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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accuracy of fetal weight estimation by ultrasound is essential in making decisions on the time and mode of delivery. There are many proposed formulas for fetal weight estimation such as Hadlock 1, Hadlock 2, Hadlock 3, Hadlock 4 and Shepard. What best applies to the Ugandan population is not known since no verification of any of the formulas has been done before. The primary aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of sonographic estimation of fetal weight using five most commonly used formulas, and analyze formula variations for different weight ranges. METHODS: This was a hospital based prospective cohort study at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. A total of 356 pregnant women who consented and were within 3 days of birth were enrolled. Prenatal ultrasound fetal weight determined by measuring the biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femoral length, and then was compared with actual birth weight. RESULTS: The overall accuracy of Hadlock 1, Hadlock 2, Hadlock 3, Hadlock 4 and Shepard formula were 66.9, 73.3, 77.3, 78.4 and 69.7% respectively. All Hadlocks showed significant mean difference between weight estimates and actual birth weight (p < 0.01) whereas Shepard formula did not [p - 0.2], when no stratification of fetal weights was done. However, all Hadlocks showed a none significant (p-values > 0.05) mean difference between weight estimates and actual birth weight when the actual birth weight was ≥4000.0 g. Shepard weight estimates showed a none significant mean difference when actual birth weight was < 4000 g. Bland-Altman graphs also showed a better agreement of weight estimated by Shepard formula and actual birth weights. CONCLUSION: All the five formulas were accurate at estimating actual birth weights within 10% accuracy. However, this accuracy varied with the fetal birth weight. Shepard was more accurate in estimating actual birth weights < 4000 g whereas all Hadlocks were more accurate when the actual birthweight was ≥4000 g.

2.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 21: 1-6, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low birth-weight is a major risk factor for perinatal death in sub-Saharan Africa, but the relative contribution of determinants of birth-weight are difficult to disentangle in low resource settings. We sought to delineate the relationship between birth-weight and maternal pre-eclampsia across gestation in a low-resource obstetric setting. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study in a tertiary referral centre in urban Uganda, including 971 pre-eclampsia cases and 1461 control pregnancies between 28 and 42 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nonlinear modeling of birth-weight versus maternal pre-eclampsia status across gestation. Models were adjusted for maternal-fetal characteristics including maternal age, parity, HIV status, and socio-economic status. Propensity score matching was used to control for the severity of pre-eclampsia at different gestational ages. RESULTS: Mean birth-weight for pre-eclampsia cases was 2.48 kg (±0.81SD) compared to 3.06 kg (±0.46SD) for controls (p < 0.001). At 28 weeks, the mean birth-weight difference between pre-eclampsia cases and controls was 0.58 kg (p < 0.05), narrowing to 0.17 kg at 39 weeks (p < 0.01). Controlling for pre-eclampsia severity only partially explained this gestational difference in mean birth-weight between pre-eclampsia cases and controls. Holding gestational age constant, pre-eclampsia status predicted 7.1-10.5% of total variation in birth-weight, compared to 0.05-0.7% for all other maternal-fetal characteristics combined. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-eclampsia is the dominant predictor of birth-weight in low-resource settings and hence likely to heavily influence perinatal survival. The impact of pre-eclampsia on birth-weight is smaller with advancing gestational age, a difference that is not fully explained by controlling for pre-eclampsia severity.

