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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The protective effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation against cisplatin (CDDP)-induced nephrotoxicity has been widely described; however, the optimal dose of Mg supplementation is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 20 mEq of Mg supplementation is more effective than 8 mEq Mg in preventing CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as the associated risk factors, in cancer patients treated with CDDP-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Pooled data of 272 patients receiving 20 mEq or 8 mEq Mg supplementation to CDDP-based chemotherapy from a multicenter, retrospective, observational study were compared using propensity score matching. Separate multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors for renal failure induced by each treatment dose. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the incidence of nephrotoxicity between the 8 mEq and 20 mEq groups (P = 0.926). There was also no significant difference in the severity of nephrotoxicity, elevated serum creatinine levels, and decreased estimated creatinine clearance levels between the two groups. Cardiac disease and albumin levels were identified as independent risk factors for CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. CONCLUSION: We did not find an advantage of 20 mEq over 8 mEq Mg supplementation in terms of a preventive effect against CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. The optimal dose of Mg supplementation for the prevention of CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity remains unknown, and further studies are warranted.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We herein report the treatment outcome of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) at Kyushu University Hospital, the total number of OPSCC cases, and changes in the proportion of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related carcinomas over time. METHOD: We performed a retrospective analysis of 237 cases treated for OPSCC at Kyushu University Hospital between 2013 and 2019. We performed HPV-mRNA in situ hybridization and p16 immunohistochemistry. RESULT: This study included 197 males (82.1%) and 40 females (17.9%). The disease-specific, progression-free and overall survival (OS) were 69%, 62% and 61%, respectively, over the decade-long study period. p16-Immunohistochemistory and highrisk HPV mRNA in situ hybridization were positive in 114 (48.1%) and 105 (44.3%) cases, respectively. The number of HPV-related OPSCC cases increased according to an annual analysis. HPV+ cases had a significantly better prognosis than HPV- cases. In addition, p16+/HPV- cases had a significantly worse prognosis than p16+/HPV+ cases (OS: p = 0.0484). HPV+ OPSCC cases were associated with a younger age (< 60 years old) (p = 0.0429), non-smoker (p = 0.0001), lateral tumor site (< 0.00001), lymphoid metastasis (< 0.0001) and low clinical stage (< 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The frequency of HPV-related OPSCC cases is increasing in Japan as well as worldwide, and such cases are characterized by no smoking habit, a young age, and a good prognosis. Even in p16+ OPSCC, HPV- cases had a poor prognosis, suggesting the importance of accurate HPV determination. To determine the intensity of treatment for HPV-related and non-related OPSCC, it is necessary to accumulate cases for the accurate HPV determination and comparison of treatment effects.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830719

RESUMO

We reviewed the results of local surgical treatment of stoma prolapse, a long-term complication of stoma construction. Fifteen patients treated for stomal prolapse between 2009 and 2020 at the authors' and affiliated hospitals were included in this study. The treatment comprised local laparotomic stomal reconstruction (LLSR) in nine patients and stapling repair (SR) in six. We compared and evaluated the clinical and surgical information and postoperative complications. Operation time was significantly shorter in the SR group than in the LLSR group: 20 and 53 min, respectively (p = 0.036). The duration of postoperative hospitalization was shorter in the SR group than in the LLSR group: 5.5 and 8 days, respectively; the difference was not significant (p = 0.088). No short-term complications were found in either group. Regarding long-term, postoperative complications, parastomal hernias developed after 2.5 years in one patient in the LLSR group and after 6 months in one patient in the SR group; both patients had histories of parastomal hernia surgery and had relatively high body mass indices. Local surgery for stomal prolapse was minimally invasive and performed safely. In patients with a history of surgery for parastomal hernia, attention must be paid to the potential of parastomal hernia developing as a postoperative complication.

4.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704338

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer and a significant cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Further improvements of CRC therapeutic approaches are needed. BCL2-associated athanogene 6 (BAG6), a multifunctional scaffold protein, plays an important role in tumor progression. However, regulation of BAG6 in malignancies remains unclear. This study showed that guided entry of tail-anchored proteins factor 4 (GET4), a component of the BAG6 complex, regulates the intercellular localization of BAG6 in CRC. Furthermore, GET4 was identified as a candidate driver gene on the short arm of chromosome 7, which is often amplified in CRC, by our bioinformatics approach using the CRC dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Clinicopathologic and prognostic analyses using CRC datasets showed that GET4 was overexpressed in tumor cells due to an increased DNA copy number. High GET4 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor in CRC, whereas BAG6 was mainly overexpressed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells without gene alteration. The biological significance of GET4 was examined using GET4 KO CRC cells generated with CRISPR-Cas9 technology or transfected CRC cells. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that GET4 promoted tumor growth. It appears to facilitate cell cycle progression by cytoplasmic enrichment of BAG6-mediated p53 acetylation followed by reduced p21 expression. In conclusion, we showed that GET4 is a novel driver gene and a prognostic biomarker that promotes CRC progression by inducing the cytoplasmic transport of BAG6. GET4 could be a promising therapeutic molecular target in CRC.

5.
Zool Stud ; 60: e7, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394756

RESUMO

The type series of Semisulcospira multigranosa Boettger, 1886 was found in the Malacological Collection at the Senckenberg Naturmuseum for the first time ca. 135 years after its original description. The syntypes consisted of 38 specimens that can be classified into four species. The examination of adult shell morphology of these original materials revealed that the current taxonomic account of S. multigranosa should be amended. Therefore, we designate a lectotype for S. multigranosa, and thus describe S. multigranosa auct. as Semisulcospira davisi sp. nov. Semisulcospira davisi can be discriminated from the other congeners by the characteristics of adult and embryonic shells, and radulae morphology. The present study resolves one of the fundamental taxonomic problems remaining in Semisulcospira snails.

6.
Laryngoscope ; 131(12): 2674-2683, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The tumor immune microenvironment in temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TBSCC), including the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), has not been established. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry analyses to retrospectively analyze 123 TBSCC cases for PD-L1 expression and TILs and their prognostic significance. We also evaluated the prognostic correlations between these immunomarkers and the therapeutic responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT). RESULTS: PD-L1 expression (≥1%) was detected in 62 (50.4%) TBSCC cases and was significantly associated with worse prognosis: progression-free survival (PFS), P < .0001; overall survival (OS), P = .0009. A high density of CD8+ TILs was significantly associated with better prognosis (PFS, P = .0012; OS, P = .0120). In contrast, a high density of Foxp3+ TILs tended to be associated with an unfavorable prognosis (PFS, P = .0148; OS, P = .0850). With regard to the tumor microenvironment subtypes defined by CD8+ TILs and PD-L1 expression, the CD8low /PD-L1+ group showed significantly worse prognosis. Among the 36 neoadjuvant CRT-treated cases, PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with worse OS (P = .0132). Among the 32 CRT-treated cases without surgery, a high density of CD8+ TILs tended to be more highly associated with complete response to CRT compared to a low density of CD8+ TILs (P = .0702). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the evaluation of the tumor immune microenvironment may contribute to the prediction of prognoses and the selection of an individualized therapeutic strategy for patients with TBSCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2674-2683, 2021.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Cranianas/imunologia , Osso Temporal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Biópsia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cranianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cranianas/patologia , Neoplasias Cranianas/cirurgia , Osso Temporal/imunologia , Osso Temporal/cirurgia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
7.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 141(2): 263-272, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518647

RESUMO

As one of the strategies for the early detection and treatment of osteoporosis, we have recommended visiting a hospital, based on the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) and evaluation questionnaire for osteoporotic fracture risk. In this study, we evaluated the impact of intervention by community pharmacists by integrating our data for the FRAX® and questionnaire. The measurement of FRAX® and the questionnaire survey were conducted through participation in health seminars organized by a community general support center from June 2018 to December 2019. Participants with a FRAX® score more than 15% and at least one item in the questionnaire were considered to have "suspected osteoporosis" were recommended medical consultation. The medical treatment status for the participants considered to have "suspected osteoporosis" aged 40-90 years were analyzed. Of the 84 participants, 54 had a FRAX® score more than 15%, and 44 participants fulfilled at least one item in the questionnaire. Medical consultation was recommended to 26 of these 44 participants, excluding 18 under treatment. Of the 25 participants, six (excluding one who disagreed) received consultation, and medical treatment was started for four of them (66.7%). However, consultation with the attending physician was recommended to five of the 18 participants who were initially on treatment but discontinued it at the time of the survey. Consequently, two participants resumed their osteoporosis treatment. Our data suggest advantages of community pharmacists' intervention using FRAX® and a questionnaire for osteoporotic fracture risk measurement for early detection and medical treatment.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Farmácias , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Medição de Risco/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1655-1668, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605496

