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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477475

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a metal toxicant of great public health concern. The present study investigated the applicability of the rat incisor in Pb exposure screening. The levels of lead in teeth (Pb-T) in the crown and root of incisors in laboratory Pb-exposed Sprague Dawley rats were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crown accumulated much Pb-T than the root of the Sprague Dawley rat incisor. The levels of lead in blood (Pb-B) were positively correlated with the Pb-T in the crown and root incisors of the Sprague Dawley rats. As an application of the Pb-T crown results in experimental rats, we subsequently analyzed the Pb-T in the crown incisors of Pb-exposed wild rats (Rattus rattus) sampled from residential sites within varying distances from an abandoned lead-zinc mine. The Pb-T accumulation in the crown of incisors of R. rattus rats decreased with increased distance away from the Pb-Zn mine. Furthermore, the Pb-T was strongly correlated (r = 0.85) with the Pb levels in the blood. Laser ablation ICP-MS Pb-T mappings revealed a homogenous distribution of Pb in the incisor with an increased intensity of Pb-T localized in the tip of the incisor crown bearing an enamel surface in both Sprague Dawley and R. rattus rats. These findings suggest that Pb-T in the crown incisor may be reflective of the rat's environmental habitat, thus a possible indicator of Pb exposure.

2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127788, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182082

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) interferes with various bodily functions. Although high blood Pb (Pb-B) levels in residents from Kabwe, Zambia have been reported, the accumulation pattern of other metals remains unknown. The study was designed to determine the Pb-B, blood cadmium (Cd-B), and zinc (Zn-B) values of 504 representative samples from Kabwe, as well as the potential associated adverse health effects. The Pb-B level ranged from 0.79 to 154.75 µg/dL and generally increased in areas near the mine. A significant elevation of Cd-B was observed in two areas (0.37 ± 0.26 and 0.32 ± 0.30 µg/L) where the two highest mean Pb-B levels were recorded. By contrast, the Zn-B values did not differ greatly with respect to area. Some blood biochemical parameters relating to hepatic and renal functions were out of the normal range in approximately 20-50% of studied adult participants. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was significantly inhibited in the two areas contaminated by Pb and Cd. A significant negative relationship was observed between metal levels and clinical parameters, e.g., between Pb-B and δ-ALAD for all the age categories and between Cd-B and the estimated glomerular filtration rate for all the age categories except 0-4 years. The elevated Cd-B in areas near the mine relative to the other areas suggested the potential adverse health effects of Cd and/or the interaction of Pb and Cd. A significant association of metal levels with clinical parameters also indicated the effects of metal exposure on hematopoietic, hepatic, and renal systems.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Metais/análise , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Coleta de Dados , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Fígado/química , Registros , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia , Zinco
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21189, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273589

RESUMO

The present study investigated biosorption of Pb (II) and Zn (II) using a heavy metal tolerant bacterium Oceanobacillus profundus KBZ 3-2 isolated from a contaminated site. The effects of process parameters such as effect on bacterial growth, pH and initial lead ion concentration were studied. The results showed that the maximum removal percentage for Pb (II) was 97% at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L whereas maximum removal percentage for Zn (II) was at 54% at an initial concentration of 2 mg/L obtained at pH 6 and 30 °C. The isolated bacteria were found to sequester both Pb (II) and Zn (II) in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The EPS facilitates ion exchange and metal chelation-complexation by virtue of the existence of ionizable functional groups such as carboxyl, sulfate, and phosphate present in the protein and polysaccharides. Therefore, the use of indigenous bacteria in the remediation of contaminated water is an eco-friendly way of solving anthropogenic contamination.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291546

RESUMO

Health risks due to heavy metal (HM) contamination is of global concern. Despite concerns of high levels of HMs in soils near Kabwe mine in Zambia, edible crop production is common, posing potential health risks. This study assessed the potential of chicken manure (CM), triple superphosphate (TSP) and a blended fertilizer (BF; consisting of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (NPK) fertilizer and composted chicken manure) to reduce lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in soils and their accumulation in maize grown near the Kabwe mine. Maize was grown to maturity and its HM concentrations and associated health risk indices were calculated. All soil amendments decreased bioavailable soil Pb concentrations by 29-36%, but only CM decreased Zn, while the amendments increased or had no effect on Cd concentrations compared to the control. The amendments reduced Pb (>25%) and Zn concentrations (>18%) in the maize stover and grain. However, Cd concentrations in maize grain increased in the BF and TSP treatments. Bioaccumulation factors showed that Cd had the highest mobility from the soil into maize stover and grain, indicating the need for greater attention on Cd in Kabwe despite its apparently lower soil concentration compared to Pb and Zn. The hazard quotients for Pb and Cd were much greater than one, indicating a high risk of possible exposure to toxic levels by people consuming maize grain grown in this area. This study demonstrated the significant potential of manure and phosphate-based amendments to reduce Pb and Zn, and to some extent Cd, uptake in maize grain and consequently reduce associated health risks.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15092, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934309

