Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 729
Filtrar
1.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246277

RESUMO

Significant technological advances in radiotherapy have been made in the past few decades. High-precision radiotherapy has recently become popular and is contributing to improvements in the local control of the irradiated target lesions and the reduction of adverse effects. Accordingly, for long-term survival, the importance of systemic cancer control, including at non-irradiated sites, is growing. Toward this challenge, the treatment methods in which anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies that exert systemic effects by restoring anti-tumour immunity are combined with radiotherapy has attracted attention in recent years. Previous studies have reported the activation of anti-tumour immunity by radiotherapy, which simultaneously elevates PD-L1 expression, suggesting a potential for combination therapy. Radiotherapy induces so-called 'immunogenic cell death', which involves cell surface translocation of calreticulin and extracellular release of high-mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB-1) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). Furthermore, radiotherapy causes immune activation via MHC class I upregulation and cGAS-STING pathway. In contrast, induction of immunosuppressive lymphocytes and the release of immunosuppressive cytokines and chemokines by radiotherapy contribute to immunosuppressive reactions. In this article, we review immune responses induced by radiotherapy as well as previous reports to support the rationale of combination of radiotherapy and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. A number of preclinical and clinical studies have shown the efficacy of radiotherapy combined with immune checkpoint inhibition, hence combination therapy is considered to be an important future strategy for cancer treatment.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how comprehensive evaluations conducted prior to clinical clerkships (CC), such as the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and computer-based testing (CBT), reflect the performance of medical students in CC. Here we retrospectively analyzed correlations between OSCE and CBT scores and CC performance. METHODS: Ethical approval was obtained from our institutional review board. We analyzed correlations between OSCE and CBT scores and CC performance in 94 medical students who took the OSCE and CBT in 2017 when they were 4th year students, and who participated in the basic CC in 2018 when they were 5th year students. RESULTS: Total scores for OSCE and CBT were significantly correlated with CC performance (P<0.001, each). More specifically, medical interview and chest examination components of the OSCE were significantly correlated with CC performance (P = 0.001, each), while the remaining five components of the OSCE were not. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the OSCE and CBT play important roles in predicting CC performance in Japanese medical education context. Among OSCE components, medical interview and chest examination were suggested to be important for predicting CC performance.

3.
Transl Oncol ; 13(4): 100757, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220762

RESUMO

We recently reported the dose-dependent therapeutic effect of 211At-NaAt in differentiated thyroid cancer xenograft models. In the present study, we evaluated the radiation-induced toxicity of 211At-NaAt using detailed hematological, biochemical, and histological analyses. Biodistribution of 211At-NaAt was measured in normal ICR mice (n = 12), absorbed doses in the major organs were calculated. Groups of ICR mice (n = 60) were injected with 0.1 MBq or 1 MBq of 211At-NaAt, using saline as the control group (n = 30). Body weight and food intake were followed up for 60 days. Blood cell counts and serum level of biochemical parameters were measured 3, 7, 15, 29, 60 days after injection. Histological analyses of the major organs with hematoxylin and eosin staining were performed. Biodistribution study revealed a high-absorbed dose in the thyroid gland, stomach, bladder, heart, lungs, spleen, kidneys, and testis. The 0.1 MBq group showed no abnormalities. The 1 MBq group showed decreased body weight and food intake. Histological analysis showed atrophy and fibrosis in the thyroid gland, a transient hypospermatogenesis in the testis on day 29 was found in one mouse. Hematological toxicity was mild and transient. The total cholesterol, albumin, and total protein increased with no signs of recovery, which was considered to be caused by hypothyroidism. High-dose administration of 211At-NaAt showed transient toxicity in the white blood cells and testis without severe hematological or renal toxicity, suggesting its tolerable safety as targeted alpha-therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in the 1 MBq group.