RESUMO

Targeting mutated oncogenes is an effective approach for treating cancer. The 4 main driver genes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4, collectively called the "big 4" of PDAC, however they remain challenging therapeutic targets. In this study, ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2 (ASAP2), one of the ArfGAP family, was identified as a novel driver gene in PDAC. Clinical analysis with PDAC datasets showed that ASAP2 was overexpressed in PDAC cells based on increased DNA copy numbers, and high ASAP2 expression contributed to a poor prognosis in PDAC. The biological roles of ASAP2 were investigated using ASAP2-knockout PDAC cells generated with CRISPR-Cas9 technology or transfected PDAC cells. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that ASAP2 promoted tumor growth by facilitating cell cycle progression through phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A repositioned drug targeting the ASAP2 pathway was identified using a bioinformatics approach. The gene perturbation correlation method showed that niclosamide, an antiparasitic drug, suppressed PDAC growth by inhibition of ASAP2 expression. These data show that ASAP2 is a novel druggable driver gene that activates the EGFR signaling pathway. Furthermore, niclosamide was identified as a repositioned therapeutic agent for PDAC possibly targeting ASAP2.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes erbB-1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(9): 5029-5035, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590260

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dexamethasone (DEX)-sparing strategies (one-day DEX) with palonosetron as doublet antiemetic prophylaxis have previously been studied. However, DEX-sparing regimens with 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3RA) and aprepitant (APR), as triplet antiemetic prophylaxis, have not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of 5-HT3RA, APR, and DEX on day 1 of carboplatin (CBDCA)-based chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: Data were pooled from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective observational study using propensity score-matched analysis to compare the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) between one- and multiple-day DEX regimens in combination with 5-HT3RA plus APR. RESULTS: Incidence of delayed nausea was significantly higher in the one-day than in the multiple-day DEX group. Incidence of nausea was also significantly higher in the one-day than in the multiple-day DEX group on days 3-5. Kaplan-Meier curves for nausea showed a significant difference between the two groups; however, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of vomiting or the Kaplan-Meier curves of time to vomiting. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the efficacy of a DEX-sparing regimen by comparing one- and multiple-day DEX combined with 5-HT3RA and APR concerning CINV incidence in lung cancer patients receiving CBDCA-based chemotherapy. Antiemetic regimens of one-day DEX result in poor control of delayed nausea; therefore, we recommend the application of the DEX-sparing strategy only after careful patient selection while considering the development of nausea.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/epidemiologia , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Pontuação de Propensão , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Histopathology ; 79(3): 358-369, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450095

RESUMO

AIMS: p16 is a sensitive surrogate marker for transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), but it is not sufficient in all clinical settings. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the p16 and Rb expression status in 177 OPSCC cases by immunohistochemistry and the presence of transcriptionally active HR-HPV infection by mRNA in-situ hybridisation. The 177 cases were divided into p16+ /HPV+ (n = 105, 59.3%), p16+ /HPV- (n = 8, 4.5%) and p16- /HPV- (n = 64, 36.2%) groups. The p16+ /HPV- and p16- /HPV- groups had a trend towards worse overall survival (OS) or significantly worse OS than the p16+ /HPV+ group (n = 105) (P = 0.0610, P = 0.0004, respectively). We divided the Rb status into preserved expression (> 90%, n = 68), partial loss (PL) (10-90%, n = 97) and complete loss (CL) (< 10%, n = 12). Among the HPV-positive cases (n = 105), the Rb pattern was typically PL (n = 97, 92.4%) and rarely CL (n = 8, 7.6%), but never preserved expression (0%). In contrast, among the HPV-negative cases (n = 72), the Rb pattern was typically preserved expression (n = 68, 94.4%) and rarely CL (n = 4, 5.6%), but never PL (0%). Compared to p16 alone, the combination of p16 overexpression and Rb-PL/CL showed equally excellent sensitivity (each 100%) and improved specificity (97.2 versus 88.9%) and positive predictive values (98.1 versus 92.9%). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the combined use of p16 and Rb immunohistochemistry could be a reliable, cost-effective method to predict HR-HPV infection in OPSCCs; however, HPV specific testing is necessary on inconclusive cases. We propose a diagnostic algorithm for practical use of these markers.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 74, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with lung cancer who are treated with carboplatin-based chemotherapy regimens often experience chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, knowledge on the effect of regimen and cofactors on the risk of CINV is limited. This study aimed to analyze and compare the incidence of CINV between lung cancer patients undergoing carboplatin plus pemetrexed (CBDCA+PEM) and those undergoing carboplatin plus paclitaxel (CBDCA+PTX) chemotherapy. METHODS: Pooled data of 240 patients from two prospective observational studies were compared using propensity score matching. Separate multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. RESULTS: Delayed nausea was significantly more common in patients treated with CBDCA+PEM than in those treated with CBDCA+PTX (51.1% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.04), but the incidence of vomiting did not significantly differ between the two groups (23.4% vs. 14.9%, P = 0.14). The occurrence of CINV peaked on day 4 in the CBDCA+PTX group and on day 5 in the CBDCA+PEM group. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex, younger age, and CBDCA+PEM regimen were independent risk factors for delayed nausea, while female sex was an independent risk factor for delayed vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: The CBDCA + PEM regimen has a higher risk of causing delayed nausea than the CBDCA + PTX regimen, and aggressive antiemetic prophylaxis should be offered to patients treated with CBDCA + PEM.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/epidemiologia , Vômito/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Pemetrexede/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/prevenção & controle
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420078

