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1.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606133

RESUMO

We tested a model of dyadic interdependence in depression symptoms experienced by female caregivers living with HIV in Uganda (n = 288) and behavioral problems of their HIV-infected (n = 92) and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children (n = 196). Three repeated measures of caregiver depression symptoms and child neurodevelopment and behavioral outcomes were related to their own outcomes at a previous time point (actor effects), and the outcomes of the other member of the dyad (partner effects). Caregiver depression and child behavioral problem were interdependent over the 24 months of observation. Caregiver depression at Tn predicted child's behavioral problems at Tn+1 (coefficient = 0.1220, SE = 0.0313, p < 0.01); child behavioral problems at Tn predicted maternal depression at Tn+1 (coefficient = 0.0984, SE = 0.0253, p < 0.01). Results suggest the importance of services addressing behavioral needs of affected children and mental health of their mothers.

2.
J Neurol Sci ; 421: 117273, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders are common in sub-Saharan African, but accurate neuroepidemiologic data are lacking from the region. We assessed a neuroepidemiological screening tool in a rural Ugandan cohort with high HIV prevalence. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the Rakai Neurology Study in rural Rakai District, Uganda. A nurse administered the tool and a sociodemographic survey. 100 participants returned for validation examinations by a neurologist (validation cohort). The diagnostic utility and validity of the instrument were calculated and characteristics of those with and without neurological disorders compared. RESULTS: The tool was administered to 392 participants, 48% female, 33% people with HIV, average age 35.1 ± 8.5 years. 33% of the study cohort screened positive for neurologic disorders. These participants were older [mean (SD): 38.3 (9.7) vs. 33.5 (7.1) years, p < 0.001], had a lower Karnofsky score [89.8 (8.4) vs. 93.9 (7.5), p < 0.001] and had a lower body mass index [21.8 (3.3) vs. 22.8 (3.7), p = 0.007] than those who screened negative. Amongst the validation cohort, 54% had a neurological abnormality of which 46% were symptomatic. The tool was 57% sensitive and 74% specific for detecting any neurological abnormality and 80% sensitive and 69% specific for symptomatic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower sensitivity and similar specificity for the screening tool compared with two previous studies. The lower validity in this study was likely due in part to the high percentage of asymptomatic neurological abnormalities detected. This screening tool will require further refinement and cultural contextualization before it can be widely implemented across new populations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk factors for a first episode of psychosis in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not well described. The study compared the association of different risk factors in patients with first-episode psychosis patients and healthy controls from an LMIC context. METHODS: A comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in antipsychotic naïve first-episode psychosis patients and healthy controls at the National referral hospital in Uganda. Standardized tools were used to assess sociodemographic (e.g., age, sex, socioeconomic status) and clinical (e.g., childhood trauma, quality of life) variables. First episode psychosis participants were compared to healthy controls in terms of sociodemographic and clinical variables, and logistic regression was used to determine predictors of FEP. RESULTS: Our final sample included 198 antipsychotic naïve first-episode psychosis participants and 82 controls. Most participants were female (68.5%) with a mean age of 29.4 years. After adjusting for age and sex, FEP patients when compared to controls were less likely to be female [AOR 0.18 (95%CI 0.03-0.85; p = .031)], more likely to have experienced emotional abuse [AOR 1.30 (95%CI 1.02-1.65; p = .032)] and more likely to have a poor quality of life [AOR 0.93 (95%CI 0.89-0.97; p = .002)]. DISCUSSION: The risk factors for a first episode of psychosis in this low and middle-income population were like those described in high-income countries. Further studies on interventions to prevent the transition to psychotic disorders in this sub-groups of patients are recommended. Also, the use of specialized early intervention services in improving the quality of life needs to be evaluated.

