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1.
Evolution ; 73(12): 2497-2511, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429470

RESUMO

Many clades that span the marine-freshwater boundary are disproportionately more diverse in the younger, shorter lived, and scarcer freshwater environments than they are in the marine realm. This disparity is thought to be related to differences in diversification rates between marine and freshwater lineages. However, marine and freshwaters are not ecologically homogeneous, so the study of diversification across the salinity divide should also account for other potentially interacting variables. In diatoms, freshwater and substrate-associated (benthic) lineages are several-fold more diverse than their marine and suspended (planktonic) counterparts. These imbalances provide an excellent system to understand whether these variables interact with diversification. Using multistate hidden-state speciation and extinction models, we found that freshwater lineages diversify faster than marine lineages regardless of whether they inhabit the plankton or the benthos. Freshwater lineages also had higher turnover rates (speciation + extinction), suggesting that habitat transitions impact speciation and extinction rates jointly. The plankton-benthos contrast was also consistent with state-dependent diversification, but with modest differences in diversification and turnover rates. Asymmetric and bidirectional transitions rejected hypotheses about the plankton and freshwaters as absorbing, inescapable habitats. Our results further suggest that the high turnover rate of freshwater diatoms is related to high turnover of freshwater systems themselves.

2.
Am J Bot ; 106(4): 560-572, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958893

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Loss of photosynthesis is a common and often repeated trajectory in nearly all major groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes. One small subset of "apochloritic" diatoms in the genus Nitzschia have lost their ability to photosynthesize and require extracellular carbon for growth. Similar to other secondarily nonphotosynthetic taxa, apochloritic diatoms maintain colorless plastids with highly reduced plastid genomes. Although the narrow taxonomic breadth of apochloritic Nitzschia suggests a single loss of photosynthesis in their common ancestor, previous phylogenetic analyses suggested that photosynthesis was lost multiple times. METHODS: We analyzed genes from the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes for a broad set of taxa to test whether photosynthesis was lost one or multiple times in Bacillariales. We also sequenced and characterized the plastid genome of a nonphotosynthetic Nitzschia species. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses showed that genes from all three genetic compartments either supported or failed to reject monophyly of apochloritic Nitzschia species, consistent with a single loss of photosynthesis in this group. The plastid genomes of two apochloritic Nitzschia are highly similar in all respects, indicating streamlining of the plastid genome before the split of these two species. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the phylogeny and ecology of apochloritic Nitzschia, together with emerging genomic resources, will help identify the factors that have driven and maintained the loss of photosynthesis in this group of diatoms. Finally, some habitats host diverse communities of co-occurring nonphotosynthetic diatoms, reflecting resource abundance or resource partitioning in ecologically favorable habitats.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Genomas de Plastídeos
3.
ISME J ; 12(11): 2807-2810, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013161

RESUMO

Metabarcoding has offered unprecedented insights into microbial diversity. In many studies, short DNA sequences are binned into consecutively lower Linnaean ranks, and ranked groups (e.g., genera) are the units of biodiversity analyses. These analyses assume that Linnaean ranks are biologically meaningful and that identically ranked groups are comparable. We used a metabarcode dataset for marine planktonic diatoms to illustrate the limits of this approach. We found that the 20 most abundant marine planktonic diatom genera ranged in age from 4 to 134 million years, indicating the non-equivalence of genera because some have had more time to diversify than others. However, species richness was largely independent of genus age, suggesting that disparities in species richness among genera were better explained by variation in rates of speciation and extinction. Taxonomic classifications often do not reflect phylogeny, so genus-level analyses can include phylogenetically nested genera, further confounding rank-based analyses. These results underscore the indispensable role of phylogeny in understanding patterns of microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação
4.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(6): 1504-1515, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850800

RESUMO

We sequenced mitochondrial genomes from five diverse diatoms (Toxarium undulatum, Psammoneis japonica, Eunotia naegelii, Cylindrotheca closterium, and Nitzschia sp.), chosen to fill important phylogenetic gaps and help us characterize broadscale patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution in diatoms. Although gene content was strongly conserved, intron content varied widely across species. The vast majority of introns were of group II type and were located in the cox1 or rnl genes. Although recurrent intron loss appears to be the principal underlying cause of the sporadic distributions of mitochondrial introns across diatoms, phylogenetic analyses showed that intron distributions superficially consistent with a recurrent-loss model were sometimes more complicated, implicating horizontal transfer as a likely mechanism of intron acquisition as well. It was not clear, however, whether diatoms were the donors or recipients of horizontally transferred introns, highlighting a general challenge in resolving the evolutionary histories of many diatom mitochondrial introns. Although some of these histories may become clearer as more genomes are sampled, high rates of intron loss suggest that the origins of many diatom mitochondrial introns are likely to remain unclear.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Íntrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
5.
New Phytol ; 219(1): 462-473, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624698