RESUMO

Valproic acid (VPA) is widely prescribed to treat epilepsy. Maternal VPA use is, however, clinically restricted because of the severe risk that VPA may cause neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring, such as autism spectrum disorder. Understanding the negative action of VPA may help to prevent VPA-induced neurodevelopmental disorders. Astrocytes play a vital role in neurodevelopment and synapse function; however, the impact of VPA on astrocyte involvement in neurodevelopment and synapse function has not been examined. In this study, we examined whether exposure of cultured astrocytes to VPA alters neuronal morphology and synapse function of co-cultured neurons. We show that synaptic transmission by inhibitory neurons was small because VPA-exposed astrocytes reduced the number of inhibitory synapses. However, synaptic transmission by excitatory neurons and the number of excitatory synapses were normal with VPA-exposed astrocytes. VPA-exposed astrocytes did not affect the morphology of inhibitory neurons. These data indicate that VPA-exposed astrocytes impair synaptogenesis specifically of inhibitory neurons. Our results indicate that maternal use of VPA would affect not only neurons but also astrocytes and would result in perturbed astrocyte-mediated neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/toxicidade , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Valproico/toxicidade , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios GABAérgicos/patologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/patologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 154: 106984, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059064

RESUMO

Talitrids are a highly diverse group of amphipod crustaceans that have colonized various terrestrial habitats. Three genera have successfully adapted to cave habitats on islands in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. However, the evolutionary origin of the Pacific troglobitic talitrids has remained unknown. We estimate the phylogenetic position of the troglobitic Minamitalitrus zoltani, which inhabits limestone caves on Minamidaito Island in the Northwestern Pacific, on the basis of the traditional multi-locus dataset. For the analyzed talitrids, we also reconstruct ancestral states of the maxilliped palp and male gnathopod 2. Our results indicate that Minamitalitrus zoltani is sister to the epigean Nipponorchestia curvatus with a deep divergence. Nipponorchestia curvatus inhabits coastal habitats in Japan, but is not indigenous to Minamidaito Island. A previous study estimated that the Atlantic troglobitic species had invaded subterranean habitats multiple times, but we provide new insight into the troglobisation history in talitrids. We also recover secondary shifts of character states of the maxilliped palp and male gnathopod 2 within the lineage composed of Minamitalitrus and its phylogenetically close genera. Our findings highlight the need for the genus-level reclassification of these genera; we split Nipponorchestia into two genera, establishing a new genus for Nipponorchestia nudiramus.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/classificação , Cavernas , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Japão , Masculino
14.
Cancer Sci ; 112(2): 744-750, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274555

