and June 2018 in a nationwide, multicenter study. Factors associated with failure of SVR were analyzed. In particular, effects of cirrhosis or history of HCC on SVR were assessed by exact matching. Results: Patient age was becoming younger and baseline liver fibrosis was becoming milder over time. Overall SVR rate was 95.4%. The SVR rates increased over time in patients without a history of IFN-free DAA therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that cirrhosis was unfavorably associated with achievement of SVR in both patients with genotype 1 (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.21) and genotype 2 (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.01-2.78). Comparisons after exact matching showed that the SVR rate was significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than without it, whereas patients with and without a history of HCC had similar SVR rates. Conclusions: Background characteristics of patients who undergo IFN-free DAA therapy are changing in Japan. Patients without a history of IFN-free DAA therapy have high SVR rates. Exact matching confirmed that cirrhosis significantly influences the achievement of SVR in real-world settings.

14.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2646-2653, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested an association between the use of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the resulting decrease in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, it is unclear whether DAAs prevent the recurrence of HCC after curative treatment for HCC. This study aimed to prospectively investigate HCC recurrence and its predictors after curative treatment for HCC. METHODS: A total of 3012 patients with chronic HCV infection, with or without cirrhosis, who were treated with DAAs were enrolled between January 1, 2015 and January 31, 2017 as per the institutional review board approved study protocol at 15 institutions, including 10 university hospitals and five high-volume centers in the Kyusyu area of Japan. Of the 3012 patients, 459 patients who had HCC but were cured with surgery or ablation therapy (curative treatment) before the use of DAAs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 29.4 months, 217 (47.2%) patients developed HCC recurrence. The median time to recurrence was 34.0 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative HCC recurrence rates were 27.1%, 43.4%, and 50.8%, respectively. The risk factors for HCC recurrence were the α-fetoprotein (AFP) level before DAA therapy (P = 0.0047) and the number of curative treatments for HCC before DAA therapy (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A high AFP level and multiple occurrences of HCC before DAA therapy are associated with a high risk for HCC recurrence after curative treatment. Follow-up after DAA therapy should include special attention to the abovementioned risk factors.

15.
J Gastroenterol ; 54(8): 742-751, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The virological efficacy and safety of the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen consisting of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir (DCV/ASV/BCV) for patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 have not been previously evaluated in Japanese real-world settings. METHODS: In a Japanese nationwide multicenter study, the rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) and safety were analyzed in 91 patients who started the DCV/ASV/BCV regimen between November 2016 and July 2017. SVR rates were compared based on baseline patient characteristics. RESULTS: More than 60% of patients had a history of failure to achieve SVR with interferon (IFN)-free DAA therapy. Overall, 50 of 91 patients (54.9%) achieved SVR. Multivariate analysis identified a history of failure with IFN-free DAA therapy and pretreatment HCV RNA levels as factors significantly associated with treatment failure. Whereas the SVR rate in patients without a history of IFN-free DAA therapy was 91.7% (33 of 36 patients), it was only 30.9% (17 of 55 patients) among patients with a history of IFN-free DAA therapy. The rate of discontinuation due to an adverse event was 4.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients treated with the DCV/ASV/BCV regimen have a history of a failure to achieve SVR with previous IFN-free DAA therapy. SVR rate was not as high as that in pre-approval clinical trial of this regimen in IFN-free DAA-naïve patients. In addition, most patients with a history of failure with IFN-free DAA therapy, particularly the DCV/ASV regimen, showed resistance to this regimen.

16.
Hepatol Res ; 49(6): 617-626, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849206

RESUMO

AIM: Glecaprevir (GLE) and pibrentasvir (PIB) are new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) with pangenotypic inhibitors that respectively target the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4 protease and NS5A. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combining GLE and PIB for patients with HCV genotype (GT) 1 or 2 infection in the clinical setting, including patients DAA-experienced or on hemodialysis. METHODS: This multicenter, real-world, retrospective, cohort study consisted of 314 Japanese patients who were treated with GLE (300 mg) and PIB (120 mg) for a fixed 8- or 12-week duration. We evaluated the sustained virologic response rate 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) and adverse events. RESULTS: Among the treated patients, 122 had GT1 and 192 GT2 infection. The overall SVR12 rates in the per-protocol populations were 99.2% (119/120) for GT1 and 98.9% (183/185) for GT2. High SVR12 rates were observed in almost all subgroups, including cirrhosis, receiving hemodialysis, or previous all-oral DAA groups treated with asunaprevir and daclatasvir (GT1b), ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (GT1), or sofosbuvir and ribavirin (GT2). Virological relapse occurred in only 1.0% (3/305) of the patients who completed treatment. The most common adverse events were pruritus and fatigue (>5% of patients). Serious adverse events were rare and discontinuation due to an adverse event was required for 1.6% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world cohort study, treatment with GLE/PIB achieved high SVR12 rates with a low rate of serious adverse events among patients with HCV GT1 or 2 infection.

