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1.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since patients with stroke frequently develop bladder dysfunction, a careful approach is required to reduce unnecessary indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) for preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of a program to promote appropriate IUC use in stroke care. METHODS: We conducted a prospective interrupted time series study in three tertiary care hospitals in Japan. Adult patients with acute stroke were eligible. The study consisted of three phases: baseline, education and implementation. Our program included an assessment of IUC indications, educational meetings among healthcare professionals, reminders for removal of inappropriate IUC and a urinary retention protocol. The primary outcome was the proportion of inappropriate IUC use to assess effectiveness. The device utilization ratio and incidence of CAUTI were examined to assess effectiveness, and incidences of urinary retention and all symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) were examined to assess safety. RESULTS: Among 976 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 738 were analysed. Inappropriate IUC use decreased from 50.1% in the baseline phase to 22.5% in the implementation phase (absolute risk reduction in interrupted time series analysis 42.4% [95% confidence interval, 19.2%-65.6%]). The device utilization ratio decreased from 0.302 to 0.194 (p < 0.001), whereas CAUTI did not change significantly (from 8.81 to 8.28 per 1000 catheter-days; incidence rate ratio 0.95 [0.44-1.94]). All symptomatic UTI decreased from 9.5% to 4.9% (p = 0.015), with no increase in urinary retention. CONCLUSIONS: Our program improved the appropriateness of IUC use in stroke care while ensuring safety.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20096, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635704

RESUMO

Poor implementation and variable quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) for coronary heart disease (CHD) have been a global concern. This nationwide study aimed to clarify the implementation of and participation in CR among CHD patients and associated factors in Japan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data extracted from the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan. Patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 2017-2018 were included. Aspects of CR were assessed in terms of (1) participation in exercise-based CR, (2) pharmacological education, and (3) nutritional education. Of 87,829 eligible patients, 32% had participated in exercise-based CR, with a mean program length of 40 ± 71 days. CABG was associated with higher CR participation compared to PCI (OR 10.2, 95% CI 9.6-10.8). Patients living in the Kyushu region were more likely to participate in CR (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.39-2.81). Among patients who participated in CR, 92% received pharmacological education, whereas only 67% received nutritional education. In Japan, the implementation of CR for CHD is insufficient and involved varying personal, therapeutic, and geographical factors. CR implementation needs to be promoted in the future.

3.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 100997, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is disparity between the sexes in cardiovascular diseases including heart failure (HF). This study aimed to investigate the effect of periodontal disease (PD) on plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration across sex, age, and menopausal status, as well as the interaction effect of MT and diabetes mellitus (DM) on BNP. METHODS: This large-scale prospective cohort study enrolled 7,539 individuals with no myocardial infarctions or angina pectoris at baseline from the general Japanese population. The association between baseline number of missing teeth (MT) and the longitudinal changes in BNP over 5 years (ΔBNP) was evaluated according to sex and menopausal status. RESULTS: Among 7,539 participants, 3,190 were postmenopausal women with a mean age ± standard deviation of 61.1 ± 7.6 at baseline. Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between MT and ΔBNP among postmenopausal women even after adjusting for covariates, including traditional HF risk factors (coefficient, 0.210; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.107 to 0.312; P <0.001), but not in men aged >50. Including an interaction term (MT × DM) in the multivariate model revealed a positive interaction between MT and DM in ΔBNP among postmenopausal women (coefficient for interaction, 1.365; 95% CI, 0.902 to 1.827; P for interaction <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a positive association between MT and ΔBNP, as well as a positive effect of the interactive association between MT and DM, among postmenopausal women. Our results suggest a sex difference of an adverse effect of PD on initial myocardial wall stress in the ventricles.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17241, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446826

