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1.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(5): 592-593, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703769

RESUMO

Two recent papers (one by Román-Rodríguez et al., 2019 in this issue of Cell Stem Cell) highlight how the power of biological selection on hematopoietic stem cell fitness can facilitate gene therapies for Fanconi Anemia. A clinical trial using lentiviral gene replacement and a proof-of-concept targeted genome editing study show robust engraftment and expansion of gene-corrected cells at levels reaching therapeutic relevance.

2.
Nature ; 574(7777): 200-205, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582858

RESUMO

The responses of CD8+ T cells to hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis B range from dysfunction to differentiation into effector cells, but the mechanisms that underlie these distinct outcomes remain poorly understood. Here we show that priming by Kupffer cells, which are not natural targets of hepatitis B, leads to differentiation of CD8+ T cells into effector cells that form dense, extravascular clusters of immotile cells scattered throughout the liver. By contrast, priming by hepatocytes, which are natural targets of hepatitis B, leads to local activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells but not to differentiation into effector cells; these cells form loose, intravascular clusters of motile cells that coalesce around portal tracts. Transcriptomic and chromatin accessibility analyses reveal unique features of these dysfunctional CD8+ T cells, with limited overlap with those of exhausted or tolerant T cells; accordingly, CD8+ T cells primed by hepatocytes cannot be rescued by treatment with anti-PD-L1, but instead respond to IL-2. These findings suggest immunotherapeutic strategies against chronic hepatitis B infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Apresentação Cruzada/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-2/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Transcriptoma/genética
3.
Hum Gene Ther ; 30(9): 1133-1146, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037976

RESUMO

Improving hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) permissiveness to lentiviral vector (LV) transduction without compromising their biological properties remains critical for broad-range implementation of gene therapy as a treatment option for several inherited diseases. This study demonstrates that the use of one-hit ex vivo LV transduction protocols based on either cyclosporin A (CsA) or rapamycin enable as efficient gene transfer as the current two-hit clinical standard into bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells while better preserving their engraftment capacity in vivo. CsA was additive with another enhancer of transduction, prostaglandin E2, suggesting that tailored enhancer combinations may be applied to overcome multiple blocks to transduction simultaneously in HSPC. Interestingly, besides enhancing LV transduction, CsA also significantly reduced HSPC proliferation, preserving the quiescent G0 fraction and the more primitive multipotent progenitors, thereby yielding the highest engraftment levels in vivo. Importantly, no alterations in the vector integration profiles could be detected between CsA and control transduced HSPC. Overall, the present findings contribute to the development of more efficient and sustainable LV gene therapy protocols, underscoring the benefits of scaling down required vector doses, as well as shortening the HSPC ex vivo culture time.

4.
Mol Ther ; 27(7): 1215-1227, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060789

RESUMO

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-I) is a severe genetic disease caused by a deficiency of the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) enzyme. Ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is a promising therapeutic approach for MPS-I, as demonstrated by preclinical studies performed in naive MPS-I mice. However, after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), several MPS-I patients develop anti-IDUA immunity that may jeopardize ex vivo gene therapy efficacy. Here we treat MPS-I mice with an artificial immunization protocol to mimic the ERT effect in patients, and we demonstrate that IDUA-corrected HSC engraftment is impaired in pre-immunized animals by IDUA-specific CD8+ T cells spared by pre-transplant irradiation. Conversely, humoral anti-IDUA immunity does not impact on IDUA-corrected HSC engraftment. The inclusion of lympho-depleting agents in pre-transplant conditioning of pre-immunized hosts allowes rescue of IDUA-corrected HSC engraftment, which is proportional to CD8+ T cell eradication. Overall, these data demonstrate the relevance of pre-existing anti-transgene T cell immunity on ex vivo HSC gene therapy, and they suggest the application of tailored immune-depleting treatments, as well as a deeper immunological characterization of patients, to safeguard the therapeutic effects of ex vivo HSC gene therapy in immunocompetent hosts.