RESUMO

Patterns of species richness are commonly linked to life history strategies. In diatoms, an exceptionally diverse lineage of photosynthetic heterokonts important for global photosynthesis and burial of atmospheric carbon, lineages with different locomotory and reproductive traits differ dramatically in species richness, but any potential association between life history strategy and diversification has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We constructed a time-calibrated, 11-gene, 1151-taxon phylogeny of diatoms - the most inclusive diatom species tree to date. We used this phylogeny, together with a comprehensive inventory of first-last occurrences of Cenozoic fossil diatoms, to estimate ranges of expected species richness, diversification and its variation through time and across lineages. Diversification rates varied with life history traits. Although anisogamous lineages diversified faster than oogamous ones, this increase was restricted to a nested clade with active motility in the vegetative cells. We propose that the evolution of motility in vegetative cells, following an earlier transition from oogamy to anisogamy, facilitated outcrossing and improved utilization of habitat complexity, ultimately leading to enhanced opportunity for adaptive divergence across a variety of novel habitats. Together, these contributed to a species radiation that gave rise to the majority of present-day diatom diversity.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Diatomáceas/genética , Fósseis
6.
Am J Bot ; 105(3): 330-347, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665021

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Diatoms are one of the most species-rich lineages of microbial eukaryotes. Similarities in clade age, species richness, and primary productivity motivate comparisons to angiosperms, whose genomes have been inordinately shaped by whole-genome duplication (WGD). WGDs have been linked to speciation, increased rates of lineage diversification, and identified as a principal driver of angiosperm evolution. We synthesized a large but scattered body of evidence that suggests polyploidy may be common in diatoms as well. METHODS: We used gene counts, gene trees, and distributions of synonymous divergence to carry out a phylogenomic analysis of WGD across a diverse set of 37 diatom species. KEY RESULTS: Several methods identified WGDs of varying age across diatoms. Determining the occurrence, exact number, and placement of events was greatly impacted by uncertainty in gene trees. WGDs inferred from synonymous divergence of paralogs varied depending on how redundancy in transcriptomes was assessed, gene families were assembled, and synonymous distances (Ks) were calculated. Our results highlighted a need for systematic evaluation of key methodological aspects of Ks-based approaches to WGD inference. Gene tree reconciliations supported allopolyploidy as the predominant mode of polyploid formation, with strong evidence for ancient allopolyploid events in the thalassiosiroid and pennate diatom clades. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that WGD has played a major role in the evolution of diatom genomes. We outline challenges in reconstructing paleopolyploid events in diatoms that, together with these results, offer a framework for understanding the impact of genome duplication in a group that likely harbors substantial genomic diversity.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Genoma , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Genômica/métodos , Transcriptoma
7.
J Phycol ; 54(2): 275-298, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419886

RESUMO

The diatom genus Entomoneis is known from the benthos and plankton of marine, brackish, and freshwaters. Entomoneis includes diatoms with a bilobate keel elevated above the valve surface, a sigmoid canal raphe, and numerous girdle bands. Owing mostly to the scarcity of molecular data for a diverse set of species, the phylogeny of Entomoneis has not been investigated in depth. The few previous studies that included Entomoneis were focused on broader questions and the available data were from a small number of either unidentified Entomoneis or well-known species (e.g., E. paludosa). Since the first description of new species combining both molecular and morphological characters (E. tenera), we have continued to cultivate and investigate Entomoneis in the plankton of the Adriatic Sea. Combined multigene phylogeny (SSU rDNA sequences, rbcL, and psbC genes) and morphological observations (LM, SEM and TEM) revealed six new Entomoneis species supported by phylogenetic and morphological data: E. pusilla, E. gracilis, E. vilicicii, E. infula, E. adriatica, and E. umbratica. The most important morphological features for species delineation were cell shape, the degree and mode of torsion, valve apices, the appearance and structure of the transition between keel and valve body, the ultrastructure and the shape of the girdle bands, and the arrangement and density of perforations along the valve and valvocopulae. Our results highlight the underappreciated diversity of Entomoneis and call for a more in-depth morphological and molecular investigation of this genus especially in planktonic habitats.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/citologia , Proteínas de Algas/análise , Croácia , DNA de Algas/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia
9.
Curr Genet ; 63(3): 499-507, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655214