RESUMO

Circulating levels of inflammatory proteins have to be prognostic markers of all-cause mortality. α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a major inflammatory plasma protein, but its association with all-cause mortality is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of AAT levels for all-cause mortality. Study participants comprised 9682 community residents (53.5 ± 13.3 years old). During the 9.8-year follow-up period, 313 participants died from any cause. The mortality rate increased linearly with AAT quintiles (Q1, 18.2; Q2, 24.7; Q3, 23.8; Q4, 31.9; Q5, 64.6 per 10,000 person-years). There were significant correlations between AAT and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels (correlation coefficient, 0.331; P < 0.001). However, the Cox model analysis, when adjusted for possible covariates including hsCRP, identified the fifth AAT quintile as a risk factor for all-cause death (hazard ratio, 2.12 [95% confidence interval, 1.41-3.18]; P < 0.001). An analysis of participants older than 50 years (hazard ratio, 1.98, P < 0.001) yielded similar results. The hazard ratio increased proportionately in combination with high AAT and high hsCRP levels, and the highest hazard ratio reached 4.51 (95% confidence interval, 3.14-6.54, P < 0.001). High AAT levels were determined to be an independent risk factor for mortality in the general population.

5.
Confl Health ; 15(1): 61, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-related mortality remains persistently higher in post-conflict areas. Part of the blame lies with continued disruption to vital care provision, especially emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC). In such settings, assessment of EmONC is essential for data-driven interventions needed to reduce preventable maternal and neonatal mortality. In the North Kivu Province (NKP), the epicentre of armed conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between 2006 and 2013, the post-conflict status of EmONC is unknown. We assessed the availability, use, and quality of EmONC in 3 health zones (HZs) of the NKP to contribute to informed policy and programming in improving maternal and newborn health (MNH) in the region. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of all 42 public facilities designated to provide EmONC in 3 purposively selected HZs in the NKP (Goma, Karisimbi, and Rutshuru) was conducted in 2017. Interviews, reviews of maternity ward records, and observations were used to assess the accessibility, use, and quality of EmONC against WHO standards. RESULTS: Only three referral facilities (two faith-based facilities in Goma and the MSF-supported referral hospital of Rutshuru) met the criteria for comprehensive EmONC. None of the health centres qualified as basic EmONC, nor could they offer EmONC services 24 h, 7 days a week (24/7). The number of functioning EmONC per 500,000 population was 1.5. Assisted vaginal delivery was the least performed signal function, followed by parenteral administration of anticonvulsants, mainly due to policy restrictions and lack of demand. The 3 HZs fell short of WHO standards for the use and quality of EmONC. The met need for EmONC was very low and the direct obstetric case fatality rate exceeded the maximum acceptable level. However, the proportion the proportion of births by caesarean section in EmONC facilities was within acceptable range in the HZs of Goma and Rutshuru. Overall, the intrapartum and very early neonatal death rate was 1.5%. CONCLUSION: This study provides grounds for the development of coordinated and evidence-based programming, involving local and external stakeholders, as part of the post-conflict effort to address maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in the NKP. Particular attention to basic EmONC is required, focusing on strengthening human resources, equipment, supply chains, and referral capacity, on the one hand, and on tackling residual insecurity that might hinder 24/7 staff availability, on the other.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Maternal cholesterol is important for fetal development. Whether maternal serum total cholesterol (maternal TC) levels in mid-pregnancy are associated with small- (SGA) or large- (LGA) for-gestational-age independent of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association between maternal TC in mid-pregnancy and SGA or LGA. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Japan Environment and Children's Study is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 37,449 non-diabetic, non-hypertensive mothers with singleton birth at term without congenital abnormalities. OUTCOME MEASURES: Birth weight for the gestational age <10 percentile and ≥90 percentile were respectively defined as SGA and LGA by the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at blood sampling was 22.7±4.0 weeks. After adjustment for maternal age, sex of child, parity, weight gain during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood glucose levels, household income, and Study Areas, one standard deviation decrement of maternal TC was linearly associated with SGA [odds ratio (OR): 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.20: 1.15-1.25]. In contrast, one standard deviation increment of maternal TC was linearly associated with LGA [OR: 95% CI = 1.13: 1.09-1.16]. Associations did not differ according to pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (p for interaction>0.20). CONCLUSION: Maternal TC levels in mid-pregnancy were associated with SGA or LGA in Japanese. Maternal TC in mid-pregnancy may help to predict SGA and LGA. Favorable maternal lipid profiles for fetal development must be explored.

