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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618500

RESUMO

Amygdalin, prunasin, total cyanide and free cyanide concentrations in 12 powdered loquat seeds were investigated. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae, and its fruit is quite popular in Japan. Amygdalin and prunasin were measured using LC-MS/MS. Total cyanide was measured by enzymatic treatment, steam distillation and colorimetric quantification using the pyridine-pyrazolone method. Free cyanide was measured without enzymatic treatment. The mean concentrations of amygdalin, prunasin, total cyanide and free cyanide in powdered loquat seeds were 5900, 760, 410 and 44 mg/kg, respectively. The range of each quantitative value was extensive. Seven out of twelve samples were at risk for exceeding the acute reference dose (ARfD) of cyanide.

2.
Phys Ther ; 99(6): 701-710, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants aged 2 to 5 months show spontaneous general movements (GMs) of the whole body, which are referred to as fidgety movements (FMs). Although previous studies have shown that evaluation of GMs by the General Movement Assessment (GMA) has predictive value about later neurological impairments, it remains unknown whether raters consistently perceive and rate such complex kinematic information. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to construct a method to reveal which movement features are associated with each rater's evaluation of FMs based on the GMA. DESIGN: GMA scores of 163 healthy infants aged 11 to 16 weeks postterm were matched with data obtained from a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. METHODS: Three physical therapists performed the GMA and classified GMs into 9 types, from which we focused on 3 subtypes differing in the temporal organization of FMs (continual, intermittent, and sporadic FMs). We also calculated 6 movement indices (average velocity of limb movements, number of movement units, kurtosis of acceleration, jerk index, average curvature, and correlation between limb velocities) for arms and legs for each infant and analyzed which movement indices were associated with the ratings of the 3 FM subtypes by each rater. RESULTS: Only the average curvature differed significantly among the ratings of the 3 FM subtypes for all 3 raters. Each rater showed significant differences in the average curvature in either arms or legs. LIMITATIONS: It is difficult to generalize the present results to raters with various levels of expertise and experience in using the GMA. This issue calls for further research. CONCLUSIONS: The method used revealed commonality and individuality about the perceived movement features that can be associated with the rating of FMs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo
3.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 59(4): 174-182, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158396

RESUMO

Colchicum autumnale is a perennial, toxic plant that originated in Europe and North Africa. Although inedible, it is occasionally consumed accidentally because it resembles the edible Allium victorialis and other related species. This misidentification has led to episodes of food poisoning in Japan. However, determining the causative agent of a food poisoning outbreak by observing the sample visually or analyzing the chemical composition is challenging when dealing with small samples. Therefore, we developed a novel set of PCR primers that anneal to the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of C. autumnale ribosomal DNA, designed to detect the presence of C. autumnale in small samples. These primers successfully detected C. autumnale in all samples in which it was present, and did not give a positive PCR band in the 48 other distinct crop species tested, in which it was not present. Further, our method could amplify DNA from samples of C. autumnale that had been heat-treated and digested using artificial gastric fluids. Thus, this PCR strategy is highly specific and can be used to distinguish C. autumnale simply and rapidly from various other crops.


Assuntos
Colchicum/classificação , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Primers do DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , Japão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
4.
Exp Brain Res ; 236(4): 1139-1148, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450616

RESUMO

We examined the characteristics of spontaneous movements at 9-20 weeks postterm age in very low birth-weight infants who later developed autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed video recordings of spontaneous movements of 39 children who had no clinical issues [typically developing (TD) group], 21 children who showed developmental delay, and 14 children who were diagnosed with ASD (ASD group) at 6 years of age. Head position in each video frame was classified by visual inspection. The percentage of midline head position (PMHP) and number of changes in head position were calculated. Spontaneous limb movements were quantified using six indices. The values of PMHP were significantly lower in the ASD group than in the TD group. The lower PMHP during early infancy is associated with later development of ASD. Poorer performance in maintaining midline position of the head at this period may distinguish infants who later develop ASD from those who show TD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
5.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 58(1): 32-35, 2017.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260730

RESUMO

Kuwazuimo (Alocasia odora) and shimakuwazuimo (Alocasia cucullata) are evergreen perennial plants that originated in East Asia. Although inedible, they are occasionally eaten by mistake because they resemble satoimo (Colocasia esculenta), and this has caused food poisoning in Japan. It is not easy to determine the cause of a food poisoning outbreak from the shape or chemical composition when the available sample is small. Therefore, we developed a new primer pair for PCR to identify kuwazuimo and shimakuwazuimo in small samples, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. Using PCR with the developed primer pair, we detected all samples of kuwazuimo obtained from the market, while excluding 17 other kinds of crops. The samples were identified as shimakuwazuimo by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. The present PCR method showed high specificity and was confirmed to be applicable to the identification of kuwazuimo and shimakuwazuimo from various crops.