3.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 31, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acyclovir (ACV) given to HSV-2 positive women after 36 weeks reduces adverse outcomes but its benefit at lower gestation was undocumented. We determined the effect of oral acyclovir administered from 28 to 36 weeks on premature rupture of membranes (PROM) primarily and preterm delivery risk. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial among 200 HSV-2 positive pregnant women at 28 weeks of gestation at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Participants were assigned randomly (1:1) to take either acyclovir 400 mg orally twice daily (intervention) or placebo (control) from 28 to 36 weeks. Both arms received acyclovir after 36 weeks until delivery. Development of Pre-PROM by 36 weeks and preterm delivery were outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred women were randomised to acyclovir and 100 to placebo arms between January 2014 and February 2015. There was tendency towards reduction of incidence of PROM at 36 weeks but this was not statistically significant (4.0% versus 10.0%; RR 0.35; 95% 0.11-1.10) in the acyclovir and placebo arms respectively. However, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (11.1% versus 23.5%; RR 0.41; 95% 0.20-0.85) in the acyclovir and placebo arms respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Oral acyclovir given to HSV-2 positive pregnant women from 28 to 36 weeks reduced incidence of preterm delivery but did not significantly reduce incidence of pre-PROM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.pactr.org, PACTR201311000558197 .


Assuntos
Aciclovir/administração & dosagem , Parto Obstétrico , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/prevenção & controle , Herpes Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesvirus Humano 2/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Herpes Genital/complicações , Herpes Genital/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Uganda
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 10(10): 1108-1115, 2016 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27801374

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014. HSV-2 serostatus was determined using HerpeSelect HSV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics and sexual history. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus was obtained from antenatal records. A total of 191 women completed follow-up and repeat HSV-2 serology by 38 weeks. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to estimate risk ratios for risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion. RESULTS: Of 191 women, 15 (7.9%) seroconverted during pregnancy. Having multiple sexual partners, being in polygamous unions, and having HIV-positive serostatus were found to be risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda was high. Multiple sexual partners, polygamy, and HIV-positive serostatus were risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy. Strengthening health education on the avoidance of multiple sexual partners during pregnancy is paramount in prevention of HSV-2 seroconversion.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Adolescente , Adulto , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 205, 2016 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective was to estimate the disease burden attributable to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: Through a prospective cohort study conducted in Jinja and Mulago hospitals in Uganda from March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, hypertension-related cases were analyzed. Maternal near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal deaths were also analyzed. The maternal near miss incidence ratio, the case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio, the case-specific maternal mortality ratio and the case-fatality ratio were computed. RESULTS: Of 403 women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, 218 (54.1 %) had severe preeclampsia, 172 (42.7 %) had eclampsia, and 13 had chronic hypertension or Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes or low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. The case-specific maternal near miss incidence ratios was 8.60 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, 3.06 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.11 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific severe maternal outcome ratio was 9.37 per 1,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 3.25 per 1,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 5.61 per 1,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-specific maternal mortality ratio was 780 per 100,000 live births for all hypertensive disorders, and was 1940 per 100,000 live births for severe preeclampsia and 501 per 100,000 live births for eclampsia. The case-fatality ratio was 5.1 % overall (for all hypertensive disorders), but was 8 times higher for eclampsia compared to severe preeclampsia. Cyanosis, abnormal respiration, oliguria, circulatory collapse, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum lactate were significantly associated with severe maternal outcomes. CONCLUSION: There is high morbidity attributable to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Since some of the complications associated with morbidity can be recognized early, it is possible to prevent severe morbidity through early intervention with delivery, antihypertensive therapy and prophylactic magnesium sulphate treatment. The findings highlight the feasibility of implementing a facility-based surveillance system for severe maternal morbidity due to hypertensive disorders.