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1.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a reported risk factor for various health problems. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous independent loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, most of these have been focused on Europeans, and little evidence is available on the genetic effects across the life course of other ethnicities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of 282 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with three BMI-related traits, current BMI, BMI at 20 years old (BMI at 20) and change in BMI (BMI change), among 11 586 Japanese individuals enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: We found a significant association (P < 0.05/282 = 1.77×10-4) between BMI and 11 polymorphisms in or near FTO, BDNF, TMEM18, HS6ST3, and BORCS7. The trend was similar between current BMI and BMI change, but differed from that of the BMI at 20. Among the significant variants, those on FTO were associated with all BMI traits, whereas those on TMEM18 and HS6SR3 were only associated with BMI at 20. The association of FTO loci with BMI remained even after additional adjustment for dietary energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Previously reported BMI-associated loci discovered in Europeans were also identified in the Japanese population. Additionally, our results suggest that the effects of each loci on BMI may vary across the life course and that this variation may be caused by the differential effects of individual genes on BMI via different pathways.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adding segment 4 (S4) portal vein embolization (PVE) to right PVE before right hepatic trisectionectomy is controversial. We retrospectively examined the effect of S4 PVE on segments 2 and 3 (S2 + 3) hypertrophy. METHODS: We reviewed patients with biliary carcinoma who underwent right PVE with (R3PVE) or without (R2PVE) S4 PVE using gelatin sponge particles and coils (2010-2019). Propensity score matching balanced the cohort for baseline characteristics, including total liver volume and S2 + 3 volume before PVE. We compared the groups regarding the S2 + 3 volume changes after PVE. RESULTS: Of 178 enrolled patients, 38 underwent R3PVE for right hepatic trisectionectomy and 140 underwent R2PVE for right hepatectomy. Twenty-eight patients from each group were respectively matched. The median absolute volume increase in (146 cm3 vs 70 cm3 ), hypertrophy rate of (52.4% vs 32.3%), and kinetic growth rate of (3.1%/wk vs 2.0%/wk) S2 + 3 were significantly higher in the R3PVE group than in the R2PVE group. In the pre-matched cohort, the rate of posthepatectomy liver failure and postoperative hospital stay did not significantly differ between the patients who underwent right hepatic trisectionectomy and right hepatectomy. CONCLUSION: R3PVE increased the S2 + 3 volume more effectively than R2PVE in patients with biliary carcinoma.

3.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(3): 285-290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe and clarify the factors affecting the prognosis of Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) undergoing tracheostomy invasive ventilation (TIV) therapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational case-control study using a multicentre registry. ALS patients who started TIV therapy after registration (TIV group) and those who did not receive TIV (non-TIV group) were included. We compared the survival time between the TIV group and the non-TIV group using a propensity score matching analysis and evaluated the prognostic factors in the TIV group. RESULTS: From February 2006 to January 2018, 190 patients in the TIV group and 1093 patients in the non-TIV group were included in this study. The mean age of disease onset and usage rate of gastrostomy and non-invasive ventilation therapy differed between the groups. In the propensity score matching analysis using known prognostic factors, the median overall survival time of the TIV group was significantly greater than that of the non-TIV group (11.33 years vs 4.61 years; p<0.001). Analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model suggested that older age of onset and respiratory onset was an independent factor for poor prognosis after starting TIV therapy. CONCLUSION: We showed that there was a significant difference of approximately 7 years in life expectancy between Japanese ALS patients who did and did not receive TIV therapy.