Assuntos
Alocasia/química , Alocasia/genética , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Alocasia/envenenamento , DNA Ribossômico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Early Hum Dev ; 90(8): 387-92, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24951073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of spontaneous movements in infants has been a powerful predictor of cerebral palsy (CP). Recent advancements on computer-based video analysis can provide detailed information about the properties of spontaneous movements. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between spontaneous movements of the 4 limbs at term age and the development of CP at 3 years of age by using a computer-based video analysis system. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We analyzed video recordings of spontaneous movements at 36-44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) for 145 preterm infants who were born preterm (22-36 weeks PMA with birthweights of 460-1498g). Sixteen of the infants developed CP by 3 years of age, while 129 developed normally. We compared 6 movement indices calculated from 2-dimensional trajectories of all limbs between the 2 groups. RESULTS: We found that the indices of jerkiness were higher in the CP group than in the normal group (p<0.1 for arms and p<0.01 for legs). No decline was observed in the average velocity and number of movement units in the CP group compared with to the normal group. CONCLUSIONS: Jerkiness of spontaneous movements at term age provides additional information for predicting CP in infants born preterm.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Peso ao Nascer , Pré-Escolar , Discinesias , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Movimento , Gravação em Vídeo
7.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 55(8): 713-21, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23601036

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of spontaneous movements in preterm infants at term age and developmental delay at 3 years of age. METHOD: We analysed video recordings of the spontaneous movements in the supine position of 124 preterm infants (44 males, 80 females) at 36 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). The infants were born preterm (22-36wks PMA; birthweight 489-1696g) and had not received a diagnosis of a neurological or developmental disorder by the age of 3 years. The recorded spontaneous movements were quantified using six movement indices, which were calculated from two-dimensional trajectories of all limbs. The infants were divided into three developmental groups, normal, borderline, or delayed, based on their developmental quotient as calculated using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale) at 3 years of age. Group differences in the movement indices were analysed. RESULTS: In the delayed group, average velocity of arms and legs were significantly lower (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively), the numbers of movement units of arms and legs were significantly lower (p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively), kurtosis of acceleration of arms and legs was significantly higher (p<0.05 in each case), and correlation between limb velocities was higher (p<0.05) than in the normal group. INTERPRETATION: In children who exhibited developmental delay at 3 years of age, the spontaneous movements at term age can be described as less active with intermittent occurrences of abrupt and synchronized movements of the limbs. Recognition of these characteristics of spontaneous movements at term age may be used as a predictor for subsequent cognitive and behavioural development in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Extremidades/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
J Radiat Res ; 51(6): 665-73, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20972365

RESUMO

The sensitizing effects of wild-type p53 on X-ray-induced cell death and on heat-induced apoptosis in M10, a radiosensitive and Trp53 (mouse p53 gene)-mutated lymphoma cell line which dies through necrosis by X-irradiation, were investigated using three M10 derived transfectants with wild-type TP53 (human p53 gene). Cell death was determined by colony formation and/or dye exclusion test, and apoptosis was detected as the changes in nuclear morphology by Giemsa staining. Expression of wild-type p53 protein increased radiosensitivity of cell death as determined by both clonogenic and dye exclusion assays. This increase in radiosensitivity was attributable largely to apoptosis induction in addition to a small enhancement of necrosis. Interestingly neither pathway to cell death was accompanied by caspase-3 activation. On the other hand, heat-induced caspase-3 dependent apoptotic cell death without transfection was further increased by the transfection of wild-type p53. In conclusion, the introduction of wild-type p53 enhanced apoptotic cell death by X-rays or heat via different mechanisms that do or do not activate caspase-3, respectively. In addition, p53 also enhanced the X-ray-induced necrosis in M10 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Morte Celular/genética , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Morte Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genes p53 , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Necrose , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/fisiologia , Transfecção
9.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 68(3): 883-91, 2007 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17544001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the threshold level for the initiation of apoptosis by studying the quantitative aspect of p53 response to DNA damage in individual cells, to better understand the process in X-ray-induced p53-dependent apoptosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Time-sequential changes in p53 protein level were obtained for X-irradiated MOLT-4 cells using flow cytometry and analyzed. RESULTS: The changes in the cellular frequency distribution pattern of p53 content could be divided into two parts at a certain p53 level. The p53 vs. side-scatter in flow cytometry showed the sequential changes of p53 increase followed by an increase in cell death. On the basis of these results we determined a threshold level of p53 for the initiation of apoptosis. The level was estimated to be (1.08 +/- 0.05) x 10(5) molecules per cell, which was approximately threefold higher than the mean content of control cells. The minimum times for p53 level to reach this threshold level were independent of X-ray dose and 1.4-1.6 h. The times for the signal transduction from the p53 accumulation to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and cell death were 1.6, 2.1, and 2.8 h, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The threshold level of p53 for the initiation of apoptosis and the time sequence in the course of apoptotic events were determined in X-irradiated MOLT-4 cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Leucemia de Células T/metabolismo , Leucemia de Células T/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Limiar Diferencial/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Radiat Environ Biophys ; 46(3): 237-46, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17479275