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/mortalidade , Mortalidade Materna , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Morbidade , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 14(1): 35, 2016 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27146327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most recent reports on global trends in neonatal mortality continue to show alarmingly slow progress on improvements in neonatal mortality rates, with sub-Saharan Africa still lagging behind. This emphasised the urgent need to innovatively employ alternative solutions that take into account the intricate complexities of neonatal health and the health systems in which the various strategies operate. METHODS: In our first paper, we empirically explored the causes of the stagnating neonatal mortality in Uganda using a dynamic synthesis methodology (DSM) approach. In this paper, we completed the last three stages of DSM, which involved the development of a quantitative (simulation) model, using STELLA modelling software. We used statistical data to populate the model. Through brainstorming sessions with stakeholders, iterations to test and validate the model were undertaken. The different strategies and policy interventions that could possibly lower neonatal mortality rates were tested using what-if analysis. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the strategies that could have a great impact on neonatal mortality. RESULTS: We developed a neonatal health simulation model (NEOSIM) to explore potential interventions that could possibly improve neonatal health within a health system context. The model has four sectors, namely population, demand for services, health of the mothers and choices of clinical care. It tests the effects of various interventions validated by a number of Ugandan health practitioners, including health education campaigns, free delivery kits, motorcycle coupons, kangaroo mother care, improving neonatal resuscitation and labour management skills, and interventions to improve the mothers health, i.e. targeting malaria, anaemia and tetanus. Among the tested interventions, the package with the highest impact on reducing neonatal mortality rates was a combination of the free delivery kits in a setting where delivery services were free and motorcycle coupons to take women to hospital during emergencies. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a System Dynamics model with a broad and integrated view of the neonatal health system facilitating a deeper understanding of its current state and constraints and how these can be mitigated. A tool with a user friendly interface presents the dynamic nature of the model using 'what-if' scenarios, thus enabling health practitioners to discuss the consequences or effects of various decisions. Key findings of the research show that proposed interventions and their impact can be tested through simulation experiments thereby generating policies and interventions with the highest impact for improved healthcare service delivery.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Parto Obstétrico , Política de Saúde , Saúde do Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Modelos Teóricos , Gravidez , Análise de Sistemas , Uganda
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16: 24, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26821716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal near misses occur more often than maternal deaths and could enable more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. The study determined the incidence, determinants and prognostic factors of severe maternal outcomes (near miss or maternal death) in two referral hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, where cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were included. The clinical conditions included abortion-related complications, obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labour, infection and pregnancy-specific complications such as febrile illness, anemia and premature rupture of membranes. Near miss cases were defined according to the WHO criteria. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify prognostic factors for severe maternal outcomes. RESULTS: Of 3100 women with severe obstetric complications, 130 (4.2%) were maternal deaths and 695 (22.7%) were near miss cases. Severe pre-eclampsia was the commonest morbidity (incidence ratio (IR) 7.0%, case-fatality rate (CFR) 2.3%), followed by postpartum haemorrhage (IR 6.7%, CFR 7.2%). Uterine rupture (IR 5.5%) caused the highest CFR (17.9%), followed by eclampsia (IR 0.4%, CFR 17.8%). The three groups (maternal deaths, near misses and non-life-threatening obstetric complications) differed significantly regarding gravidity and education level. The commonest diagnostic criteria for maternal near miss were admission to the high dependency unit (HDU) or to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thrombocytopenia, circulatory collapse, referral to a more specialized unit, intubation unrelated to anaesthesia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were predictive of maternal death (p < 0.05). Gravidity (ARR 1.4, 95% C1 1.0-1.2); elevated serum lactate levels (ARR 4.5, 95% CI 2.3-8.7); intubation for conditions unrelated to general anaesthesia (ARR 2.6 (95% CI 1.2-5.7), cardiovascular collapse (ARR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.5); transfusion of 4 or more units of blood (ARR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1); being an emergency referral (ARR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.6); and need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ARR 6.1, 95% CI 3.2-11.7), were prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of near misses is a useful tool in the investigation of severe maternal morbidity. The prognostic factors for maternal death, if instituted, might save many women with obstetric complications.


