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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In extremely and very preterm infants, predicting individual risks for adverse outcomes antenatally is challenging but necessary for risk-stratified perinatal management and parents' participation in decision-making about treatment. Our aim was to develop and validate prediction models for short-term (neonatal period) and medium-term (3 years of age) outcomes based on antenatal maternal and fetal factors alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study was conducted on 31 157 neonates weighing ≤1500 g and born between 22 and 31 weeks of gestation registered in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan during 2006-2015. Short-term outcomes were assessed in 31 157 infants and medium-term outcomes were assessed in 13 751 infants among the 31 157 infants. The clinical data were randomly divided into training and validation data sets in a ratio of 2:1. The prediction models were developed by factors selected using stepwise logistic regression from 12 antenatal maternal and fetal factors with the training data set. The number of factors incorporated into the model varied from 3 to 10, on the basis of each outcome. To evaluate predictive performance, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) was calculated for each outcome with the validation data set. RESULTS: Among short-term outcomes, AUROCs for in-hospital death, chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage (grade III or IV) and periventricular leukomalacia were 0.85 (95% CI 0.83-0.86), 0.80 (95% CI 0.79-0.81), 0.78 (95% CI 0.75-0.80), and 0.58 (95% CI 0.55-0.61), respectively. Among medium-term outcomes, AUROCs for cerebral palsy and developmental quotient of <70 at 3 years of age were 0.66 (95% CI 0.63-0.69) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.70-0.74), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the predictive performance of these models varied for each outcome, their discriminative ability for in-hospital death, chronic lung disease, and intraventricular hemorrhage (grade III or IV) was relatively good. We provided a bedside prediction tool for calculating the likelihood of various infant complications for clinical use. To develop these prediction models would be valuable in each country, and these risk assessment tools could facilitate risk-stratified perinatal management and parents' shared understanding of their infants' subsequent risks.

2.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 183-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727749

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10-8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10-6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2 SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

3.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650309

RESUMO

Plasma coproporphyrin-I (CP-I) concentration is used as a sensitive and selective endogenous probe for phenotyping organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B (OATP1B) activity in many studies. CP-I is produced in the process of heme synthesis, but the relationship between plasma CP-I concentrations and heme synthesis activity is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between plasma CP-I concentration and hemoglobin level as a biomarker of heme synthesis activity. The data of 391 subjects selected from the Japanese general population were analyzed. One hundred and twenty-six participants had OATP1B1*15 allele, 11 of whom were homozygous (OATP1B1*15/*15). Multiple regression analysis identified hemoglobin level as an independent variable associated with plasma CP-I concentration (p < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was observed between hemoglobin level and plasma CP-I concentration in participants without OATP1B1*15 allele (n = 265; rs = 0.35, p < 0.0001) and with OATP1B1*15 allele (n = 126; rs = 0.27, p = 0.0022). However, Kruskal-Wallis test showed no large difference in Kruskal-Wallis statistics between the distribution of plasma CP-I concentrations and that of ratio of plasma CP-I to hemoglobin among six OATP1B1 polymorphism groups. These findings suggest that hemoglobin level seems to reflect biosynthesis of CP-I. However, correction by hemoglobin level is not required when using basal plasma CP-I concentration for phenotyping OATP1B activity.

4.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632354

RESUMO

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. METHODS: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IVCRP and IVAsian, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IVCRP and IVAsian explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively. RESULTS: Using the IVCRP, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IVAsian, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IVCRP: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IVAsian: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.

6.
Blood ; 137(11): 1491-1502, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512416

RESUMO

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a unique type of extranodal lymphoma characterized by selective growth of tumor cells in small vessels without lymphadenopathy. Greater understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IVLBCL is hampered by the paucity of lymphoma cells in biopsy specimens, creating a limitation in obtaining sufficient tumor materials. To uncover the genetic landscape of IVLBCL, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 21 patients with IVLBCL using plasma-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) (n = 18), patient-derived xenograft tumors (n = 4), and tumor DNA from bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells (n = 2). The concentration of cfDNA in IVLBCL was significantly higher than that in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (P < .0001) and healthy donors (P = .0053), allowing us to perform WES; most mutations detected in BM tumor DNA were successfully captured in cfDNA and xenograft. IVLBCL showed a high frequency of genetic lesions characteristic of activated B-cell-type DLBCL, with the former showing conspicuously higher frequencies (compared with nodal DLBCL) of mutations in MYD88 (57%), CD79B (67%), SETD1B (57%), and HLA-B (57%). We also found that 8 IVLBCL (38%) harbored rearrangements of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1/PD-L2) involving the 3' untranslated region; such rearrangements are implicated in immune evasion via PD-L1/PD-L2 overexpression. Our data demonstrate the utility of cfDNA and imply important roles for immune evasion in IVLBCL pathogenesis and PD-1/PD-L1/PD-L2 blockade in therapeutics for IVLBCL.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1729, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462302