RESUMO

The protective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against cell killing by (137)Cs gamma-rays were investigated in XRCC4-deficient cell line M10, XRCC4-complemented M10 and the parental mouse leukemia cell line L5178Y. Cell survival was determined by the colony-forming ability. M10 cells were more sensitive to gamma-ray-induced cell death than L5178Y and complemented M10 cells. Cell survival was increased in both M10 and L5178Y in the presence of DMSO. However, estimation of the DMSO-protectable fraction revealed a smaller protectable fraction for M10 cells than for L5178Y cells, indicating that indirect effects contributed in a smaller extent to the cytotoxicity in M10 than that in L5178Y. This effect is due to XRCC4 deficiency, since transfection of XRCC4 cDNA into M10 cells restored the radioprotective effects of DMSO to the level seen in L5178Y. In M10 cells, the killing effects of high LET radiation (Auger electrons from (125)I-antipyrine, carbon ions with an LET of 166 keV microm(-1)) were similar to those of low LET radiation ((137)Cs gamma-rays, characteristic X-rays from (125)I-bovine serum albumin). We discuss that lethal lesions produced by indirect actions in L5178Y and XRCC4-complemented M10 cells may differ, at least in part, from DNA double-strand breaks repairable by non-homologous end joining.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Radioisótopos de Césio , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Raios gama , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Leucemia L5178 , Camundongos , Aceleradores de Partículas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transfecção
11.
Radiat Res ; 165(6): 703-12, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16802871

RESUMO

The contribution of indirect action mediated by OH radicals to cell inactivation by ionizing radiations was evaluated for photons over the energy range from 12.4 keV to 1.25 MeV and for heavy ions over the linear energy transfer (LET) range from 20 keV/microm to 440 keV/microm by applying competition kinetics analysis using the OH radical scavenger DMSO. The maximum level of protection provided by DMSO (the protectable fraction) decreased with decreasing photon energy down to 63% at 12.4 keV. For heavy ions, a protectable fraction of 65% was found for an LET of around 200 keV/microm; above that LET, the value stayed the same. The reaction rate of OH radicals with intracellular molecules responsible for cell inactivation was nearly constant for photon inactivation, while for the heavy ions, the rate increased with increasing LET, suggesting a reaction with the densely produced OH radicals by high-LET ions. Using the protectable fraction, the cell killing was separated into two components, one due to indirect action and the other due to direct action. The inactivation efficiency for indirect action was greater than that for direct action over the photon energy range and the ion LET range tested. A significant contribution of direct action was also found for the increased RBE in the low photon energy region.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Dimetil Sulfóxido/administração & dosagem , Íons Pesados , Transferência Linear de Energia , Modelos Biológicos , Fótons , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Hidróxidos/metabolismo , Doses de Radiação , Protetores contra Radiação/administração & dosagem
12.
J Radiat Res ; 45(4): 509-14, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15635259

RESUMO

The effects of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on mammalian cells have been studied at dose-rates as high as 10(9) Gy/sec delivered as a single 3-nanosecond pulse, and no increase in cytotoxicity was shown compared with delivery at a conventional dose-rate. There have been no observations on the effects of radiation delivered at even higher dose-rates on the picosecond time-scale. Here we examined, for the first time, the effects on cultured mouse L5178Y cells and its radiosensitive XRCC4-deficient mutant M10 cells of sub-picosecond X-rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas at the ultrahigh dose-rate of 10(12)-10(13) Gy/sec. No increase in the sensitivity to the X-rays was observed compared with gamma-rays at a conventional dose-rate. The increase in the sensitivity of L5178Y cells by labeling with 5-iododeoxyuridine was smaller than those irradiated with gamma-rays at a conventional dose-rate, while the difference was apparently the reverse in M10 cells. The D10 ratio between L5178Y cells and M10 cells produced by the X-rays at temporally dense ionization was the same as that produced by X(gamma)-rays at the conventional dose-rate, while the ratio is greatly reduced in the case of particle radiation. These results suggest that there is no increase in the cytotoxic effects of X-rays at dose-rates as high as 10(13) Gy/sec, and that the increased cytotoxicity of particle radiation is not attributable to temporally dense ionization. It is discussed that the mechanism for the induction of radiation damage responsible for cytotoxicity may be slightly modified at ultrahigh dose-rates.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular/efeitos da radiação , DNA/efeitos da radiação , Lasers , Animais , Césio , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Raios gama , Idoxuridina/farmacologia , Íons , Transferência Linear de Energia , Camundongos , Fatores de Tempo , Raios X
13.
J Radiat Res ; 44(2): 179-83, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-13678348