5.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 8(10): 1107-1122, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140762

RESUMO

Defective functionality of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), due to genetic mutations or injuring causes, results in altered T-cell development, leading to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. These defects cannot be corrected by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and thymus transplantation has not yet been demonstrated to be fully curative. Here, we provide proof of principle of a novel approach toward thymic regeneration, involving the generation of thymic organoids obtained by seeding gene-modified postnatal murine TECs into three-dimensional (3D) collagen type I scaffolds mimicking the thymic ultrastructure. To this end, freshly isolated TECs were transduced with a lentiviral vector system, allowing for doxycycline-induced Oct4 expression. Transient Oct4 expression promoted TECs expansion without drastically changing the cell lineage identity of adult TECs, which retain the expression of important molecules for thymus functionality such as Foxn1, Dll4, Dll1, and AIRE. Oct4-expressing TECs (iOCT4 TEC) were able to grow into 3D collagen type I scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that the collagen structure reproduced a 3D environment similar to the thymic extracellular matrix, perfectly recognized by TECs. In vivo results showed that thymic organoids transplanted subcutaneously in athymic nude mice were vascularized but failed to support thymopoiesis because of their limited in vivo persistence. These findings provide evidence that gene modification, in combination with the usage of 3D biomimetic scaffolds, may represent a novel approach allowing the use of postnatal TECs for thymic regeneration. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1107-1122.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(493)2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118293

RESUMO

Liver-directed gene therapy for the coagulation disorder hemophilia showed safe and effective results in clinical trials using adeno-associated viral vectors to replace a functional coagulation factor, although some unmet needs remain. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) may address some of these hurdles because of their potential for stable expression and the low prevalence of preexisting viral immunity in humans. However, systemic LV administration to hemophilic dogs was associated to mild acute toxicity and low efficacy at the administered doses. Here, exploiting intravital microscopy and LV surface engineering, we report a major role of the human phagocytosis inhibitor CD47, incorporated into LV cell membrane, in protecting LVs from uptake by professional phagocytes and innate immune sensing, thus favoring biodistribution to hepatocytes after systemic administration. By enforcing high CD47 surface content, we generated phagocytosis-shielded LVs which, upon intravenous administration to nonhuman primates, showed selective liver and spleen targeting and enhanced hepatocyte gene transfer compared to parental LV, reaching supraphysiological activity of human coagulation factor IX, the protein encoded by the transgene, without signs of toxicity or clonal expansion of transduced cells.

7.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(5): e239-e253, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare, life-threatening, X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterised by microthrombocytopenia, infections, eczema, autoimmunity, and malignant disease. Lentiviral vector-mediated haemopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapy is a potentially curative treatment that represents an alternative to allogeneic HSPC transplantation. Here, we report safety and efficacy data from an interim analysis of patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome who received lentiviral vector-derived gene therapy. METHODS: We did a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 clinical study in paediatric patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, defined by either WAS gene mutation or absent Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) expression or a Zhu clinical score of 3 or higher. We included patients who had no HLA-identical sibling donor available or, for children younger than 5 years of age, no suitable 10/10 matched unrelated donor or 6/6 unrelated cord blood donor. After treatment with rituximab and a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of busulfan and fludarabine, patients received one intravenous infusion of autologous CD34+ cells genetically modified with a lentiviral vector encoding for human WAS cDNA. The primary safety endpoints were safety of the conditioning regimen and safety of lentiviral gene transfer into HSPCs. The primary efficacy endpoints were overall survival, sustained engraftment of genetically corrected HSPCs, expression of vector-derived WASP, improved T-cell function, antigen-specific responses to vaccinations, and improved platelet count and mean platelet volume normalisation. This interim analysis was done when the first six patients treated had completed at least 3 years of follow-up. The planned analyses are presented for the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01515462) and EudraCT (number 2009-017346-32). FINDINGS: Between April 20, 2010, and Feb 26, 2015, nine patients (all male) were enrolled of whom one was excluded after screening; the age range of the eight treated children was 1·1-12·4 years. At the time of the interim analysis (data cutoff April 29, 2016), median follow-up was 3·6 years (range 0·5-5·6). Overall survival was 100%. Engraftment of genetically corrected HSPCs was successful and sustained in all patients. The fraction of WASP-positive lymphocytes increased from a median of 3·9% (range 1·8-35·6) before gene therapy to 66·7% (55·7-98·6) at 12 months after gene therapy, whereas WASP-positive platelets increased from 19·1% (range 4·1-31·0) to 76·6% (53·1-98·4). Improvement of immune function was shown by normalisation of in-vitro T-cell function and successful discontinuation of immunoglobulin supplementation in seven patients with follow-up longer than 1 year, followed by positive antigen-specific response to vaccination. Severe infections fell from 2·38 (95% CI 1·44-3·72) per patient-year of observation (PYO) in the year before gene therapy to 0·31 (0·04-1·11) per PYO in the second year after gene therapy and 0·17 (0·00-0·93) per PYO in the third year after gene therapy. Before gene therapy, platelet counts were lower than 20 × 109 per L in seven of eight patients. At the last follow-up visit, the platelet count had increased to 20-50 × 109 per L in one patient, 50-100 × 109 per L in five patients, and more than 100 × 109 per L in two patients, which resulted in independence from platelet transfusions and absence of severe bleeding events. 27 serious adverse events in six patients occurred after gene therapy, 23 (85%) of which were infectious (pyrexia [five events in three patients], device-related infections, including one case of sepsis [four events in three patients], and gastroenteritis, including one case due to rotavirus [three events in two patients]); these occurred mainly in the first 6 months of follow-up. No adverse reactions to the investigational drug product and no abnormal clonal proliferation or leukaemia were reported after gene therapy. INTERPRETATION: Data from this study show that gene therapy provides a valuable treatment option for patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, particularly for those who do not have a suitable HSPC donor available. FUNDING: Italian Telethon Foundation, GlaxoSmithKline, and Orchard Therapeutics.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Lentivirus/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Terapia Genética/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Mutação , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/sangue , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/diagnóstico , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(4): 551-565.e8, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905619