RESUMO

Although the plastid genomes of diatoms maintain a conserved architecture and core gene set, considerable variation about this core theme exists and can be traced to several different processes. Gene duplication, pseudogenization, and loss, as well as intracellular transfer of genes to the nuclear genome, have all contributed to variation in gene content among diatom species. In addition, some noncoding sequences have highly restricted phylogenetic distributions that suggest a recent foreign origin. We sequenced the plastid genome of the marine diatom, Toxarium undulatum, and found that the genome contains three genes (chlB, chlL, and chlN) involved in light-independent chlorophyll a biosynthesis that were not previously known from diatoms. Phylogenetic and syntenic data suggest that these genes were differentially retained in this one lineage as they were repeatedly lost from most other diatoms. Unique among diatoms and other heterokont algae sequenced so far, the genome also contains a large group II intron within an otherwise intact psaA gene. Although the intron is most similar to one in the plastid-encoded psaA gene of some green algae, high sequence divergence between the diatom and green algal introns rules out recent shared ancestry. We conclude that the psaA intron was likely introduced into the plastid genome of T. undulatum, or some earlier ancestor, by horizontal transfer from an unknown donor. This genome further highlights the myriad processes driving variation in gene and intron content in the plastid genomes of diatoms, one of the world's foremost primary producers.


Assuntos
Clorofila/biossíntese , Diatomáceas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila A , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Íntrons/genética , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 103: 155-171, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27456747

RESUMO

The Surirellales and Rhopalodiales are large, widespread, and morphologically diverse groups of raphid pennate diatoms (Bacillariphyta) whose raphe, a structure that facilitates active motility, opens internally into a siliceous canal. We collected 202 representatives of the lineage and sequenced genes from the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes to infer phylogenetic relationships as a basis for comparative study of ecology and morphological evolution as well as reclassification. The lineage was ancestrally marine, and we report the first evidence for a 'stepping stone' model of marine-freshwater transitions in which freshwater invasions were preceded by adaptation to intermediate brackish habitats. Phylogenetic comparative analyses also showed that the shift from an apical (e.g., Entomoneis) to transapical major axis of development (e.g., Surirella) did not have to proceed through subcircular intermediate forms (i.e., Campylodiscus). Rather, subcircular forms evolved both within lineages with longer apical axis or longer transapical axis. We also used the inferred phylogeny as a basis for genus-level reclassification of the lineage. Campylodiscus now includes the fastuosoid members of Surirella and Campylodiscus, but excludes other marine Campylodiscus which are now classified as Coronia. Surirella includes the Surirella striatula clade, Surirella Pinnatae group, and species formerly classified as Cymatopleura. We resurrected the genus Iconella to accommodate Stenopterobia and the robustoid members of Surirella and Campylodiscus. We broadened Epithemia to include members of the paraphyletic genus Rhopalodia. Finally, we discuss the challenges of constructing a classification that best leverages available phylogenetic data, while minimizing disruption to the research community and recognizing practical considerations stemming from the slow rate of progress on systematic studies of understudied organisms.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/citologia , Evolução Molecular , Teorema de Bayes , Citocromos b/classificação , Citocromos b/genética , Citocromos b/metabolismo , DNA Ribossômico/classificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/genética , Ecossistema , Cadeias de Markov , Filogenia
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 89: 28-36, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25848969

RESUMO

Previous analyses of single diatom chloroplast protein-encoded genes recovered results highly incongruent with both traditional phylogenies and phylogenies derived from the nuclear encoded small subunit (SSU) gene. Our analysis here of six individual chloroplast genes (atpB, psaA, psaB, psbA, psbC and rbcL) obtained similar anomalous results. However, phylogenetic noise in these genes did not appear to be correlated, and their concatenation appeared to effectively sum their collective signal. We empirically demonstrated the value of combining phylogenetic information profiling, partitioned Bremer support and entropy analysis in examining the utility of various partitions in phylogenetic analysis. Noise was low in the 1st and 2nd codon positions, but so was signal. Conversely, high noise levels in the 3rd codon position was accompanied by high signal. Perhaps counterintuitively, simple exclusion experiments demonstrated this was especially true at deeper nodes where the 3rd codon position contributed most to a result congruent with morphology and SSU (and the total evidence tree here). Correlated with our empirical findings, probability of correct signal (derived from information profiling) increased and the statistical significance of substitutional saturation decreased as data were aggregated. In this regard, the aggregated 3rd codon position performed as well or better than more slowly evolving sites. Simply put, direct methods of noise removal (elimination of fast-evolving sites) disproportionately removed signal. Information profiling and partitioned Bremer support suggest that addition of chloroplast data will rapidly improve our understanding of the diatom phylogeny, but conversely also illustrate that some parts of the diatom tree are likely to remain recalcitrant to addition of molecular data. The methods based on information profiling have been criticized for their numerous assumptions and parameter estimates and the fact that they are based on quartets of taxa. Our empirical results support theoretical arguments that the simplifying assumptions made in these methods are robust to "real-life" situations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Filogenia , Códon/genética , Diatomáceas/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
ISME J ; 9(1): 246-55, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24983594