4.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1859823, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446087

RESUMO

Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a community-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Female community volunteers identified pregnant women in each household who were recruited at ≥28 weeks of gestation and followed until 50 days postpartum. Information on perinatal survival was gathered from participants within 24 hours after childbirth and at 7 days postpartum. The cause of death was ascertained using verbal autopsies. We used generalized estimating equations of the Poisson family to determine the risk factors for perinatal death. Results: Of the 1,877 women enrolled, the majority were ≤30 years old (79.8%), married or cohabiting (91.3%), and had attained only a primary education (77.7%). There were 81 perinatal deaths among them, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43/1,000 births [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 35, 53)], of these 37 were stillbirths (20 deaths/1,000 total births) and 44 were early neonatal deaths (23 deaths/1,000 live births). Birth asphyxia, respiratory failure, infections and intra-partum events were the major probable contributors to perinatal death. The risk factors for perinatal death were nulliparity at enrolment (adjusted IRR 2.7, [95% CI: 1.3, 5.6]) and maternal age >30 years (adjusted IRR 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1, 5.8]). Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal death in this region was higher than had previously been reported in Uganda. Risk factors for perinatal mortality were nulliparity and maternal age >30 years. Pregnant women in this region need improved access to care during pregnancy and childbirth.

5.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health ; 14(1): 45, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is a global public health challenge commonly associated with morbidity and mortality among children < 5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, less is known about the behavioural performance of children < 5 years surviving severe anaemia in low resource settings. We investigated social-emotional and adaptive behaviour in children < 5 years diagnosed with severe anaemia in Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a hospital based prospective cohort study among children 6-42 months who were treated for severe anaemia (n = 171) at Lira Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Socio-emotional and adaptive behaviour were assessed 14 days post discharge using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition. Age-adjusted z-scores for each domain were calculated using scores from healthy community children (n = 88) from the same environment for each age category. Multiple linear regression was used to compare z-scores in the social-emotional and adaptive behaviour scales between the two groups after adjusting for weight-for-age z-score, social economic status, mother's education, father's education and father's employment on all the scales. RESULTS: Compared with healthy community controls, children with severe anaemia had poorer [adjusted mean scores (standard error)], socio-emotional [- 0.29, (0.05) vs. 0.01, (0.08), P = 0.002]; but not overall/ composite adaptive behaviour [- 0.10, (0.05) vs. - 0.01, (0.07), P = 0.343]. Within the adaptive behaviour subscales, children with SA displayed significantly poorer scores on the community use [adjusted mean score (standard error)], [- 0.63, (0.10) vs. - 0.01, (0.13), P < 0.001]; and leisure [- 0.35, (0.07) vs. - 0.02, (0.07), P = 0.036] skills. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that severe anaemia in children < 5 years is associated with poor social-emotional scores in the short-term post clinical recovery in Northern Uganda. We recommend long-term follow-up to determine the course of these problems and appropriate interventions to reduce the behavioural burden among children < 5 years surviving severe anaemia in Uganda.