4.
Pain ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187118

RESUMO

Physical disuse could lead to a state of chronic pain typified by complex regional pain syndrome type I due to fear of pain through movement (kinesiophobia) or inappropriate resting procedures. However, the mechanisms by which physical disuse is associated with acute/chronic pain and other pathological signs remain unresolved. We have previously reported that inflammatory signs, contractures, disuse muscle atrophy, spontaneous pain-like behaviors, and chronic widespread mechanical hyperalgesia based on central plasticity occurred after 2-weeks of cast immobilization in chronic post-cast pain (CPCP) rat model. In the present study, we also demonstrated dystrophy-like changes, both peripheral nociceptive signals and activation of the central pain pathway in CPCP rats. This was done by the following methods: (1) vascular permeability (Evans blue dye) and inflammatory- and oxidative stress-related messenger RNA (mRNA) changes (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction); (2) immunofluorescence of pERK and/or c-Fos expression in the spino-parabrachio-amygdaloid pathway; and (3) blockade of nociceptive-related signals using sciatic nerve block (SNB). Furthermore, we demonstrated tactile allodynia using an optogenetic method in a transgenic rat line (W-TChR2V4), cold allodynia using the acetone test, and activation of dorsal horn neurons in the chronic phase associated with chronic mechanical hyperalgesia using c-Fos immunofluorescence. In addition, we showed that nociceptive signals in the acute phase are involved in chronic pathological pain-like behaviors by studying the effects of SNB. Thus, we conclude that physical disuse contributes to dystrophy-like changes, spontaneous pain-like behavior, and chronic widespread pathological pain-like behaviors in CPCP rats after 2 weeks of cast immobilization.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142552

RESUMO

A Compton camera is a device for imaging a radio-source distribution without using a mechanical collimator. Ordered-subset expectation-maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to reconstruct Compton images. However, the OS-EM algorithm tends to over-concentrate and amplify noise in the reconstructed image. It is, thus, necessary to optimize the number of iterations to develop high-quality images, but this has not yet been achieved. In this paper, we apply a median filter to an OS-EM algorithm and introduce a median root prior expectation-maximization (MRP-EM) algorithm to overcome this problem. In MRP-EM, the median filter is used to update the image in each iteration. We evaluated the quality of images reconstructed by our proposed method and compared them with those reconstructed by conventional algorithms using mathematical phantoms. The spatial resolution was estimated using the images of two point sources. Reproducibility was evaluated on an ellipsoidal phantom by calculating the residual sum of squares, zero-mean normalized cross-correlation, and mutual information. In addition, we evaluated the semi-quantitative performance and uniformity on the ellipsoidal phantom. MRP-EM reduces the generated noise and is robust with respect to the number of iterations. An evaluation of the reconstructed image quality using some statistical indices shows that our proposed method delivers better results than conventional techniques.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143495

RESUMO

This study aimed to first elucidate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). From 2010 to 2015, 131 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with CIRT (57.6 Gy relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in 16 fractions) alone were recruited. PSA was measured at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60 months post-CIRT. PSA bounce was defined as PSA increase over a cutoff followed by spontaneous decrease to or below the pre-bounce nadir. PSA failure was determined using the Phoenix criteria (nadir + 2.0 ng/mL). As a result, non-failure-associated temporary increase in PSA exhibited two distinct patterns, namely a classical bounce and a surge at one month. PSA bounce of ³0.2 ng/mL was observed in 55.7% of the patients. Bounce amplitude was <2.0 ng/mL in 97.6% of cases. Bounce occurred significantly earlier than PSA failure. Younger age was a significant predictor of bounce occurrence. Bounce positivity was a significant predictor of favorable 5-year PSA failure-free survival. Meanwhile, a PSA surge of ³0.2 ng/mL was observed in 67.9% of patients. Surge amplitude was significantly larger than bounce amplitude. Larger prostate volume was a significant predictor of PSA surge occurrence. PSA surge positivity did not significantly predict PSA failure. In summary, PSA bounce was distinguishable from PSA failure with regard to timing of occurrence and amplitude (earlier and lower for bounce, respectively). These data are useful for post-CIRT surveillance of prostate cancer patients.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 75, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon ion Radiotherapy for prostate cancer is widely used, however reports are limited from single institute or short follow up. We performed a prospective observational study (GUNMA0702) to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer. METHODS: Between June 2010 and August 2013, 304 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated, with a median follow-up duration of 60 months. All patients received carbon ion radiotherapy with 57.6 Gy (RBE) in 16 fractions over 4 weeks. Hormonal therapy was given according to the risk group. Toxicity was reported according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Event, Version 4.0 by the National Cancer Institute. RESULTS: The overall 5-year biochemical relapse-free rate was 92.7%, with rates of 91.7, 93.4, and 92.0% in low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients, respectively. The 5-year local control and overall survival rates were 98.4 and 96.6%, respectively. Acute grade 3 or greater toxicity was not observed. Late grade 2 and grade 3 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity rates were 9 and 0.3%, and 0.3, and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present protocol of carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer provided low genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity with good biochemical control within 5 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry number: UMIN000003827.