RESUMO

Precise gene editing in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) holds promise for treating genetic diseases. However, responses triggered by programmable nucleases in HSPCs are poorly characterized and may negatively impact HSPC engraftment and long-term repopulation capacity. Here, we induced either one or several DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with optimized zinc-finger and CRISPR/Cas9 nucleases and monitored DNA damage response (DDR) foci induction, cell-cycle progression, and transcriptional responses in HSPC subpopulations, with up to single-cell resolution. p53-mediated DDR pathway activation was the predominant response to even single-nuclease-induced DSBs across all HSPC subtypes analyzed. Excess DSB load and/or adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated delivery of DNA repair templates induced cumulative p53 pathway activation, constraining proliferation, yield, and engraftment of edited HSPCs. However, functional impairment was reversible when DDR burden was low and could be overcome by transient p53 inhibition. These findings provide molecular and functional evidence for feasible and seamless gene editing in HSPCs.

10.
Nat Med ; 25(2): 234-241, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664781

RESUMO

ß-thalassemia is caused by ß-globin gene mutations resulting in reduced (ß+) or absent (ß0) hemoglobin production. Patient life expectancy has recently increased, but the need for chronic transfusions in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and iron chelation impairs quality of life1. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation represents the curative treatment, with thalassemia-free survival exceeding 80%. However, it is available to a minority of patients and is associated with morbidity, rejection and graft-versus-host disease2. Gene therapy with autologous HSCs modified to express ß-globin represents a potential therapeutic option. We treated three adults and six children with ß0 or severe ß+ mutations in a phase 1/2 trial ( NCT02453477 ) with an intrabone administration of HSCs transduced with the lentiviral vector GLOBE. Rapid hematopoietic recovery with polyclonal multilineage engraftment of vector-marked cells was achieved, with a median of 37.5% (range 12.6-76.4%) in hematopoietic progenitors and a vector copy number per cell (VCN) of 0.58 (range 0.10-1.97) in erythroid precursors at 1 year, in absence of clonal dominance. Transfusion requirement was reduced in the adults. Three out of four evaluable pediatric participants discontinued transfusions after gene therapy and were transfusion independent at the last follow-up. Younger age and persistence of higher VCN in the repopulating hematopoietic cells are associated with better outcome.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Talassemia beta/genética , Talassemia beta/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(3)2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670463

RESUMO

Here I review the scientific background, current stage of development and future perspectives that I foresee in the field of genetic manipulation of hematopoietic stem cells with a special emphasis on clinical applications.

12.
Cell Immunol ; 342: 103802, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735164

RESUMO

Lentiviral vectors (LV) are widely used vehicles for gene transfer and therapy in pre-clinical animal models and clinical trials with promising safety and efficacy results. However, host immune responses against vector- and/or transgene-derived antigens remain a major obstacle to the success and broad applicability of gene therapy. Here we review the innate and adaptive immunological barriers to successful gene therapy, both in the context of ex vivo and in vivo LV gene therapy, mostly concerning systemic LV delivery and discuss possible means to overcome them, including vector design and production and immune modulatory strategies.