7.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347565

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although sleep disordered breathing (SDB) may increase urinary albumin excretion (UAE) by raising nocturnal blood pressure (BP) in addition to diurnal BP, the correlation has not been investigated in a general population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationships among UAE, SDB and BP during sleep in a large population cohort. METHODS: Among 9,850 community residents, UAE was assessed by the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine. Sleep duration and SDB were evaluated by a wearable actigraph and pulse oximeter, respectively. We calculated the actigraphy-modified 3% oxygen desaturation index (Acti-3%ODI) by correcting the time measured by pulse oximetry according to sleep duration obtained by actigraphy. Further, participants were instructed to measure morning and sleep BP at home by a timer-equipped oscillometric device. RESULTS: Measurements of sleep parameters, UAE and office BP were completed in 6,568 participants. The multivariate analysis that included confounders showed a significant association of Acti-3%ODI with UACR. (ß=0.06, p<0.001) Further, a positive interaction between office systolic BP (SBP) and Acti-3%ODI for UACR was found. (ß=0.06, p<0.001) Among the 6,568 persons enrolled in the analysis, 5,313 completed measurements of BP at home. In this cohort, the association of Acti-3%ODI with UACR remained significant (ß=0.06, p<0.001) even after morning and sleep SBP were included in the analysis. Further, mediation analysis revealed that 28.3% (95% confidence interval: 14.9-41.7%, p<0.001) of the association of Acti-3%ODI with UACR was explained by the mediation of morning and sleep SBP metrics. CONCLUSIONS: SDB and office SBP were independently and synergistically associated with UAE, which is considered as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular events. SDB may raise UAE not only by increasing BP but involving other pathologic pathways.

8.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(10): 903-913, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the effect of the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) on medical costs needs to be clarified, there are few reports on the actual medical costs of CRC patients in Japan. We aimed to identify medical costs according to CRC stage, using health insurance claims. METHODS: This observational study included CRC patients who had received specific treatment for CRC, which was defined by the procedure code and the claim computer processing system code associated with the treatment of CRC. CRC patients who underwent endoscopic or radical surgical treatment were defined as the curable group and those with palliative treatment, including palliative chemotherapy, as the non-curable group. Total medical costs and medical costs of specific treatments for CRC for 3 years were measured using the claims held by Hachioji City from May 2014 to July 2019. RESULTS: This study included 442 patients in the curable group, including 267 patients who underwent endoscopic treatment, and 175 patients who underwent radical surgical treatment, and 161 patients in the non-curable group. The mean (standard deviation) total medical costs in the curable and non-curable groups were 2,130 (2,494) and 8,279 (5,600) thousand Japanese Yen (JPY), respectively. The mean (standard deviation) medical costs for the specific treatment of CRC in the curable and non-curable groups were 408 (352) and 3,685 (3,479) thousand JPY, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We clarified the actual medical costs of CRC in curable and non-curable groups. These results suggest the effect of early detection of CRC in reducing medical costs.

9.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(9): 843-855, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of bidirectional sharing of information between physicians and patients to patient satisfaction with treatment decision-making for ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been examined. Here, we conducted a web-based survey to evaluate this relationship. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 20 years with UC were recruited from the IBD Patient Panel and Japanese IBD Patient Association. Patients completed our web-based survey between 11 May and 1 June 2020. The main outcomes were patient satisfaction (assessed by the Decision Regret Scale) and patient trust in physicians (assessed by the Trust in Physician Scale). RESULTS: In this study (n = 457), a structural equation modelling analysis showed that physician-to-patient and patient-to-physician information significantly affected patient satisfaction with treatment decision-making (standardised path coefficient: 0.426 and 0.135, respectively) and patient trust in physicians (0.587 and 0.158, respectively). Notably, physician-to-patient information had a greater impact. For patient satisfaction with treatment decision-making and patient trust in physicians, information on "disease" (indirect effect: 0.342 and 0.471, respectively), "treatment" (0.335 and 0.461, respectively), and "endoscopy" (0.295 and 0.407, respectively) was particularly important, and the level of this information was adequate or almost adequate. Patient-to-physician information on "anxiety and distress" (0.116 and 0.136, respectively), "intention and desire for treatment" (0.113 and 0.132, respectively), and "future expectations of life" (0.104 and 0.121, respectively) were also important for patient satisfaction with treatment decision-making and patient trust in physicians, but these concerns were not adequately communicated. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate physician-patient communication, especially physician-to-patient information, enhanced patient satisfaction with treatment decision-making for UC.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148643, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198080