RESUMO

Delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is not well controlled in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-based chemotherapy. Whether neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist addition to a first-generation 5HT3 antagonist (1st 5-HT3 RA) and dexamethasone (DEX) is beneficial to these patients remains controversial. Furthermore, whether palonosetron (PALO) or aprepitant (APR) is more effective in controlling delayed CINV is unclear. We, therefore, investigated whether PALO+DEX or 1st 5-HT3 RA+DEX+APR was more effective in controlling delayed CINV, and the risk factors for delayed CINV, in CRC patients undergoing L-OHP-based chemotherapy. Data were pooled from two prospective observational Japanese studies and a phase III trial to compare CINV incidence between the PALO + DEX (PALO) and 5-HT3 RA+DEX+APR (APR) groups by propensity score-matched analysis. CINV risk factors were identified using logistic regression models. The CINV incidence was higher in the PALO group than in the APR group. Logistic regression analysis revealed alcohol consumption, motion sickness, and the PALO+DEX regimen as independent risk factors for delayed nausea, and female sex and the PALO+DEX regimen as those for delayed vomiting. Compared with prophylactic PALO + DEX, 1st 5-HT3 RA+DEX+APR was more effective in controlling delayed CINV. Thus, CRC patients receiving L-OHP-based chemotherapy should be treated with three antiemetics, including APR.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Aprepitanto/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/epidemiologia , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Palonossetrom/uso terapêutico , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/epidemiologia
15.
Hum Pathol ; 109: 37-44, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301751

RESUMO

Salivary secretory carcinoma (SASC) is frequently associated with ETV6-neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) 3 fusion and more rarely with RET, MET, or ALK rearrangement. We aimed to elucidate the potential diagnostic utility of pan-tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) immunohistochemistry and its relationship with the fusion gene subtype in SASC. We examined 33 cases of SASC for immunoexpression of pan-Trk, ALK and ROS1, and gene rearrangement of the ETV6, NTRK3, and RET genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty (90.9%) of 33 SASCs harbored ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene transcripts by RT-PCR and/or both ETV6 and NTRK3 gene rearrangements by FISH, and 3 cases (9.1%) had RET gene rearrangement. Most NTRK3-rearranged SASCs (27/33 cases; 81.8%) had conventional ETV6 exon 5-NTRK3 exon 15 fusion, whereas 2 cases (6.1%) had both the conventional fusion and a novel ETV6 exon 4-NTRK3 exon 15 fusion variant. In the remaining one case (3%), only FISH revealed both ETV6 and NTRK3 rearrangements, suggesting an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion with an as yet undetermined break point. All 30 SASCs with ETV6-NTRK3 fusion and/or NTRK3 rearrangement showed nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for pan-Trk. In contrast, 3 SASCs with RET rearrangement showed negative or only weak cytoplasmic staining for pan-Trk. There was no case harboring ALK and ROS1 rearrangements. All 17 non-SASC tumors were negative for pan-Trk. The results suggest that nuclear and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for pan-TRK may be helpful to identify ETV6-NTRK3-fused SASCs and to distinguish them from RET-rearranged SASCs and morphological mimics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Carcinoma/imunologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/imunologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Tropomiosina/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Micron ; 138: 102929, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896812

RESUMO

This is the first report that describes histological and ultrastructural details of ovary organization in haemadipsid leeches. In Haemadipsa japonica, the female reproductive system is organized similar to that of other haemadipsids. Each of the paired and oval ovaries of H. japonica is comprised of the ovary wall (ovisac), which encloses two elongated, thread-like ovarian units termed ovary cords. Ovary cords are comprised of germ-line cells and associated somatic cells. Each cord is polarized and contains germ-line cells in the consecutive developmental stages that are sequentially located along the long cord axis. There were three zones in each cord: the club-shaped apical part, the thread-like middle part, and the basal-most end, which contains degenerating germ cells. Outside of the reproductive period, the middle part of the cord in leeches is smooth, and no growing oocytes are visible; alternatively, in mature specimens, several growing oocytes protrude from the cord, and several huge vitellogenic oocytes that are completely detached from the cord occur within the ovisac. Ovary cord organization and functioning in H. japonica are very similar to the 'Hirudo' type cords that were found in several hirudiniform leeches. This conclusion supports the view that all hirudiniform leeches have conservative ovary cord organization and a similar pattern of oogenesis. Germ-line cyst composition, architecture, and functioning were also found to be evolutionarily conservative characteristics when compared with all previously examined Clitellata. In the germ-line cysts found in H. japonica each cell is connected to the central and anuclear cytoplasmic mass (cytophore) via one intercellular bridge, and, as oogenesis progresses, the fate of interconnected cell diversifies: some of them (oocytes) grow and complete oogenesis, but the majority become nurse cells and finally degenerate. Thus, oogenesis in H. japonica, similar to other clitellates, can be considered meroistic.