13.
Cell Stem Cell ; 23(6): 820-832.e9, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416070

RESUMO

Innate immune factors may restrict hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) genetic engineering and contribute to broad individual variability in gene therapy outcomes. Here, we show that HSCs harbor an early, constitutively active innate immune block to lentiviral transduction that can be efficiently overcome by cyclosporine H (CsH). CsH potently enhances gene transfer and editing in human long-term repopulating HSCs by inhibiting interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), which potently restricts VSV glycoprotein-mediated vector entry. Importantly, individual variability in endogenous IFITM3 levels correlated with permissiveness of HSCs to lentiviral transduction, suggesting that CsH treatment will be useful for improving ex vivo gene therapy and standardizing HSC transduction across patients. Overall, our work unravels the involvement of innate pathogen recognition molecules in immune blocks to gene correction in primary human HSCs and highlights how these roadblocks can be overcome to develop innovative cell and gene therapies.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Edição de Genes , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lentivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lentivirus/genética , Transdução Genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lentivirus/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout
14.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 11: 9-28, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320151

RESUMO

Gene therapy clinical trials require rigorous non-clinical studies in the most relevant models to assess the benefit-to-risk ratio. To support the clinical development of gene therapy for ß-thalassemia, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies for prediction of safety. First we developed newly GLOBE-derived vectors that were tested for their transcriptional activity and potential interference with the expression of surrounding genes. Because these vectors did not show significant advantages, GLOBE lentiviral vector (LV) was elected for further safety characterization. To support the use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transduced by GLOBE LV for the treatment of ß-thalassemia, we conducted toxicology, tumorigenicity, and biodistribution studies in compliance with the OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice. We demonstrated a lack of toxicity and tumorigenic potential associated with GLOBE LV-transduced cells. Vector integration site (IS) studies demonstrated that both murine and human transduced HSCs retain self-renewal capacity and generate new blood cell progeny in the absence of clonal dominance. Moreover, IS analysis showed an absence of enrichment in cancer-related genes, and the genes targeted by GLOBE LV in human HSCs are well known sites of integration, as seen in other lentiviral gene therapy trials, and have not been associated with clonal expansion. Taken together, these integrated studies provide safety data supporting the clinical application of GLOBE-mediated gene therapy for ß-thalassemia.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2896, 2018 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042420

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is emerging as a new pillar of cancer treatment with potential to cure. However, many patients still fail to respond to these therapies. Among the underlying factors, an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a major role. Here we show that monocyte-mediated gene delivery of IFNα inhibits leukemia in a mouse model. IFN gene therapy counteracts leukemia-induced expansion of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and imposes an immunostimulatory program to the TME, as shown by bulk and single-cell transcriptome analyses. This reprogramming promotes T-cell priming and effector function against multiple surrogate tumor-specific antigens, inhibiting leukemia growth in our experimental model. Durable responses are observed in a fraction of mice and are further increased combining gene therapy with checkpoint blockers. Furthermore, IFN gene therapy strongly enhances anti-tumor activity of adoptively transferred T cells engineered with tumor-specific TCR or CAR, overcoming suppressive signals in the leukemia TME. These findings warrant further investigations on the potential development of our gene therapy strategy towards clinical testing.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Imunidade/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Interferons/genética , Interferons/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/transplante , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
17.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(2): 254-275, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242210

RESUMO

Transferring large or multiple genes into primary human stem/progenitor cells is challenged by restrictions in vector capacity, and this hurdle limits the success of gene therapy. A paradigm is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable disorder caused by mutations in the largest human gene: dystrophin. The combination of large-capacity vectors, such as human artificial chromosomes (HACs), with stem/progenitor cells may overcome this limitation. We previously reported amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype in mice transplanted with murine muscle progenitors containing a HAC with the entire dystrophin locus (DYS-HAC). However, translation of this strategy to human muscle progenitors requires extension of their proliferative potential to withstand clonal cell expansion after HAC transfer. Here, we show that reversible cell immortalisation mediated by lentivirally delivered excisable hTERT and Bmi1 transgenes extended cell proliferation, enabling transfer of a novel DYS-HAC into DMD satellite cell-derived myoblasts and perivascular cell-derived mesoangioblasts. Genetically corrected cells maintained a stable karyotype, did not undergo tumorigenic transformation and retained their migration ability. Cells remained myogenic in vitro (spontaneously or upon MyoD induction) and engrafted murine skeletal muscle upon transplantation. Finally, we combined the aforementioned functions into a next-generation HAC capable of delivering reversible immortalisation, complete genetic correction, additional dystrophin expression, inducible differentiation and controllable cell death. This work establishes a novel platform for complex gene transfer into clinically relevant human muscle progenitors for DMD gene therapy.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Artificiais Humanos , Distrofina/genética , Terapia Genética/métodos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/terapia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Mutação
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(411)2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021165