RESUMO

To evaluate the impact of maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on mortality and neurological outcomes in extremely and very preterm infants using a nationwide neonatal database in Japan. This population-based retrospective study was based on an analysis of data collected by the Neonatal Research Network of Japan from 2003 to 2015 of neonates weighing 1,500 g or less at birth, between 22 and 31 weeks' gestation. A total of 21,659 infants were randomly divided into two groups, HDP (n = 4,584) and non-HDP (n = 4,584), at a ratio of 1:1 after stratification by four factors including maternal age, parity, weeks of gestation, and year of delivery. Short-term (neonatal period) and medium-term (3 years of age) mortality and neurological outcomes were compared between the two groups by logistic regression analyses. In univariate analysis, HDP was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital death (crude odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.63) and a decreased risk for severe intraventricular haemorrhage (0.68; 0.53-0.87) and periventricular leukomalacia (0.60; 0.48-0.77). In multivariate analysis, HDP was significantly associated with a lower risk for in-hospital death (adjusted OR, 0.61; 0.47-0.80), severe intraventricular haemorrhage (0.47; 0.35-0.63), periventricular leukomalacia (0.59; 0.45-0.78), neonatal seizures (0.40; 0.28-0.57) and cerebral palsy (0.70; 0.52-0.95) at 3 years after adjustment for covariates including birth weight. These results were consistent with those of additional analyses, which excluded cases with histological chorioamnionitis and which divided the infants into two subgroups (22-27 gestational weeks and 28-31 gestational weeks). Maternal HDP was associated with an increased risk for in-hospital death without adjusting for covariates, but it was also associated with a lower risk for mortality and adverse neurological outcomes in extremely and very preterm infants if all covariates except HDP were identical.

8.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1614-1623, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506575

RESUMO

We previously reported that ROR1 is a crucial downstream gene for the TTF-1/NKX2-1 lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinoma, while others have found altered expression of ROR1 in multiple cancer types. Accumulated evidence therefore indicates ROR1 as an attractive molecular target, though it has yet to be determined whether targeting Ror1 can inhibit tumor development and growth in vivo. To this end, genetically engineered mice carrying homozygously floxed Ror1 alleles and an SP-C promoter-driven human mutant EGFR transgene were generated. Ror1 ablation resulted in marked retardation of tumor development and progression in association with reduced malignant characteristics and significantly better survival. Interestingly, gene set enrichment analysis identified a hypoxia-induced gene set (HALLMARK_HYPOXIA) as most significantly downregulated by Ror1 ablation in vivo, which led to findings showing that ROR1 knockdown diminished HIF-1α expression under normoxia and clearly hampered HIF-1α induction in response to hypoxia in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The present results directly demonstrate the importance of Ror1 for in vivo development and progression of lung adenocarcinoma, and also identify Ror1 as a novel regulator of Hif-1α. Thus, a future study aimed at the development of a novel therapeutic targeting ROR1 for treatment of solid tumors such as seen in lung cancer, which are frequently accompanied with a hypoxic tumor microenvironment, is warranted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Oncogenes/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator Nuclear 1 de Tireoide/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
10.
J Hum Genet ; 66(1): 25-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958875

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs), defined as genome sequences of ≥50 bp that differ in copy number from that in a reference genome, are a common form of structural variation. Germline CNVs account for some of the missing heritability that single nucleotide polymorphisms could not account for. Recent technological advances have had a huge impact on CNV research. Microarray technology enables relatively low-cost, high-throughput, genome-wide measurements, and short-read sequencing technology enables the detection of short CNVs that cannot be detected by microarrays. As a result, large-scale genetic studies have been able to identify a variety of common and rare germline CNVs and their associations with diseases. Rare germline CNVs have been reported to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we focused on germline CNVs and briefly described their functional characteristics, formation mechanisms, detection methods, related databases, and the latest findings. Finally, we introduced recent large-scale genetic studies to assess associations of CNVs with diseases, especially psychiatric disorders, and discussed the use of CNV-based animal models to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these disorders. The development and implementation of improved detection methods, such as long-read single-molecule sequencing, are expected to provide additional insight into the molecular basis of psychiatric disorders and other complex diseases, thus facilitating basic and clinical research on CNVs.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 421, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279929