8.
Anat Sci Int ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036559

RESUMO

The sagittal band of the finger is an aponeurosis-like structure surrounding the metacarpophalangeal joint. Sagittal band rupture causes extensor tendon dislocation from the dorsal side of the metacarpophalangeal joint. The thumb has two extensor tendons: extensor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons. Multiple studies have reported variations of extensor pollicis brevis tendon insertion. However, it remains unclear how the thumb sagittal band envelopes the extensor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons. This study investigated the anatomical relationship between the sagittal band and the two extensor tendons of the thumb. One hundred hands (47 right, 53 left) from 54 cadavers were examined to assess the detailed structure of the thumb sagittal band and extensor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons. We found that the thumb sagittal band enveloped both the tendons either separately (type I) or collectively (type II). Thirty-four cases (34.0%) were type I and 66 cases (66.0%) were type II. The extensor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons enveloped in the type I thumb sagittal band were inserted on different sites, respectively, whereas those tendons enveloped in the type II thumb sagittal band were inserted on the same sites. This study demonstrated that differences in the type of thumb sagittal band are closely associated with variations in extensor pollicis brevis tendon insertion. We predicted that these differences contribute to the sliding distance between the extensor pollicis brevis and extensor pollicis longus tendons and affect the pathophysiology of extensor tendon dislocation.

10.
J Radiat Res ; 61(2): 275-284, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052042

RESUMO

The current study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) of the uterine cervix after definitive radiotherapy (RT) and to evaluate prognostic factors, including immunity-related molecules. A total of 71 patients with AC of the uterine cervix from multiple Japanese institutions were retrospectively analysed. Histological subtypes were diagnosed according to the 2014 World Health Organization classification. All patients underwent definitive RT comprising external beam RT and intracavitary brachytherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical studies were performed to detect the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1(PD-L1) and CD8. The 5-year locoregional control (LC), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates for all patients were 61.8, 49.7 and 36.1%, respectively. The LC, OS and PFS rates were not significantly different among the histological subtypes. Membranous PD-L1 expression was not significantly associated with prognosis. Patients with CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (CD8+TILs) in the tumor nests had significantly better OS than patients without CD8+TILs in the tumor nests (5-year OS: 53.8 vs 23.8%, P = 0.038). As expected, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (2008) III-IVA and maximum tumor diameter > 40 mm were significantly associated with worse prognosis. In summary, the presence of CD8+TILs in the tumor nests has the potential to be an independent favorable prognostic factor for patients with AC of the uterine cervix after definitive RT.

11.
Radiother Oncol ; 144: 224-230, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess dose distributions for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with passive scattering carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) using daily computed tomography (CT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 10 patients with stage I NSCLC and acquired a total of 40 pre-fractional CT image series under the same settings as the planning CT images. These CT images were registered with planning CT images for dose evaluation using both bone matching (BM) and tumor matching (TM). Using deformable image registration, we generated accumulated doses. Moreover, the volumetric dose parameters were compared in terms of tumor coverage and lung exposure and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 25% of 40 fractional dose distributions were unacceptable with BM, compared with 2.5% with TM (P < 0.001). Using BM, three patients' accumulated dose distributions were unacceptable; however, all were satisfactory with TM (P < 0.001). No differences were observed in water-equivalent path length (WEL). The required margins in patients with poor dose distribution were 5.9 and 4.4 mm for BM and TM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes that CT image-based TM is robust compared with conventional BM for both daily and accumulated dose distributions. The effects of changes in WEL seem to be limited. Hence, daily CT alignment is recommended for patients with stage I NSCLC receiving C-ion RT.