RESUMO

We characterized the evolutionary history of growth form (solitary-colonial) and its interaction with species' habitat (planktonic-benthic) across a multi-gene phylogeny encompassing a broad sample of the order-level diversity of diatoms. We treated these characters broadly, modeling the evolution of aggregation of cells into a colony irrespective of the way aggregation is achieved, and relating the growth form to a broad concept of niche location: in the plankton or benthos. The results showed that habitat shifts are rare implying conservatism in niche location at the level of large clades. On the other hand, the evolutionary history of growth form is more dynamic with evolutionary rates that vary across the tree. Analyses of a possible interaction revealed that shifts in growth form are independent of habitat and that traversing between habitats does not hinge upon species' growth form. Our findings help to fill a gap in the understanding of diatom niche and growth form macroevolution and contribute toward a platform for the comparative study of the mechanisms underlying diatom species and functional diversity.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Diatomáceas/genética , Ecossistema , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia
13.
Genome Biol Evol ; 6(3): 644-54, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24567305

RESUMO

Photosynthesis by diatoms accounts for roughly one-fifth of global primary production, but despite this, relatively little is known about their plastid genomes. We report the completely sequenced plastid genomes for eight phylogenetically diverse diatoms and show them to be variable in size, gene and foreign sequence content, and gene order. The genomes contain a core set of 122 protein-coding genes, with 15 additional genes exhibiting complex patterns of 1) gene losses at varying phylogenetic scales, 2) functional transfers to the nucleus, 3) gene duplication, divergence, and differential retention of paralogs, and 4) acquisitions of putatively functional recombinase genes from resident plasmids. The newly sequenced genomes also contain several previously unreported genes, highlighting how poorly characterized diatom plastid genomes are overall. Genome size variation reflects major expansions of the inverted repeat region in some cases but, more commonly, large-scale expansions of intergenic regions, many of which contain unique open reading frames of likely foreign origin. Although many gene clusters are conserved across species, rearrangements appear to be frequent in most lineages.


Assuntos
DNA/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Genomas de Plastídeos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA/genética , DNA Intergênico , Diatomáceas/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Rearranjo Gênico , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
J Phycol ; 49(6): 1207-22, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007638

RESUMO

The ocellate and pseudocellate diatoms in the Eupodiscaceae and Biddulphiaceae (respectively) are common inhabitants of the marine littoral (and plankton zone) with a rich fossil history making them important components of marine stratigraphic studies and good candidates for molecular dating work. These diatoms are important for un-derstanding the phylogeny of the diatoms as a whole, as molecular phylogenies have blurred the traditional distinction between the pennate and multipolar non-pennate diatoms. However, the convoluted taxonomic history of these groups has the potential to disrupt both stratigraphic and molecular dating studies. Although efforts have been made to examine frustule morphology of several ocellate and pseudocellate diatoms and develop a morphological scheme to define genera, very little work has been done to determine how these groups are interrelated. In this study, we use nuclear and chloroplast molecular markers to construct a phylogeny of a diverse sampling of Eupodiscaceae and Biddulphiaceae taxa. The ocellus-bearing taxa (Eupodiscaceae) are monophyletic, and thus the ocellus may be a useful character in delimiting the Eupodiscaceae, the Biddulphiaceae are polyphyletic and scattered across a number of lineages of multipolar non-pennate diatoms. Hypothesis testing aimed at assessing the likeliness of several morphology based hypotheses against the molecular data highlights uncertainty in both types of data. We present evidence that there are monophyletic genera within both the Biddulphiaceae and Eupodiscaceae, and recommend the taxa within the Odontella mobilensis/sinensis/regia clade be transferred to a new genus: Trieres Ashworth & Theriot.

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