Assuntos
Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Morte Materna/etiologia , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Ruptura Uterina/etiologia , Ruptura Uterina/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 624, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective caesarean sections (ECS) have been implicated in increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. The primary objective was to assess the incidence and determinants of neonatal morbidity after elective caesarean section deliveries. The secondary objective was to describe the maternal morbidity associated with elective caesarean section. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of women admitted for ECS, as well as their newborns, conducted at Mulago hospital from March 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014. These were followed from the time of the operation until 6 weeks after hospitalization following the caesarean delivery. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and review of medical records for demographic characteristics, obstetric history, current pregnancy complications and pregnancy outcomes up to hospital discharge. Study outcomes were maternal and neonatal morbidity. The data was analyzed using Stata version 12. RESULTS: There were 25,846 deliveries during the study period, of which 20,083 (77.7%) were vaginal deliveries or assisted deliveries, and 5763 (22.3%) were caesarean sections. Of the caesarean sections, 920 (15.9%) were ECS. The commonest maternal morbidity was hemorrhage (17.2%). A birth weight less than 2500 g (aRR 11.0 [95% CI 8.1-17.2]) or more than 4000 g (aRR 12.2 [95% CI 10.6-23.2]), delivery at gestation age less than or equal to 38 weeks (aRR 1.62 [95% 1.20-2.10]), multigravidity (aRR 1.70 [95% CI 1.20-2.90]) and using general anaesthesia (aRR 2.43 [95% CI 1.20-5.90]) were associated with risk of neonatal morbidity. The commonest neonatal morbidity is respiratory distress especially if delivery occurs at a gestation age of 37 weeks or lower, if the birth weight is less than 2500 g or more than 4000 g, and if general anesthesia is used. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that at Mulago Hospital, ECS is associated with significant neonatal and maternal morbidity. We recommend that elective caesarean sections be performed after 39 weeks of gestation, and preferably avoid using general anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 8: 573, 2015 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26475265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators that weaken and cause membrane rupture are released during the course of genital infections among pregnant women. We set out to determine the association of common genital infections (Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and candidiasis) and premature rupture of membranes in Mulago hospital, Uganda. METHODS: We conducted an unmatched case-control study among women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy at New Mulago hospital, Uganda. The cases had PROM and the controls had intact membranes during latent phase of labour in the labour ward. We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical history. Laboratory tests were conducted to identify T. vaginalis, syphilis, N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and candidiasis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI of the association between genital infections and PROM. RESULTS: There was an association between PROM and abnormal vaginal discharge (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.70 and AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.18-4.47), presence of candidiasis (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.14-0.52 and AOR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.46) and T. vaginalis (OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.18-7.56 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.51-11.80). However, there was no association between PROM and presence of C. trachomatis (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 0.37-11.49) and HSV-2 serostatus (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.09). Few or no patients with Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Group B streptococcus or syphilis were identified among the cases and controls. Co-infection of Trichomoniasis and candidiasis was not associated with PROM (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.16-11.10). Co infection with T. vaginalis and C. trachomatis was associated with PROM (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.21-7.84 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.51-11.83). CONCLUSION: Trichomonas vaginalis alone, T. vaginalis with C. trachomatis co-infection and abnormal per vaginal discharge were found as risk factors for PROM. There was no association of HSV-2 serostatus, syphilis, N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus and Bacterial vaginosis with PROM. Candidiasis seemed to have a protective effect on PROM.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/complicações , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/patologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/etiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/patologia , Gonorreia/complicações , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/patologia , Herpes Genital/complicações , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/patologia , Herpes Genital/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/microbiologia , Sífilis/patologia , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , Vaginite por Trichomonas/complicações , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/microbiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/patologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/complicações , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/patologia
10.