4.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 86-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only one interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction [P-interaction = 0.001 (α = 0.05/21 = 0.002)]. The per-major-allele (C allele) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC) are both H. pylori infection-related diseases, individuals with DU are known to have lower risk for GC. Many epidemiological studies have identified the PSCA rs2294008 T-allele as a risk factor of GC, while others have found an association between the rs2294008 C-allele and risk of DU and gastric ulcer (GU). Following these initial reports, however, few studies have since validated these associations. Here, we aimed to validate the association between variations in PSCA and the risk of DU/GU and evaluate its interaction with environmental factors in a Japanese population. METHODS: PSCA six SNPs were genotyped in 584 DU cases, 925 GU cases, and 8,105 controls from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC). Unconditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between the SNPs and risk of DU/GU. RESULTS: PSCA rs2294008 C-allele was associated with per allele OR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.18-1.51; P=2.28×10-6) for the risk of DU. This association was independent of age, sex, study site, smoking habit, drinking habit and H. pylori status. On the other hand, we did not observe an association between the risk of GU and PSCA SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms an association between the PSCA rs2294008 C-allele and the risk of DU in a Japanese population.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518701

RESUMO

Extended thymectomy is employed for patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and/or thymoma with elevated serum antiacetylcholine receptor antibody (AchR) titers. However, MG symptoms occasionally worsen in post-thymectomy patients. We explored the risk factors for exacerbation of MG symptoms after surgical therapy for patients with MG and/or thymoma with an elevated AchR titer. We retrospectively analyzed 90 patients suffering from MG and/or thymoma with an elevated AchR titer who underwent thymectomy in our institute. Patients were classified into Improved, Unchanged, and Exacerbated groups by assessing their postoperative myasthenic symptoms, amount of medication, and incidence of myasthenic crisis. Risk factors for postoperative exacerbation of myasthenic symptoms were assessed by comparing the Exacerbated with the Improved and Unchanged groups. Of the 90 patients, 29 were classified into the Improved group, 47 into the Unchanged group, and 14 into the Exacerbated group. The presence of thymoma and Masaoka stage were significantly different between the Exacerbated and Improved/Unchanged groups. Although preoperative AchR titers did not significantly differ among the groups, the perioperative AchR titers in the Exacerbated group were significantly higher than those in the other groups (P = 0.003). A multiple logistic regression analysis with stepwise forward selection showed that advanced-stage thymoma was a risk factor for postoperative exacerbation of myasthenic symptoms (P = 0.007). Patients with advanced-stage thymoma have a relative risk for exacerbation of myasthenic symptoms after surgical therapy.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4262, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537808

RESUMO

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of signaling pathways in a mouse model of SBMA (AR-97Q mice) utilizing a phosphoprotein assay. We measure the levels of 17 phosphorylated proteins in spinal cord and skeletal muscle of AR-97Q mice at three stages. The level of phosphorylated Src (p-Src) is markedly increased in the spinal cords and skeletal muscles of AR-97Q mice prior to the onset. Intraperitoneal administration of a Src kinase inhibitor improves the behavioral and histopathological phenotypes of the transgenic mice. We identify p130Cas as an effector molecule of Src and show that the phosphorylated p130Cas is elevated in murine and cellular models of SBMA. These results suggest that Src kinase inhibition is a potential therapy for SBMA.