17.
Hepatol Int ; 13(3): 293-301, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While achieving sustained virological response (SVR) following interferon-based or direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) treatments reduces the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an increase in unexpected early occurrence or recurrence of HCC after hepatitis C virus elimination by DAA treatments has been reported. We prospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors of HCC after DAA treatment in a large multicenter cohort in Japan. METHODS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C with or without cirrhosis who were treated with DAAs and obtained SVR were enrolled. DAAs were administered for 3 or 6 months. A total of 2552 patients were enrolled. RESULTS: Of these, 70 patients (2.7%) developed HCC. The 12-, 24-, and 36-month cumulative HCC incidences were 1.3%, 2.9%, and 4.9% in all patients; 2.5%, 5.2%, and 10.0% in those with cirrhosis; and 0.9%, 2.1%, and 2.9% in those without cirrhosis, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed age, sex, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase level, and fibrosis-4 index to be independent factors associated with HCC. Patients with these four factors had an approximately six-to-sevenfold increased risk for HCC development. Five patients with large and early tumor occurrence did not receive contrast imaging examinations before treatment. CONCLUSION: Although the results of our prospective study suggested that achieving SVR by DAA treatment reduces the incidence of HCC, HCC development still occurs. Careful follow-up is important in patients with risk factors.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto Jovem
18.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(9): 1230-1241, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic hepatitis C are often complicated by chronic kidney disease (CKD). AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in patients with severe renal impairment. METHODS: In a prospective, multicentre study involving 35 medical institutions, 832 genotype 1-3 patients were treated with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir. The efficacy and safety of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir were analysed for patients with CKD stage 4 or 5. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the most frequently observed adverse event. In patients undergoing haemodialysis, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the dialysability of the drugs: plasma samples were obtained from the arterial and venous sides of a dialyser to serially measure drug concentrations. RESULTS: The subjects comprised 141 patients (32 with CKD stage 4 and 109 with CKD stage 5), of whom 100 were undergoing haemodialysis. All but one stage 5 CKD patients undergoing haemodialysis achieved sustained virologic response (99.3%). Adverse events were observed in 39.7% of subjects: pruritus was the most frequent (30.5%), and was significantly associated with haemodialysis. In the pharmacokinetic study, no arterial-venous differences in the plasma concentrations of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir were detected during the haemodialysis sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir was highly effective and safe in chronic hepatitis C patients with severe renal impairment. Haemodialysis was associated with increased incidence of pruritus, which was the most frequent adverse event, but had little or no influence on the drug concentrations, which indicated that their dialysability is very low and that no dose modification is required in patients undergoing haemodialysis. (UMIN registration no. 000032073).

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 102, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643196

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and cholestatic autoimmune liver disease caused by the destruction of intrahepatic small bile ducts. Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six susceptibility loci for PBC. Here, in order to further elucidate the genetic architecture of PBC, a GWAS was performed on an additional independent sample set, then a genome-wide meta-analysis with our previous GWAS was performed based on a whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation analysis of a total of 4,045 Japanese individuals (2,060 cases and 1,985 healthy controls). A susceptibility locus on chromosome 3q13.33 (including ARHGAP31, TMEM39A, POGLUT1, TIMMDC1, and CD80) was previously identified both in the European and Chinese populations and was replicated in the Japanese population (OR = 0.7241, P = 3.5 × 10-9). Subsequent in silico and in vitro functional analyses identified rs2293370, previously reported as the top-hit SNP in this locus in the European population, as the primary functional SNP. Moreover, e-QTL analysis indicated that the effector gene of rs2293370 was Protein O-Glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1) (P = 3.4 × 10-8). This is the first study to demonstrate that POGLUT1 and not CD80 is the effector gene regulated by the primary functional SNP rs2293370, and that increased expression of POGLUT1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/genética , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hepatol Res ; 49(4): 369-376, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485638

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of community-based ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ribavirin therapy for non-cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2a infection in a real-world setting. METHODS: Patients with HCV genotype 2a infection were enrolled in this study and received the therapy for 16 weeks at 11 specialized centers in Japan between October 2016 and July 2017. Among the 98 patients participating in the study, four patients were excluded because of the presence of cirrhosis and/or genotype 2b infection. The remaining 94 patients were subjected to the analysis. RESULTS: The patients consisted of 38 women and 56 men, with a median age of 63 years. The rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) was 97.9%. The SVR rates were similar between patients with and without ribavirin dose reduction (96.0% vs. 98.6%, respectively). Of the two patients in whom treatment failed, one patient completed the treatment but relapsed at 4 weeks post-treatment, whereas the other did not show virologic response and therefore discontinued treatment at week 9. At baseline, both patients had non-structural protein (NS)5A resistance-associated substitution (RAS) L31M but no NS3 RAS. At the time of relapse, the patient had NS5A RAS F28S. At the premature treatment discontinuation, the non-responder had NS3 RAS D168V and NS5A RAS T24S. Ribavirin-induced anemia was the most frequent adverse event. CONCLUSION: Community-based, 16-week, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ribavirin therapy was highly efficacious and safe in non-cirrhotic patients with HCV genotype 2a infection in a real-world setting.

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