Open J Prev Med ; 5(3): 132-142, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally every year 529,000 maternal deaths occur, 99% of this in developing countries. Uganda has high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality ratios, typical of many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent findings reveal maternal mortality ratio of 435:100,000 live births and neonatal mortality rate of 29 deaths per 1000 live births in Uganda; these still remain a challenge. Women in rural areas of Uganda are two times less likely to attend ANC than the urban women. Most women in Uganda have registered late ANC attendance, averagely at 5.5 months of pregnancy and do not complete the required four visits. The inadequate utilization of ANC is greatly contributing to persisting high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in Uganda. This study was set to identify the factors associated with late booking and inadequate utilization of Antenatal Care services in upcountry areas of Uganda. METHOD: Cross-sectional study design with mixed methods of interviewer administered questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Data was entered using Epidata and analyzed using Stata into frequency tables using actual tallies and percentages. Ethical approval was sought from SOM-REC MakCHS under approval number "#REC REF 2012-117" before conducting the study. RESULTS: A total of four hundred one were enrolled with the majority being in the age group 20 - 24 years (mean age, 25.87 ± 6.26). Health workers played a great role (72.04%), followed by the media (15.46%) and friends (12.50%) in creating awareness about ANC. A significant number of respondents went to TBAs with reasons such as "near and accessible", "my husband decided", and "they are the only people I know". 37.63% of the respondents considered getting an antenatal Card as an importance of ANC. 71 (19.67%) respondents gave a wrong opinion (late) on booking time with reasons like demands at work, no problems during pregnancy, advised by friends, just to get a card, long distance and others didn't know. Almost half of the respondents never knew the recommended number of visits. Religion, occupation, level of education, and parity were found to influence place of ANC attendance, number of ANC visits and booking time. Husbands were necessary to provide financial support, accompany their wives ANC clinic, and ensure that they complete the visits. But their response was poor due to: fear of routine investigations and constrained economically. CONCLUSION: The study findings show the actual rural setting of ANC services attendance and utilization. Much sensitization has to be done specifically in these rural areas to empower pregnant women and their husbands as to improve ANC attendance and utilization.

11.
BMC Pediatr ; 15: 44, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25928880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal near miss cases occur more often than neonatal deaths and could enable a more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors in neonates born to mothers with severe obstetric complications. The objective was to assess the incidence, presentation and perinatal outcomes of severe obstetric morbidity in two referral hospitals in Central Uganda. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, in which all newborns from cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were eligible for inclusion. The obstetric conditions included obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labour, chorioamnionitis and pregnancy-specific complications such as malaria, anemia and premature rupture of membranes. Still births, neonatal deaths and neonatal near miss cases (defined using criteria that employed clinical features, presence of organ-system dysfunction and management provided to the newborns were compiled). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for perinatal death. RESULTS: Of the 3100 mothers, 192 (6.2%) had abortion complications. Of the remainder, there were 2142 (73.1%) deliveries, from whom the fetal outcomes were 257 (12.0%) still births, 369 (17.2%) neonatal deaths, 786 (36.7%) neonatal near misses and 730 (34.1%) were newborns with no or minimal life threatening complications. Of the 235 babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the main reasons for admission were prematurity for 64 (26.8%), birth asphyxia for 59 (23.7%), and grunting respiration for 26 (11.1%). Of the 235 babies, 38 (16.2%) died in the neonatal period, and of these, 16 died in the first 24 hours after admission. Ruptured uterus caused the highest case-specific mortality of 76.8%, and led to 16.9% of all newborn deaths. Across the four groups, there were significant differences in mean birth weight, p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Antepartum hemorrhage, ruptured uterus, severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, and the syndrome of Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, Low Platelets (HELLP syndrome), led to statistically significant attributable risk of newborn deaths (still birth or neonatal deaths). Development of severe maternal outcomes, the mothers having been referred, and gravidity of 5 or more were significantly associated with newborn deaths.