RESUMO

This study quantitatively assessed the population-wide lead poisoning conditions in Kabwe, Zambia, a town with severe lead pollution. While existing data have reported concerning blood lead levels (BLLs) of residents in pollution hotspots, the data representing the entire population are lacking. Further, selection bias is a concern. Given the lack of compulsory testing schemes, BLLs have been observed from voluntary participants in blood sampling surveys, but such data can represent higher or lower BLLs than the population average because of factors simultaneously affecting participation and BLLs. To illustrate the lead poisoning conditions of the population, we expanded the focus of our surveys and then econometrically estimated the BLLs of individuals representing the population, including those not participating in blood sampling, using background geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic information. The estimated population mean BLL was 11.9 µg/dL (11.6-12.1, 95% CI), lower than existing data because of our wide focus and correction of selection bias. However, the scale of lead poisoning remained immense and 74.9% of residents had BLLs greater than 5 µg/dL, the standard reference level for lead poisoning. Our estimates provide a deeper understanding of the problem and a foundation for policy intervention designs.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(22): 14474-14481, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490671

RESUMO

We investigated the potential effects of different land use and other environmental factors on animals living in a contaminated environment. The study site in Kabwe, Zambia, is currently undergoing urban expansion, while lead contamination from former mining activities is still prevalent. We focused on a habitat generalist lizards (Trachylepis wahlbergii). The livers, lungs, blood, and stomach contents of 224 lizards were analyzed for their lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, and arsenic concentrations. Habitat types were categorized based on vegetation data obtained from satellite images. Multiple regression analysis revealed that land use categories of habitats and three other factors significantly affected lead concentrations in the lizards. Further investigation suggested that the lead concentrations in lizards living in bare fields were higher than expected based on the distance from the contaminant source, while those in lizards living in green fields were lower than expected. In addition, the lead concentration of lungs was higher than that of the liver in 19% of the lizards, implying direct exposure to lead via dust inhalation besides digestive exposure. Since vegetation reduces the production of dust from surface soil, it is plausible that dust from the mine is one of the contamination sources and that vegetation can reduce exposure to this.

7.
Environ Res ; 188: 109759, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxic heavy metal which can have serious public health hazards. As of today, there is no safe threshold for Pb exposure, especially for children. Lead exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes involving epigenetic mechanisms, such as aberrant DNA methylation. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation status in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2 to 10-year-old children from high Pb exposed area (N = 102) and low Pb exposed area (N = 38). We measured BLLs using a LeadCare II analyzer and investigated the methylation status of the ALAD and p16 gene promoters by methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: The mean BLLs were 23.7 µg/dL and 7.9 µg/dL in high Pb exposed and low Pb exposed children, respectively. Pb exposure was correlated with increased methylation of the ALAD and p16 genes. The promoter methylation rates of ALAD and p16 in high Pb exposed children were 84.3% and 67.7%, and 42.1% and 44.7% in low Pb exposed children, respectively. Significantly increased methylation was found in both genes in high Pb exposed children compared with low Pb exposed children (p < 0.05). Children with methylated ALAD and p16 genes showed an increased risk of Pb poisoning (odd ratio >1) compared to the unmethylated status. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time tries to correlate promoter methylation status of the ALAD and p16 genes in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia as a representative. The result suggests that Pb exposure increases aberrations in ALAD and p16 gene methylation, which may be involved in the mechanism of Pb toxicity.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Genes p16 , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/genética , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/genética , Zâmbia
8.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873

RESUMO

Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
9.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1267-1276, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252124

RESUMO

Metal pollution has been associated with anthropogenic activities, such as effluents and emissions from mines. Soil could be exposure route of wild rats to metals, especially in mining areas. The aim of this study was to verify whether soil exposure under environmentally relevant circumstances results in metal accumulation and epigenetic modifications. Wistar rats were divided to three groups: 1) control without soil exposure, 2) low-metal exposure group exposed to soil containing low metal levels (Pb: 75 mg/kg; Cd: 0.4), and 3) high-metal exposure group exposed to soil (Pb: 3750; Cd: 6). After 1 year of exposure, the metal levels, Pb isotopic values, and molecular indicators were measured. Rats in the high-group showed significantly greater concentrations of Pb and Cd in tissues. Higher accumulation factors (tissue/soil) of Cd than Pb were observed in the liver, kidney, brain, and lung, while the factor of Pb was higher in the tibia. The obtained results of metal accumulation ratios (lung/liver) and stable Pb isotope ratios in the tissues indicated that the respiratory exposure would account for an important share of metal absorption into the body. Genome-wide methylation status and DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt 3a/3b) mRNA expressions in testis were higher in the high-group, suggesting that exposure to soil caused metal accumulation and epigenetic alterations in rats.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Mineração , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
Chemosphere ; 228: 17-25, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022616