6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359628

RESUMO

People with HIV (PWH) taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) have persistent cognitive impairment. The prevalence of cognitive impairment is higher in women with HIV (WWH) compared to men with HIV (MWH), possibly due to sex differences in immune function. Here we report sex differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune markers in relation to cognitive performance. A subset of 83 PWH on ART (52% WWH; mean age = 37.6 years, SD = 7.9) from the Rakai community cohort study Cohort and Rakai Health Sciences Program supported clinics in rural Uganda completed a neuropsychological (NP) assessment and a lumbar puncture. CSF was used to measure 16 cytokines/chemokines. Individual NP test z-scores were generated based on local normative data. A series of least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) regressions examined associations between CSF inflammatory markers and NP outcomes. Overall, there were no sex differences in CSF inflammatory marker levels. However, MWH displayed more associations between inflammatory markers and cognitive performance than WWH. Among MWH, inflammatory markers were associated with a number of cognitive domains, including attention, processing speed, fluency, executive function, learning and memory. MIP-1ß, INF-γ, GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-12p70 were associated with multiple domains. Among WWH, few inflammatory markers were associated cognition. Degree of associations between CSF inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive performance varied by sex in this young, ART-treated, Ugandan cohort. Further investigation into sex-specific inflammatory mechanisms of cognitive impairment among PWH is warranted to inform sex-specific management strategies.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia is a common clinical problem among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the effect of severe anaemia on neurodevelopment of these children is not well described. Therefore, we assessed the neurodevelopmental performance of preschool children diagnosed with severe anaemia in Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study among children < 5 years of age 14 days post discharge after an episode of severe anaemia (Hb < 5.0 g/dl; n = 171; mean Hb = 3.9g/dl) at Lira Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Neurodevelopmental outcomes (cognitive, language and motor) were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (Bayley-III). Age-adjusted z-scores for each domain were calculated using scores from healthy community control children (n = 88) recruited from the same environment for each age category. Multiple linear regression was used to compare z-scores in the cognitive, language and motor scales between the two groups after adjusting for weight-for-age z-score, socioeconomic status, mother's education, and father's employment on all the scales. RESULTS: The prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment was 2.3% (95% CI: 0.8-6.1) for cognition, 1.7% (95%: 0.6-5.3) for language and 3.5% (95% CI: 1.6-7.6) for motor scales and 4.6% (95% CI: 2.3-9.1) for deficits in ≥1 area of neurodevelopment. Significant differences were observed between the two groups with the SA group performing worse on cognition [adjusted mean score, (Standard error, SE), P-value] [-0.20, (0.01) vs. 0.00, (0.01), P = 0.02]; language [-0.25, (0.01) vs. 0.00, (0.01), P< 0.001]; and motor [-0.17, (0.01) vs. 0.00, (0.01), P = 0.05] scales. CONCLUSION: In children < 5 years of age, severe anaemia was associated with neurocognitive (cognition, language and motor) deficits in the immediate period post treatment. Further research is needed to identify risk factors and determine the long-term effects of poor neurodevelopment in young children with severe anaemia.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,789 women. Trained research assistants screened women for postpartum depressive symptoms on day 50 postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, economic, birth and survival status of the neonate were collected during pregnancy and within one week postpartum. We used generalized estimating equation for the Poisson family with a log link using Stata to estimate the prevalence ratio of the association between postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS scores ≥14) and perinatal death. Mothers who lost their babies between 7-49 days postpartum were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 1,789 participants symptomatically screened for postpartum depression, 377 (21.1%) [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 17.2%, 23.0%] had probable depressive symptoms. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among the 77 women who had experienced perinatal death (37 stillbirths and 40 early neonatal deaths (≤7 days of life)) was 62.3% [95% CI: 50.8%, 72.6%] compared to 19.2% [95% CI: 17.4%, 21.2%], among 1,712 with live infants at day 50 postpartum. Women who had experienced a perinatal death were three times as likely to have postpartum depressive symptoms as those who had a live birth [adjusted prevalence ratio 3.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.48)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, assessed by EPDS, was high among women who had had a perinatal death in Northern Uganda. Women experiencing a perinatal death need to be screened for postpartum depressive symptoms in order to intervene and reduce associated morbidity.

9.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107302, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868221

RESUMO

In this summary paper, we review the body of research contained in this special issue, The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda, and corollary recommendations for a way forward. We review key findings and conclusions for the studies, which tell a story of culture and care-seeking through discussions and data gleaned from a rich research landscape traversing community village dwellings, shared communal areas, churches, and urban hospitals. The voices and perspectives of over 16,000 study participants inclusive of people living with epilepsy, their neighbors and healthcare workers, traditional healers, and faith leaders are reported. From this, we synthesize findings and prioritize a set of recommendations to advance epilepsy care in Uganda. Progress will require infrastructure strengthening, multilevel educational investments, and an ambitious, extensive program of community sensitization. These proposed priorities and actions outline a way forward through formidable but surmountable challenges but require harmonized efforts by government and other relevant stakeholders, scholars, clinicians, and community leaders. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".

10.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 22: 100187, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874938

RESUMO

Introduction: Several studies of neuropsychological measures have been undertaken in patients with psychotic disorders from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is, however, unclear if the measures used in these studies are appropriate for cognitive screening in clinical settings. We undertook a systematic review to determine if measures investigated in research on psychotic disorders in LMICs meet the clinical utility criteria proposed by The Working Group on Screening and Assessment. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were employed. We determined if tests had been validated against a comprehensive test battery, the duration and scope of the tests, the personnel administering the tests, and the means of administration. Results: A total of 31 articles were included in the review, of which 11 were from Africa. The studies included 3254 participants with psychosis and 1331 controls. 3 studies reported on the validation of the test against a comprehensive cognitive battery. Assessments took 1 h or less to administer in 6/31 studies. The average number of cognitive domains assessed was four. Nonspecialized staff were used in only 3/31 studies, and most studies used pen and paper tests (17/31). Conclusion: Neuropsychological measures used in research on psychotic disorders in LMICs typically do not meet the Working Group on Screening and Assessment clinical utility criteria for cognitive screening. Measures that have been validated in high-income countries but not in LMICs that do meet these criteria, such as the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, therefore deserve further study in LMIC settings.