Assuntos
Morte Perinatal , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
Reprod Health ; 12: 23, 2015 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25884387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe obstetric complications have potential negative impact on the family and household of the survivors, with potential negative effects during (and in the aftermath of) the traumatic obstetric events. The objective was to gain deeper understanding of how severe obstetric complications are perceived by male partners, and their impact on the livelihoods of the family and community. METHODS: Data was collected through 25 in-depth narrative interviews with male partners of women with severe obstetric morbidity. The interviews occurred 4-12 months after the traumatic childbirth events. To gain a deeper understanding of the meanings and spouses attach to the experiences, we employed the notions of social capital and resilience. RESULTS: Male partners' perceptions and experiences were mostly characterized by losses, dreams and dilemmas, disempowerment and alienation, seclusion and self isolation or reliance on the social networks. During the aftermath of the events, there was disruption of the livelihoods of the partners and the whole family. CONCLUSION: While a maternal near miss obstetric event might appear as a positive outcome for the survivors, partners and caregivers of women who experience severe obstetric morbidity are deeply affected by the experiences of this life-threatening episode.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Cônjuges/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 127(2): 201-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25270824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for early neonatal death among newborns with severe perinatal morbidity. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed of 341 newborns with severe perinatal morbidity admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. All newborns were followed up for 7 days or until time of death. Information surrounding the mother's obstetric history and pregnancy, the birth, and the neonatal history was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and by review of relevant records. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with early neonatal death. RESULTS: A total of 37 (10.9%) neonates died within 7 days, giving an incidence of early neonatal death of 109 deaths per 1000 live births (3 per 100 person-days). In multivariate analysis, respiratory distress (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 31.29; 95% CI, 4.17-234.20; P=0.001) and inadequate fetal heart monitoring during labor (aRR 6.0; 95% CI 1.40-25.67; P=0.016) were significantly associated with an increased risk of early neonatal death. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in 10 neonates with severe perinatal morbidity died within 7 days of birth. Respiratory distress and poor monitoring of labor were risk factors for early neonatal death.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 12: 36, 2014 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25104047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Of the three million newborns that die each year, Uganda ranks fifth highest in neonatal mortality rates, with 43,000 neonatal deaths each year. Despite child survival and safe motherhood programmes towards reducing child mortality, insufficient attention has been given to this critical first month of life. There is urgent need to innovatively employ alternative solutions that take into account the intricate complexities of neonatal health and the health systems. In this paper, we set out to empirically contribute to understanding the causes of the stagnating neonatal mortality by applying a systems thinking approach to explore the dynamics arising from the neonatal health complexity and non-linearity and its interplay with health systems factors, using Uganda as a case study. METHODS: Literature reviews and interviews were conducted in two divisions of Kampala district with high neonatal mortality rates with mothers at antenatal clinics and at home, village health workers, community leaders, healthcare decision and policy makers, and frontline health workers from both public and private health facilities. Data analysis and brainstorming sessions were used to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) depicting the causes of neonatal mortality, which were validated by local and international stakeholders. RESULTS: We developed two CLDs for demand and supply side issues, depicting the range of factors associated with neonatal mortality such as maternal health, level of awareness of maternal and newborn health, and availability and quality of health services, among others. Further, the reinforcing and balancing feedback loops that resulted from this complexity were also examined. The potential high leverage points include special gender considerations to ensure that girls receive essential education, thereby increasing maternal literacy rates, improved socioeconomic status enabling mothers to keep healthy and utilise health services, improved supervision, and internal audits at the health facilities as well as addressing the gaps in resources (human, logistics, and drugs). CONCLUSIONS: Synthesis of theoretical concepts through CLDs facilitated our understanding and interpretation of the interactions and feedback loops that contributed to the stagnant neonatal mortality rates in Uganda, which is the first step towards discussing and exploring the potential strategies and their likely impact.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Bem-Estar Materno , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Reprod Health ; 11(1): 12, 2014 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24485199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord prolapse is an obstetric complication associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. A few interventions may improve fetal outcome. In developed countries these have advanced to giving intrauterine fetal resuscitation. Conditions in low resource settings do not allow for some of these advanced techniques. Putting the mother in knee chest position and immediate delivery may be the only options possible.We set out to determine the incidence of fetal demise and associated factors following umbilical cord prolapsed (UCP) in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODS: In a retrospective study conducted in Mulago hospital, Uganda, file records of mothers who delivered between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009 and had pregnancies complicated by umbilical cord prolapse with live fetus were selected. We collected information on referral status, cord position, cervical dilatation, fetal heart state at the time of diagnosis of UCP, diagnosis to delivery interval, use of knee chest position, mode of delivery, birth weight and fetal outcome.We computed incidence of fetal demise following UCP and determined factors associated with fetal demise in pregnancies complicated by UCP. RESULTS: Of 438 cases with prolapsed cord, 101(23%) lost their babies within 24 hours after birth or were delivered dead. This gave annual cumulative incidence of fetal death following UCP of 23/1000 live UCP cases delivered /year.The major factors associated with fetal outcome in pregnancies complicated by UCP included; diagnosis to delivery interval <30 min, RR 0.79 (CI 0.74-0.85), mode of delivery, RR 1.14 (CI 1.02-1.28), knee chest position, RR 0.81 (CI 0.70-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: The annual cumulative incidence of fetal death in our study was 23/1000 live UCP cases delivery per year for the period of 10 years studied. Cesarean section reduced perinatal mortality by a factor of 2. Diagnosis to delivery interval <30 minutes and putting mother in knee chest position were protective against fetal death.