Assuntos
Sanguessugas/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Células Germinativas , Sanguessugas/ultraestrutura , Oócitos/ultraestrutura , Oogênese , Ovário/anatomia & histologia
17.
Parasitology ; 147(14): 1765-1773, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943118

RESUMO

The duognathous haemadipsid leeches of the genus Chtonobdella show a trans-oceanic distribution throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Although passive long-distance dispersal (LDD) of Chtonobdella leeches by birds has been suggested, little is known about the host-parasite relationships between avian hosts and Chtonobdella leeches. In the current study, we investigated Chtonobdella leech infestations of the eyes and other mucus membranes of migratory procellariiform seabirds, Pterodroma hypoleuca and Oceanodroma tristrami, captured at six locations in the Bonin Islands, Honshu and Okinawa Island, Japan. Analyses of the partial sequences of 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and morphological examination of the specimens demonstrated that the Chtonobdella leeches belonged to Chtonobdella palmyrae, which is indigenous to Palmyra Atoll in the Northern Line Islands. A dominant COI sequence type was observed in samples from all six sites; therefore, C. palmyrae almost surely dispersed approximately 1000 km by infesting the eyes and mucus membranes of procellariiform seabirds. The host-parasite relationships between procellariiform seabirds and C. palmyrae provide explicit evidence of the LDD of duognathous haemadipsid leeches. The taxonomic status of Haemadipsa zeylanica ivosimae from the Volcano Islands is also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Aves , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Animais , Ilhas , Japão
18.
Ecol Evol ; 10(12): 6030-6038, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607210

RESUMO

Since the 1990s, increasing populations of a blood feeding land leech (Haemadipsa japonica) have become a serious issue in several Japanese prefectures, and it may be caused by the increases in sika deer (Cervus nippon) populations seen over the last quarter of the century. Therefore, this study aimed to reveal the host animal species of H. japonica using iDNA (vertebrate DNA isolated from invertebrates) and to test the hypothesis that the increasingly widespread distribution of sika deer results in increased H. japonica populations through changes to the host-parasite interface. We amplified mitochondrial DNA 16S ribosome RNA fragments from iDNA isolated from the blood clots of H. japonica collected across Japan. We identified 17 host animal species, including four orders of Mammalia (Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Rodentia, and Lagomorpha) and two orders of Amphibia (Caudata and Anura). The sika deer was the dominant host species of H. japonica. Additionally, the host animal species composition of H. japonica differed according to the presence or absence of sika deer. In the sites where sika deer were not found, Anura (frog) species were the most commonly identified hosts of H. japonica. These results suggest that the increases in H. japonica populations might have occurred via a change in host preference to sika deer. This change might be driven by the increases in sika deer populations and subsequent increase in the frequency that H. japonica uses the sika deer as easy prey, as well as by sika deer providing more reproductive energy per blood meal than blood meal from frog species. The present study suggests that a more widespread distribution of sika deer resulted in an increase in H. japonica through a change in the host-parasite interface. Therefore, management that focuses on decreasing sika deer populations would likely be an effective method for the reduction of H. japonica populations.

19.
Zookeys ; 933: 1-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508488

RESUMO

Hirudinaria manillensis (Lesson, 1842), commonly known as the buffalo leech, shows a polymorphism of two ventral colorations. The green color morph has a plain green ventral surface and the red color morph has a brick-red ventral surface with two black submarginal stripes. Based on molecular and morphological evidence in the present study, these two color morphs were revealed as two different species. The red color morph fits well with the description of H. manillensis, while the green color morph showed some distinctions, and therefore is described herein as Hirudinaria thailandica Jeratthitikul & Panha, sp. nov. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the dark greenish or dark olive ventral surface and a round atrium with ventral insertion of ejaculatory ducts in the male reproductive organ. A phylogenetic tree based on concatenated data of COI and 28S genes supported the new species and further indicated it as a sister species to H. bpling Phillips, 2012.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(21): 217201, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530697

RESUMO

Insulating antiferromagnets have recently emerged as efficient and robust conductors of spin current. Element-specific and phase-resolved x-ray ferromagnetic resonance has been used to probe the injection and transmission of ac spin current through thin epitaxial NiO(001) layers. The spin current is found to be mediated by coherent evanescent spin waves of GHz frequency, rather than propagating magnons of THz frequency, paving the way towards coherent control of the phase and amplitude of spin currents within an antiferromagnetic insulator at room temperature.

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