11.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107349, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy, a neurological disorder with effective biomedical treatment, remains largely untreated in Uganda. Potential reasons for this treatment gap (TG) include limited access to trained providers and clinics, social stigmata of seizures, cultural beliefs, or lack of public understanding of epilepsy as a treatable condition. The current study aimed to formally evaluate barriers faced by people with epilepsy (PWE) in Uganda when seeking biomedical care. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 435 participants drawn from a community prevalence study were enrolled. We included participants reporting a history of recurrent seizures suggestive of epilepsy, who completed a survey about barriers to obtaining care for their symptoms. Principal axis factor analysis (PFA) using a promax rotation was conducted for data reduction. Frequencies of barrier factors were compared across those who did not seek care for epilepsy (n = 228), those who sought care from biomedical facilities (n = 166), and those who sought care from a traditional or pastoral healer (n = 41). RESULTS: The PFA yielded a five-factor solution: 1) logistical and actual costs; 2) treatment effectiveness; 3) influence of the opinion of others; 4) doctors' care; and 5) contextual factors impacting decision-making. Variables related to logistical and actual costs were most endorsed. Comparison of groups by care sought did not reveal a difference in endorsement of factors, with the exception that those who sought biomedical care were more likely to endorse factors related to doctors' care compared with those that sought care from traditional or pastoral healers (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: People with repetitive seizures in Uganda report several barriers to obtaining biomedical care in Uganda, with those related to practical and actual costs endorsed the most. It is imperative that interventions developed to reduce the TG in Uganda consider these practical issues to improve access to effective epilepsy care. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda.

12.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107381, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a disease that is stigmatized globally. Several studies have introduced sensitization efforts to reduce stigma towards people with epilepsy (PWE) in various settings. Although sensitization efforts have shown some evidence of improved attitudes towards epilepsy, progress has been limited. This systematized literature review summarizes the existing literature concerning interventions that reduce stigma towards PWE. By conducting an overview of existing interventions, we aimed to consolidate knowledge and outcomes of existing efforts as well as highlight gaps and directions for future interventions. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed) and Embase for English-language studies published between January 1, 1970 and November 15, 2017 that focused on stigma reduction strategies for PWE in any global setting. Studies were included if they described a stigma reduction intervention for epilepsy. Studies were excluded if they were reviews, editorials, conference proceedings, abstracts, or did not discuss a stigma reduction intervention. We thematically grouped studies based on type(s) of intervention(s) addressed and summarized interventions, outcome measures, and results for each study included in the review. RESULTS: Of the 1975 initial citations, 32 studies met our inclusion criteria. Interventions clustered into four broad categories including public awareness interventions, policy-based interventions, school-based interventions, and interventions that targeted PWE themselves as well as their caregivers and peers. Efficacy of these interventions as reported by the authors was mixed. Many studies did not use validated outcome measures to assess stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Although intervention efforts have been made towards epilepsy stigma reduction at many levels, stigma towards and discrimination against PWE prevail worldwide. About 75% of the studies included in this review were conducted in high-income countries (HICs) despite the disproportional need in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Furthermore, robust outcome measures to assess efficacy in stigma reduction for interventions are lacking, calling into question the validity of reported outcomes for both positive and null findings. Therefore, more work is needed in both developing effective stigma reduction strategies, especially in LMICs, and validating tools to measure their efficacy. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".