Assuntos
Morte Fetal/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Cordão Umbilical/patologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Prolapso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda , Cordão Umbilical/fisiopatologia
16.
AIDS ; 27 Suppl 1: S17-25, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24088680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) on combined oral contraceptive (COC) effectiveness. DESIGN: Nonrandomized prospective clinical trial. METHODS: We enrolled HIV-infected women aged 18-35 years in South Africa and Uganda who had regular menses, were sexually active, and had no medical contraindications to COC use. We enrolled 196 women taking nevirapine-containing ART and 206 women not yet eligible for ART as a control group. We treated all participants with low-dose COCs. Our main outcomes were ovulation and pregnancy rates. We estimated ovulation in the first two cycles using weekly serum progesterone and tested for pregnancy monthly for 24 weeks. RESULTS: The median age of participants was 29 and their median CD4 cell count was 486. In the ART group, 43 of 168 (26%) ovulated in cycle 1, 30 of 163 (18%) in cycle 2, and 18 of 163 (11%) in both cycles. In the non-ART group, 26 of 168 (16%) ovulated in cycle 1, 31 of 165 (19%) in cycle 2, and 20 of 165 (12%) in both cycles. We found no significant difference in ovulation rates between groups: unadjusted odds ratio 1.36 (95% confidence interval 0.85-2.18). Pregnancy rates also did not differ: 10.0 per 100-women-years in the ART group and 10.1 per 100-women-years in the non-ART group. Self-reported COC adherence, condom use, vaginal bleeding, and adverse events were similar. Five serious adverse events were reported, all in the non-ART group. CONCLUSION: ART use did not affect risk of ovulation or pregnancy in women taking COCs, suggesting that nevirapine-containing ART does not interfere with COC contraceptive effectiveness.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacocinética , Interações Medicamentosas , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 3(10): 803-6, 2009 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20009284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies show that STIs such as HSV-2 increase the probability of HIV-1 acquisition and enhance transmission by increasing susceptibility and infectiousness respectively. The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of HSV-2 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic in Mulago Teaching Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: This case control study included 50 pregnant women who were HIV positive and 200 controls of pregnant women who were HIV negative and were aware of their serostatus. Data was collected in two parts: the first part involved a pretested interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire for socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and behavioral history. The second part consisted of a serological test using an ELISA assay specific for IgG against viral glycoprotein G, specific to HSV-2. RESULTS: The proportion of HSV-2 was 86% (43/50) among the HIV-positive cases and 62% (125/200) among the HIV-negative controls. The odds of being HSV-2 seropositive was 3.7 times higher (95% CI was 1.58 - 8.61) in HIV-positive cases than in the HIV negative controls. The odds of HSV-2 was significantly increased to 5.32 (95 CI was 1.92 - 14.73) among cases when adjustment was done for age, education, marital status, religion, age at first sexual experience, lifetime partners, type of earning, and whether the mother involved the partner in seeking treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION: The proportion of HSV-2 was higher in HIV-positive cases than in the HIV negative controls.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Maternidades , Hospitais de Ensino , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Herpes Genital/etiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
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