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of problems associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and there has been a growing interest in the relationship between environmental chemicals and children's health. The objective of this study was to examine whether an association exists between occupational or environmental prenatal maternal exposure to volatile organic compounds and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in children using Japanese translations of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (J-ASQ-3). An increase in the risk of neurodevelopmental delay in 12-month-old children associated with maternal exposure to formalin or formaldehyde was identified in terms of problem-solving (odds ratio (OR): 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-3.12) and personal-social skills (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 1.46-7.55). It is not clear whether or not this tendency is reversible, and whether it is observed past 12 months of age. Further research and a preventive approach are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade
12.
Cancer Med ; 10(14): 4939-4947, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A sudden unexpected death has significant negative impacts on patients, family caregivers, and medical staff in hospice/palliative care. This study aimed to clarify the incidence and associated factors of sudden unexpected death according to four definitions in advanced cancer patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study in 23 inpatient hospices/palliative care units in Japan. Advanced cancer patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to inpatient hospices/palliative care units were included. The incidence and associated factors of sudden unexpected death were evaluated in all enrolled patients according to four definitions: (a) rapid decline death, defined as a sudden death preceded by functional decline over 1-2 days; (b) surprise death, defined if the primary responsible palliative care physician answered "yes" to the question, "Were you surprised by the timing of the death?"; (c) unexpected death, defined as a death that occurred earlier than the physicians had anticipated; and (d) performance status (PS)-defined sudden death, defined as a death that occurred within 1 week of functional status assessment with an Australia-modified Karnofsky PS ≥50. RESULTS: Among 1896 patients, the incidence of rapid decline death was the highest (30-day cumulative incidence: 16.8%, 95% CI: 14.8-19.0%), followed by surprise death (9.6%, 8.1-11.4%), unexpected death (9.0%, 7.5-10.8%), and PS-defined sudden death (6.4%, 5.2-8.0%). Male sex, liver metastasis, dyspnea, malignant skin lesion, and fluid retention were significantly associated with the occurrence of sudden unexpected death. CONCLUSION: Sudden unexpected death is not uncommon even in inpatient hospices/palliative care units, with range of 6.4-16.8% according to the different definitions.

13.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170234

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Whether the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is independent of comorbid risk factors for CVD is controversial. The objective of this study is to elucidate whether the association between SDB severity and the surrogate markers of CVD evets differs in relation to the number of comorbidities. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 7731 participants. Severity of SDB was determined by the oxygen desaturation index adjusted by actigraph-measured objective sleep time. Participants were stratified according to SDB severity and the number of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity), and the associations between the maximum value of intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CCA-IMT-max), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were evaluated. RESULTS: Among participants with no risk factor, CCA-IMT-max increased according to SDB severity (n = 1022, P <0.0001). Even after the matching of background, the median CCA-IMT-max value was 14% higher in moderate-severe SDB cases than those without SDB (n=45 in each group, P=0.020). The difference was not significant for baPWV and CAVI. On the other hand, a significant difference in CCA-IMT-max was not found in those with multiple comorbidities. Consistently, multiple regression analysis revealed an independent association between CCA-IMT-max and moderate-severe SDB for all study participants (ß: 0.0222 (95% confidence interval: 0.0039-0.0405), P=0.017), but the association was not significant for stratified participants with multiple comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: SDB severity is associated with the CCA-IMT-max level, but the independent association becomes weaker for those with multiple comorbidities.