12.
Cancer Med ; 9(4): 1400-1408, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with concurrent chemotherapy (chemo-C-ion RT) is a promising treatment for adenocarcinoma (AC) of the uterine cervix, its long-term efficacy remains unclear. We evaluated the long-term significance of concurrent weekly cisplatin and C-ion RT for locally advanced AC of the uterine cervix. METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of patients with stage IIB-IVA AC of the uterine cervix who underwent C-ion RT alone or chemo-C-ion RT between September 2007 and December 2018 at our institution. Patients received 74.4 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) with or without cisplatin (40 mg/m2 per week for up to 5 weeks), underwent no prior pelvic RT or systemic therapy, and had a performance status of 0-2. Propensity score matching was based on the year of diagnosis, regional lymph node metastasis, and stage. RESULTS: The matched cohort contained 26 patients who underwent C-ion RT and 26 who underwent chemo-C-ion RT. The median age and follow-up period were 57 (range, 28-79) years and 34 (range, 2-126) months, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rate was significantly better in the chemo-C-ion RT group (72%) than in the C-ion RT group (46%; P = .041). The 5-year distant metastatic-free rate was also significantly better in the chemo-C-ion RT group (66%) than in the C-ion RT group (41%; P = .048). The incidence of grade ≥ 3 late toxicities was comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chemo-C-ion RT for locally advanced AC of the uterine cervix is associated with a long-term survival benefit.

13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 459-464, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study compared the dose distributions of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (LAHCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted in 10 consecutive patients with LAHCC who had undergone C-ion RT. The dose-volume histogram parameters of clinical plans using C-ion RT at 60 Gy and simulated plans using IMRT at 60 Gy and 50 Gy were compared. We measured the percentage of the normal liver volume that received at least 5 Gy (V5), 10 Gy (V10), 20 Gy (V20), 30 Gy (V30), 40 Gy (V40), and 50 Gy (V50). RESULTS: The V5, V10, V20, and the mean liver dose were significantly lower in patients who received 60 Gy of C-ion RT than in those who received 50 or 60 Gy of IMRT. CONCLUSION: C-ion RT exhibits a better liver dose distribution than IMRT in patients with LAHCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Radioterapia com Íons Pesados , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral
16.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(5): 05LT01, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323647

RESUMO

The Compton camera can simultaneously acquire images of multiple isotopes injected in a body; therefore, it has the potential to introduce a new subfield in the field of biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of a prototype semiconductor-based silicon/cadmium telluride (Si/CdTe) Compton camera to simultaneously image the distributions of technetium (99mTc)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) (141 keV emission) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (511 keV emission) injected into a human volunteer. 99mTc-DMSA and 18F-FDG were injected intravenously into a 25-year-old male volunteer. The distributions of 99mTc-DMSA and 18F-FDG were simultaneously made visible by setting a specified energy window for each radioisotope. The images of these radiopharmaceuticals acquired using the prototype Compton camera were superimposed onto computed tomography images for reference. The reconstructed image showed that 99mTc-DMSA had accumulated in both kidneys, which is consistent with the well-known diagnostic distribution determined by clinical imaging via single-photon emission computed tomography. In the 18F-FDG image, there is broad distribution around the liver and kidneys, which was expected based on routine clinical positron emission tomography imaging. The current study demonstrated for the first time that the Si/CdTe Compton camera was capable of simultaneously imaging the distributions of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTc-DMSA and 18F-FDG, in a human body. These results suggest that the Si/CdTe Compton camera has the potential to become a novel modality for nuclear medical diagnoses enabling multi-probe simultaneous tracking.