RESUMO

Dysregulation of epigenetic processes involving histone methylation induces neurodevelopmental impairments and has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Variants in the gene encoding lysine demethylase 4C (KDM4C) have been suggested to confer a risk for such disorders. However, rare genetic variants in KDM4C have not been fully evaluated, and the functional impact of the variants has not been studied using patient-derived cells. In this study, we conducted copy number variant (CNV) analysis in a Japanese sample set (2605 SCZ and 1141 ASD cases, and 2310 controls). We found evidence for significant associations between CNVs in KDM4C and SCZ (p = 0.003) and ASD (p = 0.04). We also observed a significant association between deletions in KDM4C and SCZ (corrected p = 0.04). Next, to explore the contribution of single nucleotide variants in KDM4C, we sequenced the coding exons in a second sample set (370 SCZ and 192 ASD cases) and detected 18 rare missense variants, including p.D160N within the JmjC domain of KDM4C. We, then, performed association analysis for p.D160N in a third sample set (1751 SCZ and 377 ASD cases, and 2276 controls), but did not find a statistical association with these disorders. Immunoblotting analysis using lymphoblastoid cell lines from a case with KDM4C deletion revealed reduced KDM4C protein expression and altered histone methylation patterns. In conclusion, this study strengthens the evidence for associations between KDM4C CNVs and these two disorders and for their potential functional effect on histone methylation patterns.

12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region. RESULTS: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10-8. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity. CONCLUSION: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.

13.
Ann Clin Biochem ; : 4563220968371, 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective prognostic markers are needed for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study evaluated the clinical associations of serum vascular endothelial growth factor-A (sVEGF-A) and sVEGF-A165b (an antiangiogenic isoform of VEGF-A) concentrations with time to remission of AAV in a nationwide Japanese prospective follow-up cohort. METHODS: We collected samples from patients with AAV who were enrolled in the nationwide Japanese cohort study (RemIT-JAV-RPGN). We measured sVEGF-A and sVEGF-A165b concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 57 serum samples collected 6 months before and after initiation of AAV treatment. Patients were classified based on AAV disease subtypes: microscopic polyangiitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). RESULTS: Results revealed significant reductions in sVEGF-A and sVEGF-A165b concentrations in patients with microscopic polyangiitis and EGPA, respectively. However, despite the comparable concentrations of sVEGF-A and sVEGF-A165b during the 6 months of treatment in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients, correlation analysis revealed that the differences in log2-transformed concentrations of sVEGF-A and sVEGF-A165b were inversely correlated with time to remission in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that sVEGF-A and -A165b can serve as potential markers of time to remission in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

14.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888732

RESUMO

Two recent genetic studies reported that loss-of-function mutation of the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain of the KIF5A gene cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of KIF5A variants in Japanese patients with sporadic ALS. In total, 807 sporadic ALS patients and 191 normal controls from a multicenter ALS cohort in Japan were included. Whole exome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 sequencer was used to identify and select variants within the KIF5A gene. Thirteen patients harbored a nonsynonymous variant in the KIF5A gene; These were considered variants of uncertain significance. One patient harbored a novel splice-site variant (c.2993-3C>A) in the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain of the KIF5A gene. Functional analysis of this variant revealed that it caused skipping of exon 27. The frequency of KIF5A mutations in Japanese patients with sporadic ALS was 0.12% (1/807). This study reports a novel loss-of-function variant in KIF5A, and indicates that loss-of-function variant in KIF5A is a rare cause of sporadic ALS in Japanese patients.

15.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961019

RESUMO

Coproporphyrin-I (CP-I) in plasma is a sensitive and specific endogenous probe for phenotyping organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B (OATP1B, encoded by SLCO1B). A few small-scale studies suggested that plasma CP-I concentration is affected by OATP1B1 polymorphism, but detailed studies are lacking. In this large-scale study, we measured plasma CP-I concentrations in 391 subjects from the Japanese general population, and evaluated the relationship between plasma CP-I concentrations and OATP1B1 polymorphisms to further assess the utility of plasma CP-I concentrations as an endogenous OATP1B probe. Plasma CP-I concentrations were 0.45 ± 0.12, 0.47 ± 0.16, 0.47 ± 0.20, 0.50 ± 0.15, 0.54 ± 0.14, and 0.74 ± 0.31 ng/mL in participants with OATP1B1*1b/*1b (n = 103), *1a/*1b (n = 122), *1a/*1a (n = 40), *1b/*15 (n = 74), *1a/*15 (n = 41), and *15/*15 (n = 11), respectively, showing an ascending rank order with significant difference (P < 0.0001). Post hoc analysis revealed significant increases in plasma CP-I concentration in OATP1B1*1b/*15 (P = 0.036), *1a/*15 (P = 0.0005), and *15/*15 (P = 0.0003) groups compared with the OATP1B1*1b/*1b group. There was no significant difference among OATP1B genotypes in plasma concentration of 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid, a uremic toxin reported to decrease OATP1B activity in vivo. These findings confirm the utility of plasma CP-I concentrations as an endogenous biomarker for phenotyping of OATP1B activity. Plasma CP-I concentration is potentially useful for the study of drug-drug interactions via OATP1B or individual dose adjustment of OATP1B substrates.