14.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12231, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prevention of and early treatment for noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia are important, as these diseases are asymptomatic in early stages but can lead to critical conditions such as macro- and microvascular disorders later on. While screening is conducted worldwide, low rates of hospital visits after screening is a common issue. We aimed to investigate the effect of reminder letters on the consultation behavior of screened participants. METHODS: We used administrative claims data from a database managed by JMDC Inc for participants of health checkups in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, who belonged to a health insurance society. Reminder letters were sent regularly 6 months after checkups to improve participant consultation behavior. Participants who screened positive for hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, and who were not taking medication for any of these diseases at the time of health checkups, were included in the analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1739 participants in 2014, 1693 in 2015, 2002 in 2016, and 2144 in 2017 were included in the analysis for hypertension. The cumulative proportion of hospital visits gradually increased over the course of 12 months after checkups in all years. After 2015, spikes, albeit very small ones, were observed at 6 months after checkups in accordance with the timing of reminder letters. Similar trends were observed for hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Sending reminder letters is a potentially effective approach to increase hospital visits, but further improvements (ie, multiple reminders) may be necessary to affect enhancements in participant consultation behavior.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Alerta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(7): 1390-1398, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041835

RESUMO

Faster pulse wave velocity (PWV) is known to be associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study was to clarify the hypothesis that PWV may be associated with future CVD events even when its time-dependent changes were adjusted. We also investigated a prognostic significance of cardio-ankle vascular index, another index of arterial stiffness. Study participants included 8850 community residents. The repeated measures of the clinical parameters at 5.0 years after the baseline were available for 7249 of the participants. PWV was calculated using the arterial waveforms measured at the brachia and ankles (baPWV). The cardio-ankle vascular index was calculated by estimated pulse transit time from aortic valve to tibial artery. During the 8.53 years follow-up period, we observed 215 cases of CVD. The incidence rate increased linearly with baPWV quartiles (per 10 000 person-years: Q1, 2.7; Q2, 12.6; Q3, 22.5; Q4, 76.2), and the highest quartile was identified as an independent determinant of incident CVD by conventional Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for known risk factors [hazard ratio (HR), 4.00; p = .007]. Per unit HR of baPWV (HR, 1.15; p < .001) remained significant in the time-dependent Cox regression analysis including baPWV and other clinical values measured at 5-year after the baseline as time-varying variables (HR, 1.14; p < .001). The cardio-ankle vascular index was also associated with CVD with similar manner though the associations were less clear than that of baPWV. baPWV is a good risk marker for the incidence of CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Rigidez Vascular , Tornozelo , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043824, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of study was to explore the association between patient physical and psychological quality of life (QOL) with the degree of agreement in perceptions of patient disability within the stroke patient-rehabilitation therapist dyad. DESIGN: Cross-sectional dyadic study with a tablet-based structured questionnaire. SETTING: Rehabilitation, nursing and long-term care facilities that provide rehabilitation services in the Kanagawa prefecture, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: The 81 dyads of a male patient with stroke living at home and the rehabilitation therapist in charge of the eligible patient were recruited from March 2019 to February 2020. METHOD: Patient physical and psychological QOL was measured using the WHOQOL BREF. Perceptions of patient disability were measured using the 12-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule V.2.0 (DAS). DAS scores of patients and therapists were classified into two (high and low) and three (high, medium, low) categories, respectively, and six patterns of agreement about patient function were created and used in the analysis. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine multivariable associations between WHOQOL scores in patients and the degree of agreement within dyads adjusting for other covariates and clustering effects. RESULTS: Among 81 enrolled dyads, 48 (59.3%) were classified into one of four disagreement groups (low medium, low high, high medium, high low). When the patient appraised himself as having mild disability, the degree of patient-therapist disagreement was negatively associated with patient's physical and psychological QOL. When the patient appraised himself as having severe disability, his physical and/or psychological QOL was poorer, regardless of the degree of agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Disagreement in the perception of disability within patient-rehabilitation therapist dyad could be associated with patient's poor QOL, especially when the patient perceives himself as having mild disability. Reaching an agreement about patient disability is needed in the delivery of rehabilitation care for patients with stroke living at home to improve their QOL.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Assistência ao Convalescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Percepção , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Gen Fam Med ; 22(3): 118-127, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977008