Assuntos
Atrofia Bulboespinal Ligada ao X/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas pp60(c-src)/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Atrofia Bulboespinal Ligada ao X/genética , Atrofia Bulboespinal Ligada ao X/terapia , Linhagem Celular , Proteína Substrato Associada a Crk/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas pp60(c-src)/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
8.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 506-517, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinicopathological continuity between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is well known. Although ALS demonstrates language symptoms similar to FTLD, including semantic dementia, word reading impairments in ALS have not been well studied. "Jukujikun" are Kanji-written words with irregular pronunciation comparable to "exception words" and useful for detecting semantic deficits in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate Jukujikun reading impairments and related network changes in ALS. METHODS: We enrolled 71 ALS patients and 69 healthy controls (HCs). Age-, sex-, and education matched HCs were recruited from another cohort study concurrently with patient registration. We examined neuropsychological factors including low frequency Jukujikun reading. We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging with voxel-based graph analysis on a subset of participants who agreed. FINDINGS: Low frequency Jukujikun score was decreased in ALS (15·0[11·0-19·0](median[25-75 percentile])) compared with HCs (19·0[17·3-20·0]) (p < 0·001, effect size = 0·43). Fifty-two percent of ALS (N = 37) with low frequency Jukujikun score ≤ 5th percentile of HCs was classified as ALS with positive Jukujikun deficit (ALS-JD+). Compared with HCs, ALS-JD+ showed decreased degree centrality in the right lingual/fusiform gyrus, where connectivities with regions associated with word perception, semantic processing, or speech production were decreased. They also showed increased degree centrality in the left inferior/middle temporal gyrus, associated with increased connectivities involving semantic processing. INTERPRETATION: Dysfunction of the "hub" in the right lingual/fusiform gyrus can affect semantic deficit in ALS. Considering neuropsychological symptoms as network impairments is vital for understanding various diseases. FUND: MHLW and MEXT, Japan.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
9.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Native liver survival after laparoscopic Kasai portoenterostomy (Lap-PE) for biliary atresia (BA) is controversial. We examined whether a jaundice-free native liver survival rate is comparable between conventional Kasai portoenterostomy (Open-PE) and Lap-PE. Then, the impact of the two types of PE on subsequent living-donor liver transplantation (LTx) was addressed in this study. METHODS: The jaundice-free rate in 1- and 2-year-old patients who underwent Open-PE and Lap-PE from January 2006 to December 2017 was investigated. Additionally, perioperative data (duration from the start of surgery to the completion of hepatectomy and others) of patients aged 2 years or younger who underwent LTx after either Open-PE or Lap-PE from 2006 to 2017 were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-one (67%) out of 46 Open-PE patients and 23 (77%) out of 30 Lap-PE patients showed native liver survival with jaundice-free status at 1 year of age (p = 0.384); 29 (63%) out of 46 Open-PE patients and 19 (70%) out of 27 Lap-PE patients showed native liver survival with jaundice-free status at 2 years of age (p = 0.524); there were no significant differences. Additionally, there were 37 LTx cases after PE within 2 years of birth, including 29 Open-PE and 8 Lap-PE cases. The patients in the Lap-PE group had fewer adhesions and significantly shorter durations of surgery up to the completion of the recipient's hepatectomy and durations of post-LTx hospital stay compared to the Open-PE group. There were no differences in blood loss or duration of stay in intensive care unit between the Lap-PE and Open-PE groups. CONCLUSIONS: Jaundice-free native liver survival rate has been comparable between Open-PE and Lap-PE. Lap-PE resulted in fewer adhesions, contributing to better outcomes of subsequent LTx compared to Open-PE.

10.
Allergol Int ; 68(4): 515-520, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma often coexists with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Recent studies revealed that sinus inflammation in asthmatic patients was related to eosinophilic inflammation. However, the relationship between the severity of CRS and four different sputum inflammatory phenotypes as defined by the proportion of eosinophils and neutrophils is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the severity of CRS on lower airway and systemic inflammation in asthmatic patients. METHODS: We enrolled 57 adult asthmatic patients who underwent sinus computed tomography (CT). The severity of CRS was evaluated by the Lund-Mackay score (LMS). The induced sputum inflammatory phenotype was defined by eosinophils (≥/<2%) and neutrophils (≥/<60%). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected to examine cytokine productions. RESULTS: The median LMS of subjects was 6 (interquartile range, 0-11.5). The sputum inflammatory cell phenotype was categorized as paucicellular (n = 14), neutrophilic (n = 11), eosinophilic (n = 20), or mixed (n = 12). LMS was positively correlated with the percentage of blood eosinophils, sputum eosinophils, and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of IL-5 on CD4+ T cells. In the severe CRS group (LMS, 12-24), the number of mixed cellular phenotypes was higher than that in the group without CRS (LMS, 0-4) and mild-to-moderate CRS group (LMS, 5-11). CONCLUSIONS: In asthmatic patients with severe CRS, the proportion of the mixed cellular inflammatory phenotype was increased as well as eosinophilic inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma/complicações , Asma/patologia , Rinite/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Idoso , Asma/diagnóstico por imagem , Asma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Eosinofilia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Fenótipo , Rinite/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(10): 1430-1437, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The first ever genome-wide association study (GWAS) of clinically defined gout cases and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (AHUA) controls was performed to identify novel gout loci that aggravate AHUA into gout. METHODS: We carried out a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1003 AHUA controls followed by 2 replication studies. In total, 2860 gout cases and 3149 AHUA controls (all Japanese men) were analysed. We also compared the ORs for each locus in the present GWAS (gout vs AHUA) with those in the previous GWAS (gout vs normouricaemia). RESULTS: This new approach enabled us to identify two novel gout loci (rs7927466 of CNTN5 and rs9952962 of MIR302F) and one suggestive locus (rs12980365 of ZNF724) at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10- 8). The present study also identified the loci of ABCG2, ALDH2 and SLC2A9. One of them, rs671 of ALDH2, was identified as a gout locus by GWAS for the first time. Comparing ORs for each locus in the present versus the previous GWAS revealed three 'gout vs AHUA GWAS'-specific loci (CNTN5, MIR302F and ZNF724) to be clearly associated with mechanisms of gout development which distinctly differ from the known gout risk loci that basically elevate serum uric acid level. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis is the first to reveal the loci associated with crystal-induced inflammation, the last step in gout development that aggravates AHUA into gout. Our findings should help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gout development and assist the prevention of gout attacks in high-risk AHUA individuals.

12.
Circ J ; 83(9): 1883-1890, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous vasodilators are commonly used in patients with hypertensive acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), but little is known about their optimal use in blood pressure (BP) management to avoid acute kidney injury (AKI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between systolic BP (SBP) changes and the incidence of AKI in patients with hypertensive ADHF.Methods and Results:Post-hoc analysis was performed on a prospectively enrolled cohort. We investigated 245 patients with ADHF and SBP >140 mmHg on arrival (mean age, 76 years; 40% female). We defined "SBP-fall" as the maximum percent reduction in SBP 6 h after intravenous treatment. AKI was defined as serum creatinine (SCr) ≥0.3 mg/dL, or urine output <0.5 mL/kg/h (n=66) at 48 h. Mean SBP and SCr levels on arrival were 180 mmHg and 1.21 mg/dL, respectively. Patients with AKI had significantly larger SBP-fall than the others (36.7±15.3% vs. 27.2±15.3%, P<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed an odds ratio per 10% SBP-fall for AKI of 1.49 (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.90, P=0.001). SBP-fall was significantly associated with the number of concomitant used intravenous vasodilators (P=0.001). The administration of carperitide was also independently associated with increased incidence of AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Larger SBP-fall from excessive vasodilator use is associated with increased incidence of AKI in patients with hypertensive ADHF.

13.
EMBO J ; 38(17): e98441, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361039

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function in a wide range of processes by diverse mechanisms, though their roles in regulation of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors remain rather elusive. We performed a global search for lncRNAs affecting MYC activity using a systems biology-based approach with a K supercomputer and the GIMLET algorism based on local distance correlations. Consequently, MYMLR was identified and experimentally shown to maintain MYC transcriptional activity and cell cycle progression despite the low levels of expression. A proteomic search for MYMLR-binding proteins identified PCBP2, while it was also found that MYMLR places a 557-kb upstream enhancer region in the proximity of the MYC promoter in cooperation with PCBP2. These findings implicate a crucial role for MYMLR in regulation of the archetypical oncogene MYC and warrant future studies regarding the involvement of low copy number lncRNAs in regulation of other crucial oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Células A549 , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Proteômica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Biologia de Sistemas
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 190, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major depressive disorder that occurs after childbirth. Objective diagnostic and predictive methods for PPD are important for early detection and appropriate intervention. DNA methylation has been recognized as a potential biomarker for major depressive disorder. In this study, we used methylation analysis and peripheral blood to search for biomarkers that could to lead to the development a predictive method for PPD. METHODS: Study participants included 36 pregnant women (18 cases and 18 controls determined after childbirth). Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were obtained by analysis with an Infinium Human Methylation 450BeadChip. The association of DNA methylation status at each DNA methylation site with PPD was assessed using linear regression analysis. We also conducted functional enrichment analysis of PPD using The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 6.8 to explore enriched functional-related gene groups for PPD. RESULTS: In the analysis with postpartum depressed state as an independent variable, the difference in methylation frequency between the postpartum non-depressed group and the postpartum depressed group was small, and sites with genome-wide significant differences were not confirmed. After analysis by The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery 6.8, we revealed four gene ontology terms, including axon guidance, related to postpartum depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may help with the development of an objective predictive method for PPD.

15.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(2): 227-232, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239591

RESUMO

Neonates who swallow a considerable amount of maternal blood may exhibit vomiting and suckling disorder during the first few days of the postnatal period. Some clinicians treat these neonates with gastric lavage (GL) to prevent vomiting and the establishment of enteral feeding empirically, but there was no study assessing the effect of GL for neonates with coffee-ground emesis. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of GL in neonates with coffee-ground emesis. Vigorous neonates with birth weight ranging from 2500 g to 3999 g and gestational age between 37w0d and 41w6d who presented with coffee-ground emesis on more than twice and diagnosed as false melena, were divided into two groups using computerized randomization. We defined feeding intolerance (FI) as (1) ≥2 vomiting episodes in 4h or ≥3 episodes in 24h and/or (2) feeding failure on at least two occasions because of retching or poor sucking. Primary outcome is percentage of infants who present FI within 24 hours from admission. We also assessed the residual volumes, number of vomiting episodes, percentage of weight reduction at postnatal day 4, rates of body weight gain at 1 month of age, and peak serum total bilirubin value before discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of GL for neonates with coffee-ground emesis. This trial is registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000026483.


Assuntos
Lavagem Gástrica/métodos , Vômito/terapia , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mecônio/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Software
16.
Commun Biol ; 2: 115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993211

RESUMO

Gout is a common arthritis caused by elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels. Here we investigated loci influencing SUA in a genome-wide meta-analysis with 121,745 Japanese subjects. We identified 8948 variants at 36 genomic loci (P<5 × 10-8) including eight novel loci. Of these, missense variants of SESN2 and PNPLA3 were predicted to be damaging to the function of these proteins; another five loci-TMEM18, TM4SF4, MXD3-LMAN2, PSORS1C1-PSORS1C2, and HNF4A-are related to cell metabolism, proliferation, or oxidative stress; and the remaining locus, LINC01578, is unknown. We also identified 132 correlated genes whose expression levels are associated with SUA-increasing alleles. These genes are enriched for the UniProt transport term, suggesting the importance of transport-related genes in SUA regulation. Furthermore, trans-ethnic meta-analysis across our own meta-analysis and the Global Urate Genetics Consortium has revealed 15 more novel loci associated with SUA. Our findings provide insight into the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of hyperuricemia/gout.