16.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 526, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968195

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive motor neuron disease that affects people of all ethnicities. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and thought to have multifactorial pathogenesis. To understand the genetics of sporadic ALS, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1,173 sporadic ALS cases and 8,925 controls in a Japanese population. A combined meta-analysis of our Japanese cohort with individuals of European ancestry revealed a significant association at the ACSL5 locus (top SNP p = 2.97 × 10-8). We validated the association with ACSL5 in a replication study with a Chinese population and an independent Japanese population (1941 ALS cases, 3821 controls; top SNP p = 1.82 × 10-4). In the combined meta-analysis, the intronic ACSL5 SNP rs3736947 showed the strongest association (p = 7.81 × 10-11). Using a gene-based analysis of the full multi-ethnic dataset, we uncovered additional genes significantly associated with ALS: ERGIC1, RAPGEF5, FNBP1, and ATXN3. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of sporadic ALS.

17.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants. METHODS: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.

18.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypernatremia is a major electrolyte disorder associated with death among critically ill patients. Glucocorticoid therapy may cause hypernatremia in refractory septic shock patients, but the association between glucocorticoid and intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired hypernatremia (IAH) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify whether glucocorticoid administration was associated with IAH. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study using data from an established cohort including 121 IAH cases identified from 1756 patients who were admitted to ICU in a tertiary care facility in Japan. We included patients who were admitted with a normal range of serum sodium concentrations (130-149 mEq/L) from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 and remained in ICU for ≥ 2 days. Hypernatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration ≥ 150 mEq/L. Each case was matched to one control. RESULTS: Multivariable conditional logistic regression revealed high-dose glucocorticoid {odds ratio (OR), 4.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-13.4]}, acute kidney injury (AKI) [OR, 2.72 (95% CI 1.31-5.62)], and osmotic diuretics [OR, 3.44 (95% CI 1.41-8.39)] to be significantly associated with IAH. The contents and amounts of fluid infusion were not significantly associated with IAH. There were also significant duration-response effects between duration of glucocorticoid use and IAH; however, pulse glucocorticoid administration was not associated with IAH. CONCLUSION: In this nested case-control study, we demonstrated a significant association between IAH and high-dose glucocorticoid with significant duration-response effects. Serum sodium concentrations should be monitored carefully in critically ill patients administered prolonged high-dose glucocorticoid.

19.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis. RESULTS: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal. CONCLUSION: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.

20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 247, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699248

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is known to be a heritable disorder; however, its multifactorial nature has significantly hampered attempts to establish its pathogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we performed genome-wide copy-number variation (CNV) analysis of 2940 patients with SCZ and 2402 control subjects and identified a statistically significant association between SCZ and exonic CNVs in the ARHGAP10 gene. ARHGAP10 encodes a member of the RhoGAP superfamily of proteins that is involved in small GTPase signaling. This signaling pathway is one of the SCZ-associated pathways and may contribute to neural development and function. However, the ARHGAP10 gene is often confused with ARHGAP21, thus, the significance of ARHGAP10 in the molecular pathology of SCZ, including the expression profile of the ARHGAP10 protein, remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we focused on one patient identified to have both an exonic deletion and a missense variant (p.S490P) in ARHGAP10. The missense variant was found to be located in the RhoGAP domain and was determined to be relevant to the association between ARHGAP10 and the active form of RhoA. We evaluated ARHGAP10 protein expression in the brains of reporter mice and generated a mouse model to mimic the patient case. The model exhibited abnormal emotional behaviors, along with reduced spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, primary cultured neurons prepared from the mouse model brain exhibited immature neurites in vitro. Furthermore, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from this patient, and differentiated them into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in order to analyze their morphological phenotypes. TH-positive neurons differentiated from the patient-derived iPSCs exhibited severe defects in both neurite length and branch number; these defects were restored by the addition of the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. Collectively, our findings suggest that rare ARHGAP10 variants may be genetically and biologically associated with SCZ and indicate that Rho signaling represents a promising drug discovery target for SCZ treatment.

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