RESUMO

Targeted genome editing in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is an attractive strategy for treating immunohematological diseases. However, the limited efficiency of homology-directed editing in primitive HSPCs constrains the yield of corrected cells and might affect the feasibility and safety of clinical translation. These concerns need to be addressed in stringent preclinical models and overcome by developing more efficient editing methods. We generated a humanized X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) mouse model and evaluated the efficacy and safety of hematopoietic reconstitution from limited input of functional HSPCs, establishing thresholds for full correction upon different types of conditioning. Unexpectedly, conditioning before HSPC infusion was required to protect the mice from lymphoma developing when transplanting small numbers of progenitors. We then designed a one-size-fits-all IL2RG (interleukin-2 receptor common γ-chain) gene correction strategy and, using the same reagents suitable for correction of human HSPC, validated the edited human gene in the disease model in vivo, providing evidence of targeted gene editing in mouse HSPCs and demonstrating the functionality of the IL2RG-edited lymphoid progeny. Finally, we optimized editing reagents and protocol for human HSPCs and attained the threshold of IL2RG editing in long-term repopulating cells predicted to safely rescue the disease, using clinically relevant HSPC sources and highly specific zinc finger nucleases or CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9). Overall, our work establishes the rationale and guiding principles for clinical translation of SCID-X1 gene editing and provides a framework for developing gene correction for other diseases.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Animais , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Marcação de Genes/métodos , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID
19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 9(11): 1574-1588, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899930

RESUMO

Gene targeting constitutes a new step in the development of gene therapy for inherited diseases. Although previous studies have shown the feasibility of editing fibroblasts from Fanconi anemia (FA) patients, here we aimed at conducting therapeutic gene editing in clinically relevant cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In our first experiments, we showed that zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated insertion of a non-therapeutic EGFP-reporter donor in the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus of FA-A lymphoblastic cell lines (LCLs), indicating that FANCA is not essential for the editing of human cells. When the same approach was conducted with therapeutic FANCA donors, an efficient phenotypic correction of FA-A LCLs was obtained. Using primary cord blood CD34+ cells from healthy donors, gene targeting was confirmed not only in in vitro cultured cells, but also in hematopoietic precursors responsible for the repopulation of primary and secondary immunodeficient mice. Moreover, when similar experiments were conducted with mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cells from FA-A patients, we could demonstrate for the first time that gene targeting in primary hematopoietic precursors from FA patients is feasible and compatible with the phenotypic correction of these clinically relevant cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação A da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/patologia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Células Cultivadas , Dependovirus/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação A da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Camundongos Transgênicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Nucleases de Dedos de Zinco/genética , Nucleases de Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
20.
EMBO Mol Med ; 9(11): 1558-1573, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28835507

RESUMO

Lentiviral vectors (LV) are powerful and versatile vehicles for gene therapy. However, their complex biological composition challenges large-scale manufacturing and raises concerns for in vivo applications, because particle components and contaminants may trigger immune responses. Here, we show that producer cell-derived polymorphic class-I major histocompatibility complexes (MHC-I) are incorporated into the LV surface and trigger allogeneic T-cell responses. By disrupting the beta-2 microglobulin gene in producer cells, we obtained MHC-free LV with substantially reduced immunogenicity. We introduce this targeted editing into a novel stable LV packaging cell line, carrying single-copy inducible vector components, which can be reproducibly converted into high-yield LV producers upon site-specific integration of the LV genome of interest. These LV efficiently transfer genes into relevant targets and are more resistant to complement-mediated inactivation, because of reduced content of the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G compared to vectors produced by transient transfection. Altogether, these advances support scalable manufacturing of alloantigen-free LV with higher purity and increased complement resistance that are better suited for in vivo gene therapy.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Lentivirus/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD55/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Fator IX/genética , Fator IX/metabolismo , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Hemofilia B/terapia , Humanos , Isoantígenos/imunologia , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores de Complemento 3b/metabolismo , Transfecção
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