17.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 413-418, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823012

RESUMO

Feline paramyxovirus (FPaV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae that has been reported only in Germany and the United Kingdom. We detected FPaV for the first time in Japan by transcriptome sequencing of cat urine samples. We determined the genome structure of FPaV and conducted a phylogenetic analysis. It was found that FPaV belongs to the genus Jeilongvirus and forms a clade with Mount Mabu Lophuromys virus 1 (MMLV-1). FPaV lacks a small hydrophobic (SH) gene that is found in members of the genus Jeilongvirus; however, some jeilongviruses also do not have this gene. These results provide information about the diversity and evolution of paramyxoviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Paramyxoviridae/classificação , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Animais , Gatos , Genoma Viral/genética , Japão , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(1): 38-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165418

RESUMO

The fibers of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscles intersect the distal radius. This anatomical structure puts pressure on the dorsal surface of the distal radius when various wrist positions are adopted. An increase in this pressure is associated with the risk of intersection syndrome and with immobilization after Colles' fracture. However, the relationship between the pressure on the distal radius and various wrist positions remains unclear. This study was established to provide quantitative data on the mechanical effect of the pressure exerted by the APL and EPB. Ten cadaveric wrist models containing a force sensor were prepared and used to record pressure levels at various wrist positions, such as pronation, supination, flexion and dorsiflexion, and radial and ulnar deviation. A three-dimensional simulation model comprising four bones, one muscle, one tendon, and one tendon sheath was constructed and analyzed in detail using the finite element method. The contribution of the APL and EPB to the pressure exerted on the distal radius was quantified by dissecting muscles while measuring pressure. The position (pronation and ulnar deviation without flexion/dorsiflexion) associated with a strong force being exerted on the distal radius was determined by measuring and analyzing the mechanical effect. We concluded that this position increases the risk of intersection syndrome but provides effective immobilization after Colles' fracture. The cadaveric and computational method presented herein is the first to identify the anatomical relationship between the pressure on the distal radius and various wrist positions.

19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(2): 573-576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842078

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the extent of preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle (OOM) override onto the pretarsal OOM in the lower eyelids. In this experimental microscopic study, 22 exenterated specimens from 22 Japanese cadavers were prepared as full-thickness sagittal sections. All exenterated specimens were devoid of lower eyelid entropion. The tarsal dimension and distance from the lower tarsal edge to the tip of overriding OOM were microscopically measured. The rotation axis of the tarsus was presumed to pass through the tarsal centroid and the distance from an estimated tarsal centroid to the lower tarsal edge was calculated. Consequently, 2 eyelids did not exhibit any overriding of the OOM. In the remaining 20 eyelids with OOM override, the average distance of the overriding OOM was found at a level covering 48.0% of the whole tarsal height. In 15 out of the 20 eyelids, the tip of the overriding OOM was located lower than the centroid. These microscopic findings suggest that overriding of the preseptal OOM does not always produce an inward rotational force on the tarsus.

20.
Ann Anat ; 227: 151429, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine both the horizontal and vertical locations of the myoneural junction of the inferior oblique muscle (IOM) in reference to the ala nasi, IOM origin, and inferior orbital rim. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-six orbits from 56 Japanese cadavers (15 male and 41 female cadavers; average age at time of death, 86.5±9.4 years) were used in this experimental anatomical study. The inter-alae-nasi distance and the horizontal distances from the ipsilateral ala nasi to the IOM origin (ala-nasi-origin distance) and to the myoneural junction (ala-nasi-junction distance) were measured. The horizontal distance from the IOM origin to the myoneural junction (origin-junction distance) was calculated by subtraction of the ala-nasi-origin distance from the ala-nasi-junction distance. The vertical distance from the inferior orbital rim to the myoneural junction (rim-junction distance) was also measured. RESULTS: The ala-nasi-junction, origin-junction, and rim-junction distances were 12.2±3.2mm, 10.6±3.2mm, and 3.4±1.0mm, respectively. Males had a longer inter-alae-nasi distance than females (P<0.001), although the other distances did not show statistically significant sex-related difference (P>0.050). The ala-nasi-junction distance tended to be negatively correlated with the inter-alae-nasi distance (r=-0.222, P=0.050). CONCLUSIONS: The ala-nasi-junction distance can be affected by the inter-alae-nasi distance, which was found to be longer in males. Therefore, the IOM origin and the inferior orbital rim can be considered as more practical and reliable reference points to predict the location of the myoneural junction during the posterior inferior orbitotomy, irrespective of sex.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA