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Environ Res ; 188: 109759, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554272


BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxic heavy metal which can have serious public health hazards. As of today, there is no safe threshold for Pb exposure, especially for children. Lead exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes involving epigenetic mechanisms, such as aberrant DNA methylation. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and gene-specific promoter DNA methylation status in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2 to 10-year-old children from high Pb exposed area (N = 102) and low Pb exposed area (N = 38). We measured BLLs using a LeadCare II analyzer and investigated the methylation status of the ALAD and p16 gene promoters by methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: The mean BLLs were 23.7 µg/dL and 7.9 µg/dL in high Pb exposed and low Pb exposed children, respectively. Pb exposure was correlated with increased methylation of the ALAD and p16 genes. The promoter methylation rates of ALAD and p16 in high Pb exposed children were 84.3% and 67.7%, and 42.1% and 44.7% in low Pb exposed children, respectively. Significantly increased methylation was found in both genes in high Pb exposed children compared with low Pb exposed children (p < 0.05). Children with methylated ALAD and p16 genes showed an increased risk of Pb poisoning (odd ratio >1) compared to the unmethylated status. CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time tries to correlate promoter methylation status of the ALAD and p16 genes in environmental Pb-exposed children from Kabwe, Zambia as a representative. The result suggests that Pb exposure increases aberrations in ALAD and p16 gene methylation, which may be involved in the mechanism of Pb toxicity.

Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Genes p16 , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/genética , Sintase do Porfobilinogênio/genética , Zâmbia
Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873


Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.

Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia