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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412144

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant disease for which the development of prospective or prognostic biomarkers is urgently required. Although metabolomics is widely used for biomarker discovery, there are some bottlenecks regarding the comprehensiveness of detected features, reproducibility of methods, and identification of metabolites. In addition, the information on localization of metabolites in the tumor tissue is needed for functional analysis. Here, we developed a wide-polarity global metabolomics (G-Met) method, identified HCC biomarkers in human liver samples by high-definition mass spectrometry (HDMS) and demonstrated localization in cryosections using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI)-MS imaging (MSI) analysis. METHODS: Metabolic profiling of tumor (n=38) and nontumor (n=72) regions in human livers of HCC was performed by an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time of flight MS (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) equipped with a mixed-mode column. The HCC biomarker candidates were extracted by multivariate analyses and identified by matching values of the collision cross section and their fragment ions on the mass spectra obtained by HDMS. Cryosections of HCC livers, which included both tumor and nontumor regions, were analyzed by DESI-MSI. RESULTS: From the multivariate analysis, m/z 904.83 and m/z 874.79 were significantly high and low, respectively, in tumor samples and were identified as triglyceride (TG) 16:0/18:1(9Z)/20:1(11Z) and TG 16:0/18:1(9Z)/18:2(9Z,12Z) using the synthetic compounds. The TGs were clearly localized in the tumor or nontumor areas of the cryosection. CONCLUSIONS: Novel biomarkers for HCC were identified by a comprehensive and reproducible G-Met method with HDMS using a mixed-mode column. The combination analysis of UHPLC-QTOF/MS and DESI-MSI revealed that the different molecular species of TGs were associated with tumor distribution and were useful for characterizing the progression of tumor cells and discovering prospective biomarkers.

2.
Ophthalmology ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To present phenotypic features of 22 patients with S-antigen (SAG) mutations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one Japanese patients from 16 families with a homozygous c.924delA mutation and 1 patient with a homozygous c.636delT mutation in the SAG gene. METHODS: Clinical records on symptoms; best-corrected visual acuity; and Goldmann perimetry, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), OCT, and electroretinography results were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann perimetry results, imaging findings, and electroretinography results. RESULTS: Ten patients had Oguchi disease and 12 had retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with mean follow-up periods of 13.8 and 10.2 years, respectively. Retinitis pigmentosa patients were older (mean age, 56.0 years) than those with Oguchi disease (mean age, 22.1 years; P < 0.001) at the initial visit. Night blindness noted in childhood was the most common initial symptom for both Oguchi disease (80.0%) and RP (91.7%) patients. Best-corrected visual acuity in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) was well preserved in Oguchi disease patients (mean, 0.02 logMAR in both eyes) but reduced in most RP patients (mean, 1.32 logMAR [right eye] and 1.35 logMAR [left eye]). Similarly, the visual field in the retinal area was preserved in Oguchi disease patients (mean, 677 mm2 right eye and 667 mm2 left eye) and reduced in RP patients (mean, 369 mm2 right eye and 294 mm2 left eye). Fundus images revealed a characteristic golden sheen with no retinal degeneration in Oguchi disease patients, excluding 2 with macular degeneration detected by FAF, OCT, or both and 1 with mild retinal degeneration confirmed by OCT and fluorescein angiography. Pigmentary retinal degeneration most evident posteriorly was observed in RP patients, accompanied by a characteristic golden sheen in 12 of 14 patients undergoing ultra-widefield fundus imaging. OCT showed disrupted macular structure, and FAF revealed variable hypofluorescence. Electroretinography identified absent rod responses in both diseases, along with relative preservation of cone responses in Oguchi disease patients. Three patients showed progressive loss of the golden sheen based on fundus images, including 1 who demonstrated RP 26 years after the initial diagnosis of Oguchi disease. CONCLUSIONS: Retinitis pigmentosa with SAG mutations often shows a characteristic golden sheen surrounding posterior pigmentary retinal degeneration. Oguchi disease can show progressive degeneration in adulthood, rarely resulting in RP.

3.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 248(3): 159-168, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308289

RESUMO

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a serious condition that can cause blindness without surgical treatment. RRD occurs when a retinal tear or hole allows fluid to accumulate below the retinal surface, causing the retina to separate from the underlying layers. RRD is difficult to treat because each case is unique, varying with the location, size, and duration of the detachment, as well as patient age. The first successful methods to reattach the retina in RRD used thermocautery to repair the detachment. Many renowned ophthalmologists continued to study RRD and developed many new surgical approaches, notably: scleral buckling (SB), in which a silicone band is placed around the eye to reduce traction on the retina caused by the vitreous humor that fills the eye; pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), which eliminates traction on the retina by removing the vitreous; and pneumatic retinopexy (PR), in which the retina is reattached by pushing it back into place with an expanding gas bubble injected into the eye. However, no consensus has been reached on which approach is ideal. Furthermore, recent surgical and non-surgical breakthroughs, such as artificial vitreous substitutes and neuroprotective drugs, must also be considered. Thus, this review provides a guide for ocular specialists and non-specialists on the historical background of RRD, summarizes the three current main techniques (SB, PR and PPV) compares these three techniques, and provides an overview of new technologies that promise to greatly improve outcomes after RRD surgery.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8875, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221998

RESUMO

This study evaluated age-related changes in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus (SCP and DCP, respectively) and in the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). SCP and DCP perfusion density (PD) were measured in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) macular scans of 145 eyes of 145 healthy Japanese subjects, and findings were compared with SCP FAZ and clinical data. We found that age was negatively correlated with SCP and DCP PD (r = -0.17, P = 0.04 and r = -0.20, P = 0.02, respectively) and positively correlated with FAZ area (r = 0.18, P = 0.03). SCP and DCP PD were correlated with each other (r = 0.67, P < 0.001). FAZ area was negatively correlated with SCP PD, DCP PD and central macular thickness (CMT) (r = -0.18, P = 0.03; r = -0.25, P < 0.01; and r = -0.39, P < 0.001, respectively). FAZ was larger and CMT was lower (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) in women than men. SCP and DCP PD were positively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.17, P = 0.03 and r = 0.24, P < 0.01, respectively). Multiple regression analysis confirmed that age independently affected DCP PD and FAZ (P = 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively) and that CMT independently affected FAZ area (P < 0.001). Thus, normal subjects showed age-related decreases in macular PD and renal function. FAZ and CMT were related, suggesting that age-related changes in macular thickness also affect capillary vasculature.

5.
J Glaucoma ; 28(7): 575-583, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188229

RESUMO

PRéCIS:: Instillation of brimonidine or timolol slowed visual field deterioration in patients with open-angle glaucoma; both brimonidine and timolol might improve the mean deviation (MD) slopes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of 0.1% brimonidine and 0.5% timolol on the progressing visual field defects in open-angle glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 1 eye each of 68 glaucoma patients who were treated with at least 1 prostaglandin analog. Their baseline MD slopes were < -0.5 dB/y based on at least 5 Humphrey field analyzer measurements within 3 years. Eligible eyes were randomly assigned to brimonidine or timolol treatment groups and treatments were administered without the wash-out period. Clinical examinations were performed every 4 months for 2 years. We designated the MD slope as the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Ultimately, 56 eyes (brimonidine:timolol=26:30) were included in the present study (mean age=65.2 y). Dropout rates of brimonidine and timolol treatment groups were 27.8% and 6.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in baseline intraocular pressure or MD slopes between brimonidine and timolol groups (12.7 and 12.9 mm Hg, P=0.77, and -1.22 and -1.08 dB/y, P=0.43, respectively). Intraocular pressure decreased significantly in the brimonidine group at 4, 8, 12, and 16 months, and in the timolol group at 4 months, without significant differences between the drugs (P=0.20). MD slopes significantly improved in both groups (brimonidine: -0.38 dB/y, P<0.001; timolol: -0.52 dB/y, P=0.04). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between groups in the primary endpoint (P=0.59). CONCLUSION: Brimonidine and timolol treatments improved MD slopes in open-angle glaucoma.

6.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic profile of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in East Asian populations has not been well characterised. Therefore, we conducted a large-scale sequencing study to investigate the genes and variants causing RP in a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 1209 Japanese patients diagnosed with typical RP were enrolled. We performed deep resequencing of 83 known causative genes of RP using next-generation sequencing. We defined pathogenic variants as those that were putatively deleterious or registered as pathogenic in the Human Gene Mutation Database or ClinVar database and had a minor allele frequency in any ethnic population of ≤0.5% for recessive genes or ≤0.01% for dominant genes as determined using population-based databases. RESULTS: We successfully sequenced 1204 patients with RP and determined 200 pathogenic variants in 38 genes as the cause of RP in 356 patients (29.6%). Variants in six genes (EYS, USH2A, RP1L1, RHO, RP1 and RPGR) caused RP in 65.4% (233/356) of those patients. Among autosomal recessive genes, two known founder variants in EYS [p.(Ser1653fs) and p.(Tyr2935*)] and four East Asian-specific variants [p.(Gly2752Arg) in USH2A, p.(Arg658*) in RP1L1, p.(Gly2186Glu) in EYS and p.(Ile535Asn) in PDE6B] and p.(Cys934Trp) in USH2A were found in ≥10 patients. Among autosomal dominant genes, four pathogenic variants [p.(Pro347Leu) in RHO, p.(Arg872fs) in RP1, p.(Arg41Trp) in CRX and p.(Gly381fs) in PRPF31] were found in ≥4 patients, while these variants were unreported or extremely rare in both East Asian and non-East Asian population-based databases. CONCLUSIONS: East Asian-specific variants in causative genes were the major causes of RP in the Japanese population.

7.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(7): 2650-2658, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226712

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate sectoral differences in the relationship between optic nerve head tissue blood flow, anatomically corresponding visual field defect severity, and future progression. Methods: This retrospective longitudinal medical chart review comprised 508 eyes of 319 open-angle glaucoma patients (mean deviation: -9.2 ± 7.0 dB), followed for an average of 4.7 ± 1.1 years; an average 11.7 ± 3.7 visual field tests were performed. Average total deviation (TD) was calculated in the superior, central, and inferior sectors of the Humphrey 24-2 program. The optic nerve head was divided to obtain inferior, temporal, and superior tissue-area mean blur rate (MT), derived from laser speckle flowgraphy. At baseline, the correlation between MT and TD was compared in anatomically corresponding sectors. We performed a multivariate analysis to determine the contribution of baseline MT to corresponding TD slope and to determine background factors influencing superior to temporal MT. We used a linear-mixed effect model for the statistical analysis. Results: At baseline, the highest ß coefficients were found between MT-superior and TD-inferior, MT-temporal and TD-central, and between MT-inferior and TD-superior, in that order (ß = 0.38, ß = 0.27, ß = 0.26, respectively). MT-superior and MT-temporal independently contributed to corresponding TD slope (P < 0.05). Male sex, high body mass index, and the prevalence of sleep apnea syndrome were contributing factors to lower superior to temporal MT (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Review of medical history, measurements of systemic variables, and laser speckle flowgraphy parameters might help clinicians to predict visual field defect severity and progression.

8.
Int J Pharm ; 567: 118458, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247277

RESUMO

Successful treatment of age-related macular diseases requires an effective controlled drug release system with less invasive route of administration in the eye to reduce the burden of frequent intravitreal injections for patients. In this study, we developed an episcleral implantable device for sustained release of ranibizumab, and evaluated its efficacy on suppression of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats. We tested both biodegradable and non-biodegradable sheet-type devices consisting of crosslinked gelatin/chitosan (Gel/CS) and photopolymerized poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate that incorporated collagen microparticles (PEGDM/COL). In vitro release studies of FITC-labeled albumin showed a constant release from PEGDM/COL sheets compared to Gel/CS sheets. The Gel/CS sheets gradually biodegraded in the sclera during the 24-week implantation; however, the PEGDM/COL sheets did not degrade. FITC-albumin was detected in the retina during 18 weeks implantation in the PEGDM/COL sheet-treated group, and was detected in the Gel/CS sheet-treated group during 6 weeks implantation. CNV was suppressed 18 weeks after application of ranibizumab-loaded PEGDM/COL sheets compared to a placebo PEGDM/COL sheet-treated group, and to the intravitreal ranibizumab-injected group. In conclusion, the PEGDM/COL sheet device suppressed CNV via a transscleral administration route for 18 weeks, indicating that prolonged sustained ranibizumab release could reduce the burden of repeated intravitreal injections.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2884, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253780

RESUMO

Hereditary retinal degenerations (HRDs) are Mendelian diseases characterized by progressive blindness and caused by ultra-rare mutations. In a genomic screen of 331 unrelated Japanese patients, we identify a disruptive Alu insertion and a nonsense variant (p.Arg1933*) in the ciliary gene RP1, neither of which are rare alleles in Japan. p.Arg1933* is almost polymorphic (frequency = 0.6%, amongst 12,000 individuals), does not cause disease in homozygosis or heterozygosis, and yet is significantly enriched in HRD patients (frequency = 2.1%, i.e., a 3.5-fold enrichment; p-value = 9.2 × 10-5). Familial co-segregation and association analyses show that p.Arg1933* can act as a Mendelian mutation in trans with the Alu insertion, but might also associate with disease in combination with two alleles in the EYS gene in a non-Mendelian pattern of heredity. Our results suggest that rare conditions such as HRDs can be paradoxically determined by relatively common variants, following a quasi-Mendelian model linking monogenic and complex inheritance.


Assuntos
Ciliopatias/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Elementos Alu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Japão , Mutação , Linhagem
10.
Cornea ; 38(9): 1185-1188, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205162

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a case of severe bilateral necrotizing herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) in an immunocompetent patient, with genotyping of the underlying herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). METHODS: Genetic analyses of HSV-1 in tear samples were performed with polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism, targeting the viral genes unique short (US)2, US4 (glycoprotein G), and US7 (glycoprotein I). RESULTS: A 64-year-old woman with no history of atopy or immune disorders manifested bilateral keratitis with geographic ulcer. Her initial visual acuity was 20/1000 (OD) and 20/20 (OS). Polymerase chain reaction testing of a tear sample revealed the presence of HSV-1 in both eyes, and the patient was diagnosed with bilateral HSK. Both eyes progressed to necrotizing keratitis during the treatment course. Continuous intensive treatment, at first with acyclovir ointment and oral valacyclovir and later with steroid eye drops for stromal keratitis, finally improved the patient's condition. However, after 2 years, her visual acuity was limited to 20/250 (OD) and 20/60 (OS) because of corneal opacity from scarring. We found that the strain in the current case had a genotype combination of C/A/B (for US2/US4/US7), a known pattern in Japan, in both eyes. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully performed an unprecedented genetic analysis of an HSV-1 strain isolated from a case of bilateral necrotizing HSK in an immunocompetent patient. The association of the HSV-1 genotype with the clinical manifestation remains unclear, calling for more data from new cases, especially from different geographic regions.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Ceratite Herpética/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
11.
J Glaucoma ; 28(9): 780-784, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211743

RESUMO

PRéCIS:: Thinning of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL) and ganglion cell complex in the papillomacular bundle area contributed significantly to visual acuity (VA) decline in advanced glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy. PURPOSE: To identify structural parameters that could predict VA decline after trabeculectomy in patients with advanced open-angle glaucoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 74 eyes of 74 patients with advanced glaucoma (defined as mean deviation -12 dB or worse) and best-corrected VA (BCVA) of ≥40/200. All patients underwent trabeculectomy between 2013 and 2016. Measurements included intraocular pressure, BCVA, visual field parameters, and optical coherence tomography-derived parameters [(in both the overall macula and within the papillomacular bundle (PMB)], including mRNFL thickness (mRNFLT), ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer thickness, and ganglion cell complex thickness. Measurements were obtained before and after surgery, and follow-up was at least 6 months. We grouped the patients according to whether they underwent VA decline of >3 lines of BCVA after 6 months. We then compared the VA-decline group and the stable-VA group and performed a receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine optimal cut-off values for predicting VA decline. RESULTS: The VA-decline group comprised 7 eyes (9.5%) and had lower preoperative mean deviation (P=0.021) and thinner mRNFL, ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer, and ganglion cell complex in the PMB (P=0.003, 0.135, and 0.023, respectively) than the stable-VA group. The cut-off values for predicting VA decline were 9.5 µm for mRNFLT in the PMB. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that thin mRNFLT in the PMB were risk factors for VA decline after trabeculectomy.

12.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-4, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a unique case of nivolumab-induced uveitis and the results of a cytokine analysis of an intraocular fluid sample. CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old male patient undergoing treatment for renal cell carcinoma with nivolumab presented with bilateral uveitis. Severe anterior uveitis and vitreous opacity coincided with decreased visual acuity only in his left eye. Iris damage was present in this eye because of previous complicated cataract surgery. Vitrectomy was performed to remove the vitreous opacity, and visual acuity recovered postoperatively. A cytokine analysis of an intraocular fluid sample revealed a high level of interleukin-6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and interferon-inducible protein-10. CONCLUSION: This case indicates that nivolumab-induced uveitis might be more severe in eyes with a damaged iris, and that vitrectomy should be effective for vitreous opacity. A cytokine analysis of the ocular fluid indicated that multiple types of cell might be related to the inflammation process.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical significance of color visual acuity (CVA) in preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG). METHODS: A total of 123 eyes of 73 subjects (22 normal eyes, 14 PPG eyes, and 87 OAG eyes; mean age: 44.9 ± 10.1 years, age range: 21-64 years) were enrolled. CVA was tested for red, green-yellow, blue-green and blue-purple with a newly developed test. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in clinical background factors, including age, sex, intraocular pressure, or spherical equivalent between the three groups. Red VA and blue-green VA were significantly worse in the OAG eyes than in the normal eyes (P = 0.008 and P = 0.015, respectively), although green-yellow VA and blue-purple VA were not significantly worse. Furthermore, red VA and blue-green VA were significantly correlated with MD in a group of eyes with either PPG or OAG (r = -0.23, P = 0.023; r = -0.25, P = 0.012, respectively), but green-yellow VA and blue-purple VA were not. CONCLUSION: Red VA and blue-green VA were detectably worse in eyes with OAG, in close association with the degree of functional loss. This suggests that measuring CVA with the new color test described here may be a promising supplement to existing methods of detecting glaucoma and evaluating its severity.

14.
J Healthc Eng ; 2019: 4061313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911364

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a machine learning-based algorithm for glaucoma diagnosis in patients with open-angle glaucoma, based on three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) data and color fundus images. In this study, 208 glaucomatous and 149 healthy eyes were enrolled, and color fundus images and volumetric OCT data from the optic disc and macular area of these eyes were captured with a spectral-domain OCT (3D OCT-2000, Topcon). Thickness and deviation maps were created with a segmentation algorithm. Transfer learning of convolutional neural network (CNN) was used with the following types of input images: (1) fundus image of optic disc in grayscale format, (2) disc retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness map, (3) macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness map, (4) disc RNFL deviation map, and (5) macular GCC deviation map. Data augmentation and dropout were performed to train the CNN. For combining the results from each CNN model, a random forest (RF) was trained to classify the disc fundus images of healthy and glaucomatous eyes using feature vector representation of each input image, removing the second fully connected layer. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of a 10-fold cross validation (CV) was used to evaluate the models. The 10-fold CV AUCs of the CNNs were 0.940 for color fundus images, 0.942 for RNFL thickness maps, 0.944 for macular GCC thickness maps, 0.949 for disc RNFL deviation maps, and 0.952 for macular GCC deviation maps. The RF combining the five separate CNN models improved the 10-fold CV AUC to 0.963. Therefore, the machine learning system described here can accurately differentiate between healthy and glaucomatous subjects based on their extracted images from OCT data and color fundus images. This system should help to improve the diagnostic accuracy in glaucoma.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213811, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of colchicine to improve bleb function after trabeculectomy. METHODS: To find the maximum usable colchicine concentration, an ocular irritation study was performed with the Draize test at concentrations of 0.001%, 0.01% and 0.1%. Additionally, the synergistic effect of topical colchicine instillation and MMC application to surgical site was evaluated in a rabbit model by measuring changes after trabeculectomy in intraocular pressure (IOP) and bleb morphology score at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days. RESULTS: Experiments with a rabbit model of trabeculectomy showed that 0.04% MMC plus 0.01% colchicine was more effective than saline and 0.04% MMC alone in maintaining IOP reduction at days 7-49 (P < 0.01 at all time points) and day 49 (P < 0.05), respectively, while 0.04% MMC alone was more effective than saline only at days 7-35 (P < 0.05 at all time points). 0.04% MMC plus 0.01% colchicine and 0.04% MMC alone were more effective than saline at preserving bleb score at days 7-21 and 35-49 (P < 0.05 at all time points) and at days 7-35 (P < 0.05 at all time points), respectively. CONCLUSION: Colchicine may be a promising adjuvant for strengthening the effect of MMC and improving the survival of the filtering bleb in trabeculectomy.

16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(4): 1192-1203, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913292

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the clinical and genetic spectrum of RP1-associated retinal dystrophies. Methods: In this multicenter case series, we included 22 patients with RP1-associated retinal dystrophies from 19 families from The Netherlands and Japan. Data on clinical characteristics, visual acuity, visual field, ERG, and retinal imaging were extracted from medical records over a mean follow-up of 8.1 years. Results: Eleven patients were diagnosed with autosomal recessive macular dystrophy (arMD) or autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (arCRD), five with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP), and six with autosomal dominant RP (adRP). The mean age of onset was 40.3 years (range 14-56) in the patients with arMD/arCRD, 26.2 years (range 18-40) in adRP, and 8.8 years (range 5-12) in arRP patients. All patients with arMD/arCRD carried either the hypomorphic p.Arg1933* variant positioned close to the C-terminus (8 of 11 patients) or a missense variant in exon 2 (3 of 11 patients), compound heterozygous with a likely deleterious frameshift or nonsense mutation, or the p.Gln1916* variant. In contrast, all mutations identified in adRP and arRP patients were frameshift and/or nonsense variants located far from the C-terminus. Conclusions: Mutations in the RP1 gene are associated with a broad spectrum of progressive retinal dystrophies. In addition to adRP and arRP, our study provides further evidence that arCRD and arMD are RP1-associated phenotypes as well. The macular involvement in patients with the hypomorphic RP1 variant suggests that macular function may remain compromised if expression levels of RP1 do not reach adequate levels after gene augmentation therapy.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Degeneração Macular/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/diagnóstico , Distrofias de Cones e Bastonetes/fisiopatologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletrorretinografia , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Brain Res ; 1714: 65-72, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753816

RESUMO

The evaluation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a key part of retinal disease care. Previously, we used a Sytox Orange (SO)-based real-time imaging method to assess the RGCs in mice that underwent optic nerve crush. Here, we used N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injury in rats to confirm our model and assess the effect of neuroprotective agents on RGCs. The rats received NMDA injury and the intravitreal injection of SO, a cell-impermeant dyeing compound that targets nucleic acid. After ten minutes, non-invasive confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy visualized damaged or dying cells. Finally, the retinas were flat-mounted for histological confirmation of RGC death, with retrograde Fluorogold labeling and Alexa Fluor 488 Annexin V-conjugate (Annexin V) staining. This also revealed the time course of retinal cell death and the neuroprotective effect of SNJ-1945. Real-time imaging showed that SO-positive cells significantly increased starting 2 h after NMDA injection and reached an approximate plateau at 3 h. SO-positive cells were positive for Fluorogold and Annexin V in the isolated retinas. Moreover, the number of SO-positive retinal cells was significantly lower after treatment with SNJ-1945, compared to carboxymethyl cellulose. These results were confirmed in the isolated retinas. Thus, real-time imaging with SO allows the quick quantification of NMDA-induced RGC damage and death, and evaluation of neuroprotective agents. This technique may aid research into the development of new neuroprotective therapies.

18.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 40(1): 49-53, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) caused by pathogenic CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN1 is characterized by loss of vision with little fundus abnormalities in some patients. Recently, macular degeneration has been reported to account for the visual symptoms in sporadic cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five consecutive patients diagnosed as SCA1 with supporting genetical evidence were newly referred to ophthalmology department from neurology unit. They underwent ocular examination to assess visual acuity and the structural integrity of the macula using optical coherent tomography (OCT). Full-field and multifocal electroretinogram (ERG) were recorded in some patients. Genetic testing was done by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. RESULTS: Fundus examinations revealed normal optic disc and macula appearance. However, four out of five patients had foveal thinning by OCT. This included three patients who showed reduced visual acuity. Among the three, multifocal ERG was performed in two, which showed reduced amplitudes in the localized foveal area. Full-field ERG showed normal responses in all five patients assessed. Only one patient had normal visual function and normal macular structure. CONCLUSIONS: Macular degeneration with subtle funduscopic alterations, sometimes mimicking occult macular dystrophy, is an important cause of visual loss in SCA1 patients, which could be reliably detected with OCT and multifocal ERGs.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207600, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462712

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a method to quantify, based on swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT), the 3D structure of the laminar pores in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: This retrospective study examined 160 laminar pores from 8 eyes of 8 cases: 4 normal subjects and 4 open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients. We reconstructed 3D volume data for a 3 x 3 mm disc, using a method similar to OCT angiography, and segmented the structure of the lamina cribrosa. Then, we manually segmented each laminar pore in sequential C-scan images (>90 slices at 2.6-micron intervals) with VCAT5 (RIKEN, Japan). We compared the control and OAG subjects with the Mann-Whitney U test. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. RESULTS: We found that the laminar pores of the OAG patients had a significantly smaller average cross-sectional area, smaller 3D volume (adjusted to the average thickness of the lamina cribrosa), and higher true sphericity, and lower principal value (P1, 2, 3) of the 3D structure data (all: p < 0.0001). The topographic distribution of damaged laminar pores was consistent with the damaged area of the macular map. CONCLUSION: We successfully developed a method to quantify the 3D structure of the laminar pores; providing a useful tool to assess lamina cribrosa-associated risk factors for glaucoma. These findings promise to benefit future investigations into the pathomechanisms of glaucoma.

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