RESUMO

JMDC, Inc. (JMDC) has created a database, using data collected from health insurance societies in Japan, consisting of ledgers of insureds, claims (for hospitalization, outpatient treatment, drug preparation, and dental treatment), and health checkup results. The earliest data are from the claims in January 2005, except dental claims from December 2009 and health checkup results from April 2008. Currently (the end of June 2020), the number of insureds included is approximately 9.8 million. This database is unique for Japan and has the following characteristics: (a) the basic population can be ascertained; (b) standardization is carried out using a dictionary; and (c) anonymized individual IDs can be followed on the basis of a time-series over various periods, with the earliest starting date being January 2005. However, it has certain limitations, in that the disease status and test results cannot be ascertained, and there is insufficient access to data for elderly people.

18.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(2): 101-107, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952763

RESUMO

Since 2011, pharmaceutical companies in Japan have been required to issue two types of documents regarding severe adverse drug reactions reported post-marketing, namely the Rapid Safety Communication Materials for Patients and the Related Materials. However, the adequacy of these documents has not yet been systematically assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of these two types of materials. The Rapid Safety Communications for Patients were obtained from the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) website. The Related Materials were obtained from pharmaceutical companies or the PMDA website. Three assessors independently scored the Rapid Safety Communication for Patients and the Related Materials using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clear Communication Index (CCI). In addition, the contents and descriptions of the materials were analyzed. In total, 13 materials for seven drugs were assessed. Almost all materials contained the "main message" and "call to action". However, the average CCI scores for the Rapid Safety Communication for Patients and Related Materials for Patients were 68.8 and 74.3 (out of 100), respectively. Further, none of the evaluated materials were scored above the CCI threshold score (i.e., ≥ 90%). Descriptions regarding "language", "state of science", and "risk" were not adequate. In particular, the terminology used in materials seemed difficult for patients to understand. In conclusion, the Japanese Rapid Communication Materials for Patients require improvement. Furthermore, a system for evaluating these materials prior to publication should be established.

19.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-11, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk factors of surgical site infection (SSI), delayed wound healing, and death after orthopedic surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We identified articles indexed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Japan Centra Revuo Medicina Web published from 2013 to 2019 and other articles. Articles fulfilling the predefined inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically and their quality was appraised according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system with some modifications. RESULTS: After inclusion and exclusion by full-text review, 29 articles were analyzed. Use of biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs was a risk factor of SSI (risk ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.25-2.19), but not of delayed wound healing. RA itself was a risk factor of SSI, and oral glucocorticoid use was a risk factor of SSI in three of the four studies analyzed and of postoperative death. Age, male sex, comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, surgical factors such as foot/ankle and spine surgery and longer operative time were risk factors of those postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Patients with those factors should be dealt with appropriate cautions to strike a risk-benefit balance of orthopedic surgeries.

20.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-15, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide an evidence base for clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in older adults. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane library, and Japan Centra Revuo Medicina databases were searched for articles published between 1990 and 2019. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system, with some modifications. RESULTS: Among 702 identified articles, there were 5 post-hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials and 10 observational studies. Meta-analysis of the former yielded a mean difference of the van der Heijde-modified total Sharp score of -2.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] - 3.74 to -1.84) for treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. The risk ratio (RR) for the American College of Rheumatology 50% response rate, and for serious adverse events was 2.83 (95%CI 1.90-4.21) and 1.32 (95%CI 0.53-3.31), respectively, for Janus kinase inhibitors. Meta-analysis of the observational studies yielded an RR for disease activity score-28 remission and serious infections of 0.76 (95%CI 0.64-0.91) and 1.92 (95%CI 1.31-2.81) for older-versus-younger patients receiving biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, respectively. CONCLUSION: This systematic review provides the necessary evidence for developing CPG for the management of RA in older adults.

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