13.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 174, 2020 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the major contributing risk factors for poor development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, little is known about the specific domains of cognition and behavior that are impacted by malaria, the extent of these deficits, and the different types of the malaria spectrum that are associated with these deficits. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the association of the different types of malaria infection on cognition and behavioral outcomes among children living in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will systematically search online bibliographic databases including MEDLINE (via PubMed), CINAHL (via EBSCO), PsycINFO (via EBSCO), Embase, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) as well as Google Scholar and bibliographies of pertinent articles. We will include studies with a comparison group (e.g., clinical trials, cohort, observational, cross-sectional case-control, and controlled before and after or interrupted-time-series studies) involving children under 18 years of age living in LMICs, as determined by the World Bank criteria, with either an active malaria infection or history of malaria. Included articles must also measure cognitive and/or behavior outcomes determined by standardized psychological assessments (questionnaire-based scales and or neurocognitive assessments). Studies will be excluded if they are not in English, lack a control group, take place in a high-income country, or if a standardized instrument was not used. Two reviewers will independently review all articles to determine if they meet eligibility criteria. Any conflicts will be resolved after discussion with a third reviewer. When a list of included articles is finalized, two reviewers will extract data to populate and then cross check within an electronic table. Risk of bias and the strength of evidence and recommendations will be assessed independently using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, and a final score will be given upon consensus. For sufficiently homogeneous data on measured outcomes in multiple studies, we will investigate the possibility of pooling data to perform a meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will evaluate the evidence of the association of malaria on the cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Findings from this planned review will generate insight on the domains affected by the different forms of malaria infection and may inform subsequent malaria interventions and future research in pediatric care. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020154777.

14.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107301, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sets out to describe the current demographics of people with epilepsy (PWE) attending hospital-based care in Uganda and the epilepsy treatment practices within three of the largest Ugandan public referral hospitals. METHODS: In a six-month prospective cohort study, 626 children and adults attending epilepsy clinics at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital and Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital were enrolled. Using a study questionnaire, data were collected at baseline and at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months following enrollment. Specific data surrounding individual patient demographics, clinical characteristics and severity of epilepsy, and treatment of epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were collected. RESULTS: Female patients totaled to 50.8%, with a nearly equal gender distribution at each hospital. There was no statistical difference in gender or age between sites. The majority of PWE had completed primary school, with less than 15% of patients completing more than a secondary education. Seizure severity was high, with most patients having multiple seizures per week at the initial onset of epilepsy, and greater than 90% of patients reporting a loss of consciousness with seizures. The majority of patients (54.95%) also reported a developmental or learning delay. Most patients were on 1 AED (46.01%) or 2 AEDs (36.90%), with carbamazepine being the most frequently prescribed AED. There was a trend towards improved seizure severity over the follow-up period, as assessed by the corresponding Personal Impact of Epilepsy Scale (PIES) subscale. CONCLUSIONS: People with epilepsy attending hospital-based care in Uganda tend to have severe forms of epilepsy requiring management with AEDs. Current hospital-based practices show a positive trend for seizure burden and quality of life of PWE in Uganda. Further interventions to improve overall access to biomedical care are required to continue to advance the management of PWE across all communities. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".

15.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107334, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Uganda, causal attributions for epilepsy reflect a variety of beliefs and impact care-seeking behavior, perpetuate stigma, and undermine the effectiveness of interventions to narrow the epilepsy treatment gap. The objective of this study was to characterize beliefs about seizure etiology to gain a better understanding of how epilepsy is conceptualized in the community in order to inform culturally appropriate educational policies and interventions. METHODS: In a community-based study, 15,383 participants were surveyed about beliefs related to 15 potential causes for epilepsy. Principal axis factor analysis (PFA) was performed to identify causative factors and then utilized to classify singular versus pluralistic belief systems related to epilepsy etiology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U-tests were conducted to examine the differences in background characteristics across the etiology belief groups. RESULTS: Three main causative factors emerged from the PFA: biological, sociospiritual, and biospiritual. Among those endorsing at least one factor (n = 13,036), the biological factor was endorsed most frequently as a potential cause for epilepsy (88.0%), followed by the sociospiritual (63.4%), then biospiritual (47.6%). Review of the patterns of endorsement found that only 22.2% endorsed the biological factor alone, 6.7% the sociospiritual factor alone, and 2.8% the biospiritual factor alone (total 31.7%). The remainder endorsed a combination of two or all three factors as being potentially causal, and most (65.7%) endorsed a pluralistic combination inclusive of a biological etiology. Group comparisons showed that endorsing only the biological factor was associated with the highest levels of education (p < 0.01), the pluralistic group had the highest ratio of people in the household who needed assistance to those that could provide aid (p < 0.01), and there were significant differences in income across specific groups (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Pluralistic attributions for epilepsy are common in Uganda, with the majority of community members drawing from biomedical and traditional concepts to construct complex explanations for seizures that transcend discrete belief categories traditionally depicted in the literature. These findings emphasize the need to understand cultural beliefs about epilepsy in order to design contextually specific interventions and education programs, which respect the fundamental beliefs and values of the community. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".