RESUMO

Environmental impacts resulting from historic lead and zinc mining in Kabwe, Zambia affect human health due to the dust generated from the mine waste that contains lead, a known hazardous pollutant. We employed microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP), an alternative capping method, to prevent dust generation and reduce the mobility of contaminants. Pb-resistant Oceanobacillus profundus KBZ 1-3 and O. profundus KBZ 2-5 isolated from Kabwe were used to biocement the sand that would act as a cover to prevent dust and water infiltration. Sand biocemented by KBZ 1-3 and KBZ 2-5 had maximum unconfined compressive strength values of 3.2 MPa and 5.5 MPa, respectively. Additionally, biocemented sand exhibited reduced water permeability values of 9.6 × 10-8 m/s and 8.9 × 10-8 m/s for O. profundus KBZ 1-3 and KBZ 2-5, respectively, which could potentially limit the entrance of water and oxygen into the dump, hence reducing the leaching of heavy metals. We propose that these isolates represent an option for bioremediating contaminated waste by preventing both metallic dust from becoming airborne and rainwater from infiltrating into the waste. O. profundus KBZ 1-3 and O. profundus KBZ 2-5 isolated form Kabwe represent a novel species that has, for the first time, been applied in a bioremediation study.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cimentação , Poeira/prevenção & controle , Dióxido de Silício/química , Carbonato de Cálcio , Precipitação Química , Chumbo , Mineração , Zâmbia
11.
Chemosphere ; 186: 367-373, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800537

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) poisoning is widespread among raptors and water birds. In Japan, fragments of Pb ammunition are still found in endangered eagles although more than 10 years have passed since legislation regarding use of Pb ammunition was introduced. This study was performed to investigate Pb exposure in raptors from various locations in Japan. We measured hepatic and renal Pb concentrations and hepatic Pb isotope ratios of Steller's sea eagles (Haliaeetus pelagicus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and 13 other species (total 177 individuals) that were found dead, as well as blood samples from three eagles found in a weakened state during 1993-2015 from Hokkaido (northern part), Honshu (the main island), and Shikoku (a southern island) of Japan. In the present study in Hokkaido, one quarter of the sea eagles showed a high Pb concentration, suggesting exposure to abnormally high Pb levels and Pb poisoning. Pb isotope ratios indicated that endangered Steller's sea eagle and white-tailed sea eagle were poisoned by Pb ammunition that was used illegally in Hokkaido. In other areas of Japan, both surveillance and regulations were less extensive than in Hokkaido, but Pb poisoning in raptors was also noted. Therefore, Pb poisoning is still a serious problem in raptors in various areas of Japan due to accidental ingestion of materials containing Pb, especially Pb ammunition.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Chumbo/análise , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Águias , Armas de Fogo , Marcação por Isótopo , Japão , Rim/química , Fígado/química
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28075384

RESUMO

Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Rim/química , Chumbo/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Isótopos , Japão , Ratos
13.
Environ Pollut ; 208(Pt B): 395-403, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26549754

RESUMO

Stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) have been recognized as an efficient tool for identifying sources. This study carried out at Kabwe mining area, Zambia, to elucidate the presence or absence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken, to evaluate the reliability of identifying Pb pollution sources via analysis of Pb-IRs, and to assess whether a threshold for blood Pb levels (Pb-B) for biological fractionation was present. The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B and were fixed at certain values close to those of the dominant source of Pb exposure at Pb-B > 5 µg/dL. However, chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B, or a fractionation threshold. Given these, the biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats, and the threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at around 5 µg/dL of Pb-B in goats.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Cabras , Isótopos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Cabras/sangue , Isótopos/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Mineração , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Zâmbia
14.
Environ Pollut ; 205: 8-15, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25997160

RESUMO

Nairobi city in Kenya produces 2000 tons/day of garbage, and most of it is dumped onto the Dandora dumping site, home to a quarter-million residents. This study was conducted (1) to assess the contamination levels of nine metals and a metalloid (arsenic) in the blood of pigs, goats, sheep and cattle from Dandora, and (2) to identify a possible source of lead (Pb) pollution. Cadmium (Cd, 0.17-4.35 µg/kg, dry-wt) and Pb (90-2710 µg/kg) levels in blood were generally high, suggesting human exposure to Cd through livestock consumption and Pb poisoning among pigs (2600 µg/kg) and cattle (354 µg/kg). Results of Pb isotope ratios indicated that the major exposure route might differ among species. Our results also suggested a possibility that the residents in Dandora have been exposed to the metals through livestock consumption.


Assuntos
Arsênico/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Gado/sangue , Metais/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Cabras/sangue , Isótopos/sangue , Quênia , Ovinos/sangue , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/sangue
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