17.
Oncogene ; 38(26): 5142-5157, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894682

RESUMO

The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a transcriptional target of the lineage-survival oncogene NKX2-1/TTF-1 in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition to its kinase-dependent role, ROR1 functions as a scaffold protein to facilitate interaction between caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAVIN1, and consequently maintains caveolae formation, which in turn sustains pro-survival signaling toward AKT from multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MET (proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase), and IGF-IR (insulin-like growth factor receptor 1). Therefore, ROR1 is an attractive target for overcoming EGFR-TKI resistance due to various mechanisms such as EGFR T790M double mutation and bypass signaling from other RTKs. Here, we report that ROR1 possesses a novel scaffold function indispensable for efficient caveolae-dependent endocytosis. CAVIN3 was found to bind with ROR1 at a site distinct from sites for CAV1 and CAVIN1, a novel function required for proper CAVIN3 subcellular localization and caveolae-dependent endocytosis, but not caveolae formation itself. Furthermore, evidence of a mechanistic link between ROR1-CAVIN3 interaction and consequential caveolae trafficking, which was found to utilize a binding site distinct from those for ROR1 interactions with CAV1 and CAVIN1, with RTK-mediated pro-survival signaling towards AKT in early endosomes in lung adenocarcinoma cells was also obtained. The present findings warrant future study to enable development of novel therapeutic strategies for inhibiting the multifaceted scaffold functions of ROR1 in order to reduce the intolerable death toll from this devastating cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Cavéolas/fisiologia , Endocitose , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptores Órfãos Semelhantes a Receptor Tirosina Quinase/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Animais , Células COS , Cavéolas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Endocitose/genética , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Células Sf9 , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Spodoptera
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(10): 1248-1258, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linked color imaging (LCI) is a method of endoscopic imaging that emphasizes slight differences in red mucosal color. AIM: To evaluate LCI in diagnostic endoscopy of early gastric cancer and to compare LCI and pathological findings. METHODS: Endoscopic images were obtained for 39 patients (43 lesions) with early gastric cancer. Three endoscopists evaluated lesion recognition with white light imaging (WLI) and LCI. Color values in Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 L*a*b* color space were used to calculate the color difference (ΔE) between cancer lesions and non-cancer areas. After endoscopic submucosal dissection, blood vessel density in the surface layer of the gastric epithelium was evaluated pathologically. The identical region of interest was selected for analyses of endoscopic images (WLI and LCI) and pathological analyses. RESULTS: LCI was superior for lesion recognition (P < 0.0001), and ΔE between cancer and non-cancer areas was significantly greater with LCI than WLI (29.4 vs 18.6, P < 0.0001). Blood vessel density was significantly higher in cancer lesions (5.96% vs 4.15%, P = 0.0004). An a* cut-off of ≥ 24 in CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space identified a cancer lesion using LCI with sensitivity of 76.7%, specificity of 93.0%, and accuracy of 84.9%. CONCLUSION: LCI is more effective for recognition of early gastric cancer compared to WLI as a result of improved visualization of changes in redness. Surface blood vessel density was significantly higher in cancer lesions, and this result is consistent with LCI image analysis.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Mucosa Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Gastroscopia/métodos , Imagem de Banda Estreita/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cor , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Mucosa Gástrica/cirurgia , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Software , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
19.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(5): 346-350, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is generally a self-limiting disease, but it may become refractory. It is thought that refractory MPP is linked to the excessive immunologic responses of the host. Consequently, the use of adjunctive systemic corticosteroids may have beneficial effects. In this study, we compared the effects of high- and low-dose corticosteroid therapy in a pediatric population with refractory MPP. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 91 pediatric MPP patients treated with adjunctive systemic corticosteroids between April 2014 and October 2016. The patients were divided into the following two groups: high-dose corticosteroid group (2 mg/kg/day or more of prednisolone equivalents; n = 38) and low-dose corticosteroid group (<2 mg/kg/day; n = 53). Additionally, we compared the number of febrile days post-corticosteroid administration. We used 25 paired patients in a propensity score matching analysis to correct for confounding factors both by age and by days (from onset till corticosteroid therapy initiation). RESULTS: We observed that in the high-dose corticosteroid group defervescence following corticosteroid therapy initiation was achieved significantly earlier and length of hospitalization was significantly shorter (0.8 ± 1.0 vs. 1.5 ± 1.4 days and 8.2 ± 2.4 vs. 10.7 ± 2.7 days, respectively). In the propensity score matching, we observed that significant differences in the length of fever following corticosteroid therapy initiation and hospitalization were still present. Further, neither of the groups developed corticosteroid-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that patients with refractory MPP treated with high-dose corticosteroid could achieve defervescence earlier and have a shorter hospitalization.


Assuntos
Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Febre/microbiologia , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/fisiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.

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