16.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107300, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to characterize and compare the attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions about epilepsy across community and patient cohorts in Uganda. METHODS: This was a descriptive study utilizing two samples: a randomly selected, national survey community sample and a hospital-based patient sample of people with epilepsy (PWE) and their caregivers attending clinic settings in Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda for epilepsy care. Both samples were surveyed about their beliefs about epilepsy, its treatment, and people who have the illness. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine group differences and variables associated with specific beliefs. RESULTS: Among the 15,818 community survey participants who participated in this study, 435 study participants reported symptoms suggestive of recurrent seizures, and all 626 subjects in the hospital-based sample had confirmed epilepsy. Results revealed significant differences across groups in their endorsement of epilepsy as a contagion; 37% of people in the community unaffected by epilepsy, and 39% of people with suspected epilepsy who did not seek care believed that epilepsy was contagious by touch, in contrast to 8% of PWE or their caregivers attending regular hospital-based care. Higher educational attainment and income, and seeking regular hospital-based medical care were associated with less endorsement of epilepsy as a contagion, while age, education, income, area of residence, and presence of seizure symptoms, were significant predictors of support or belief in the basic rights of PWE. Study participants within the community who screened negative for seizures placed the most restrictions on rights for PWE. To varying degrees, the samples all endorsed the effectiveness of allopathic, traditional, and religious providers, and the use of pharmaceutical drugs, traditional rituals and herbs, and prayer. CONCLUSIONS: People with epilepsy who are attending biomedical care for routine epilepsy care think differently about epilepsy, its treatment, and the rights of those with the disease than the general population. Within the community setting, more erroneous beliefs and negative attitudes about epilepsy and PWE persist, and they not only contribute to stigma but also interfere with the patients' health-seeking behavior. Further confounding the care of PWE, the pluralistic healthcare system in Uganda is evident in endorsements spanning biomedical, traditional, and religious treatment methods. Focused awareness campaigns utilizing local epilepsy societies are needed to promote epilepsy health literacy, to favorably impact acceptance and opportunities for PWE in Uganda, and to facilitate efficient uptake of biomedical care. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".

17.
Epilepsy Behav ; : 107304, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a global public health concern, with the majority of cases occurring in lower- and middle-income countries where the treatment gap remains formidable. In this study, we simultaneously explore how beliefs about epilepsy causation, perceived barriers to care, seizure disorder characteristics, and demographics influence the initial choice of healthcare for epilepsy and its impact on attaining biomedical care (BMC). METHODS: This study utilized the baseline sample (n = 626) from a prospective cohort study of people with epilepsy (PWE) attending three public hospitals in Uganda (Mulago National Referral Hospital, Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, and Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital) for epilepsy care. Patient and household demographics, clinical seizure disorder characteristics, and sociocultural questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression and principal component analyses (PCA) were conducted to examine associations with the choice of primary seizure treatment. RESULTS: The sample was 49% female, and 24% lived in rural settings. A biomedical health facility was the first point of care for 355 (56.7%) participants, while 229 (36.6%) first sought care from a traditional healer and 42 (6.7%) from a pastoral healer. Preliminary inspection of candidate predictors using relaxed criteria for significance (p < 0.20) identified several factors potentially associated with a greater odds of seeking BMC first. Demographic predictors included older caredriver (decision-maker for the participant) age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.99, 1.02], p-value: 0.09), greater caredriver education level (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: [1.07, 1.37], p-value = 0.003), and lower ratio of sick to healthy family members (OR = 0.77 [0.56, 1.05], P = 0.097). For clinical predictors, none of the proposed predictors associated significantly with seeking BMC first. Self-report causation predictors associated with a greater odds of seeking BMC first included higher belief in biological causes of epilepsy (OR = 1.31 [0.92, 1.88], P = 0.133) and lower belief in socio-spiritual causes of epilepsy (OR = 0.68 [0.56, 0.84], P < 0.001). In the multivariate model, only higher caredriver education (OR = 1.19 [1.04, 1.36], P = 0.009) and lower belief in socio-spiritual causes of epilepsy (OR = 0.69 [0.56, 0.86], P < 0.01) remained as predictors of seeking BMC first. Additionally, PCA revealed a pattern which included high income with low beliefs in nonbiological causes of epilepsy as being associated with seeking BMC first (OR = 1.32 [1.12, 1.55], p = 0.001). Despite reaching some form of care faster, individuals seeking care from traditional or pastoral healers experienced a significant delay to eventual BMC (P < 0.001), with an average delay of more than two years (traditional healer: 2.53 years [1.98, 3.24]; pastoral care: 2.18 [1.21, 3.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Coupled with low economic and educational status, belief in spiritual causation of epilepsy is a dominant determinant of opting for traditional or pastoral healing over BMC, regardless of concurrent belief in biological etiologies. There is a prolonged delay to eventual BMC for PWE who begin their treatment seeking with nonallopathic providers, and although nonallopathic healers provide PWE with benefits not provided by BMC, this notable delay likely prevents earlier administration of evidence-based care with known efficacy. Based on these findings, initiatives to increase public awareness of neurobiological causes of epilepsy and effectiveness of biomedical drug treatments may be effective in preventing delays to care, as would programs designed to facilitate cooperation and referral among traditional, faith-based, and biomedical providers. This article is part of the Special Issue "The Intersection of Culture, Resources, and Disease: Epilepsy Care in Uganda".

18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(5): 534-542, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders remain prevalent despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are limited longitudinal data on people living with HIV (PLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined neuropsychological (NP) performance in PLWH in a longitudinal study in Uganda. METHODS: Participants enrolled through the Rakai Community Cohort Study (400 ART-naive PLWH and 400 matched HIV-negative persons) were administered NP assessments. In 2017, PLWH who had initiated ART underwent a 2-year follow-up assessment. Demographically adjusted Z-scores for each NP test were established using data from the HIV- controls. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine group differences in NP performance. Mixed-effects regressions were conducted to examine ART-related changes in NP outcomes. RESULTS: Of 333 PLWH who returned for their 2-year follow-up visit, 312 (94%) had initiated ART. Those on ART had a mean age of 35.6 years (SD ± 8.5 years) and mean education of 5.4 years (SD ± 3.3 years); 49% were women. ART-associated NP improvements occurred in verbal learning and memory (P's < 0.05), motor (P's < 0.01), and some measures of processing speed (P = 0.002), whereas there were declines in attention/working memory (P's < 0.001) and semantic fluency (P < 0.001). Pre-ART CD4 count and efavirenz use were associated with a more impaired change in NP performance. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH in this resource-limited setting showed improved neurocognitive performance on most NP tests after ART initiation. However, the declines in attention/working memory and fluency performance, as well as relationship to efavirenz, warrant further study.

19.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645896

RESUMO

The feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) for mitigating neurocognitive decline was evaluated in African adults ≥50 years old. Eighty-one Ugandans with (n = 40) and without (n = 41) chronic human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) were allocated CCRT-i.e., 20-45-min cognitive training sessions with culturally adapted video games delivered via Captain's Log Software, or standard of care (SOC). Pre and post (i.e., 8-weeks later) intervention performance based neurocognitive tests, quality of life (QOL) and frailty related phenotype (FRP) were determined in all respondents. Multivariable linear regression estimated CCRT- vs. SOC-related differences (ß) in neurocognitive batteries, QOL and FRP. Effect sizes (ES) for estimated ß were calculated. CCRT protocol was completed by 92.8% of persons allocated to it. Regardless of HIV status, CCRT was associated with higher performance in learning tests than SOC-interference list (ß = 1.00, 95%CI: (0.02, 1.98); ES = 0.43) and delayed recall (ß = 1.04, 95%CI: (0.06, 2.02); ES = 0.47). CCRT effect on verbal fluency was clinically important (ES = 0.38), but statistical significance was not reached (ß = 1.25, 95%CI: (-0.09, 2.58)). Among HIV-positive adults, clinically important post-CCRT improvements were noted for immediate recall (ES = 0.69), working memory (ES = 0.51), verbal fluency (ES = 0.51), and timed gait (ES = -0.44) tasks. Among HIV-negative adults, CCRT resulted in moderate post-intervention improvement in learning tests (ES = 0.45) and large decline in FRP (ES = -0.71), without a positive effect on simple attention and visuomotor coordination tasks. CCRT intervention is feasible among older Ugandan adults with potential benefit for learning and verbal fluency tests regardless of HIV status and lowering FRP in HIV-negative older adults.

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