RESUMO

The effects of X-rays on cell survival, apoptosis, and long-term response in the development of cell death as measured by the dye exclusion test were studied in human leukemic MOLT-4 cells (p53 wild-type) stably transfected with a mutant p53 cDNA expression vector. Cell survival, as determined from colony-forming ability, was increased in an expression level dependent manner, but the increase was partial even with the highest-expressing clone (B3). This contrasts with the prior observation that cell death and apoptosis in B3 are completely inhibited at 24 h after irradiation with 1.8 Gy of X-rays. The examination of B3 cells incubated for longer than 24 h after X-irradiation showed a delay in the induction of cell death and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that the time required to reach the highest level of wild-type p53 protein in B3 was longer than the time in MOLT-4 and that the p53 may be stabilized by the phosphorylation at Ser-15. These results suggest that the introduction of mutant p53 into MOLT-4 merely delays the development of apoptosis, during which the cells could repair the damage induced by X-rays, and results in the partial increase in cell survival.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Leucemia Linfoide/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Linfoide/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transfecção , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/efeitos da radiação
14.
Cell Tissue Res ; 310(3): 305-11, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12457229

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that caspase-3 is responsible for determining the mode of cell death, i.e., apoptosis or necrosis. To characterize the mode of cell death induced by the inhibition of caspase-3, we have studied the effects of Ac-DEVD-CHO, Ac-YVAD-CHO, and Ac-IETD-CHO, inhibitors of caspases, on structural changes in X-irradiated human leukemic MOLT-4 cells. When cells were irradiated with X-rays and incubated in the presence of Ac-DEVD-CHO, the expression of cell death, as measured by the dye exclusion test, was inhibited, whereas no such change was observed in colony-forming ability. The hallmarks of apoptosis, i.e., nuclear condensation and DNA ladder formation, were depressed. However, a new type of nuclear morphology appeared. The sum of the frequencies of apoptosis and this new type of nuclear structure corresponded to the frequency of X-ray-induced apoptosis for cells incubated in the absence of Ac-DEVD-CHO. Removal of Ac-DEVD-CHO during the course of post-irradiation incubation increased apoptotic nuclear condensation accompanied by a slight decrease in the frequency of the new type of nuclear structure. When Ac-IETD-CHO was used in place of Ac-DEVD-CHO, inhibition of cell death (apoptosis) was also observed, but not in the case of Ac-YVAD-CHO. These results suggest that the inhibition of caspase-3 diminishes the expression of apoptotic hallmarks with no effect on cell survival, that the morphology observed in the presence of Ac-DEVD-CHO is an apoptosis-related structure, and that the cell death observed is a programmed cell death independent of caspase-3. The development of this mode of cell death was slower than that of apoptosis by 4 h.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Caspases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Caspase 3 , Morte Celular/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Cinética , Leucemia , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Raios X
15.
Hum Cell ; 15(1): 43-51, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12126063

RESUMO

Many proteases are known to be involved in apoptosis. Among them, interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE) and its family proteases, which are called caspases, play critical roles in the execution stage of apoptosis. We previously reported that a proteasome-inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl Leu-Leu-leucinal (ZLLLal), induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. In the present study, in order to analyze the detailed mechanism of ZLLLal-induced apoptosis, we examined the effect of a caspase-inhibitor, acetyl(Ac)-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl ketone (AcYVADcmk), on ZLLLal-induced apoptosis in the cells. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that low concentrations of AcYVADcmk efficiently suppressed apoptotic DNA fragmentation. However, the cells presented morphology different from normal, apoptotic or necrotic cells, although DNA fragmentation was suppressed. The same examination was performed on the cells with anti-Fas antibody-induced apoptosis, and the same results were obtained. Some cells with a similar morphology were found even without the caspase-inhibitor in the early stage of anti-Fas antibody-induced physiological apoptosis. In addition, apoptotic cascade was reactivated by washing out the caspase inhibitor from the DNA degradation-suppressed cells. Therefore, this newly found morphological feature shows the presence of a step prior to caspase activation in the cells, and this is the first report presenting the pre-caspase-activated step in the apoptotic cascade.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Caspases/fisiologia , Clorometilcetonas de Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Caspase , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Leucemia de Células T/patologia , Leupeptinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Timoma/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Receptor fas/imunologia
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