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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 5, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Makerere University implemented a One Health Institute (OHI) in 2016 involving undergraduate students selected from different disciplines. The students were first taken through theoretical principles of One Health followed by a field attachment in communities. The field attachment aimed to expose students to experiential educational opportunities in the communities in a One Health approach. In this paper, we present students' experiences and their contributions to the communities of attachment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, utilizing qualitative data collection methods. The study involved students who participated in the OHI field attachment and community members in a One Health demonstration site-Western Uganda. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) and four in-depths interviews (IDIs) were conducted among the students, while four FGDs and twelve IDIs were conducted among community members. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed manually. RESULTS: The four themes that emerged are: students' understanding and appreciation of One Health concept, their experiences and gains from the multi-disciplinary field attachment, students' contributions to the community, and challenges faced by the students. Students had good knowledge of One Health. They appreciated that health cannot be achieved by one discipline or sector and thus the need to collaborate across sectors. Regarding experiences and gains during the multi-disciplinary field attachment, the students appreciated that each discipline had a role to play in achieving health in the community. They appreciated the training citing skills gained in communication, team work and collaboration. They also reported a feeling of gratitude and accomplishment because they felt they made a positive change to the community by putting in place interventions to address some of the community challenges. Similarly, the communities appreciated the students' contribution in solving their health challenges, ranging from conducting health education to improving sanitation and hygiene. CONCLUSIONS: Through the OHI, students gained One Health competencies including communication, teamwork, and collaboration. Adopting an interdisciplinary model in university teaching system especially during field placement would strengthen skills of collaboration, team work and communication which are critical for a multi-disciplinary approach which is needed among the future workforce in order to solve the current health challenges.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long term outcomes of children with neurodevelopmental disability are influenced by the condition itself, available health services and caretakers' coping ability to nurture the children which may be related to their beliefs and experiences. Most children with neurodevelopmental disabilities live in resource constrained settings. To inform design of contextually appropriate interventions, this study explored health workers' and caretakers' experiences in caring for infants with neurodevelopmental disability in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: A qualitative case study was carried out in December 2017 and involved in-depth interviews with 14 caretakers of infants with severe neurodevelopmental disability, and five health workers in Iganga/Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda. The interviews with caretakers were conducted in Lusoga, the local language, and in English for the health workers, using a pre-determined open-ended interview guide. Data were analyzed using latent content analysis. RESULTS: Caretakers described the experience of caring for children with neurodevelopmental disability as impoverishing and 'imprisoning' due to high care costs, inability to return to income generating activities and nursing challenges. The latter resulted from failure in body control and several aspects of nutrition and maintaining vital functions, coupled with limited support from the community and the health system. Many caretakers expressed beliefs in supernatural causes of neurodevelopmental disability though they reported about complications during and shortly after the birth of the affected child. Care-seeking was often challenging and impeded by costs and the feeling of lack of improvement. The health care system was also found to be incapable of adequately addressing the needs of such children due to lack of commodities, and human resource limitations. CONCLUSION: The caretakers expressed a feeling of emotional stress due to being left alone with a high nursing burden. Improvement in the health services including a holistic approach to care, improved community awareness and parental support could contribute to nursing of children with NDD.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Cuidado da Criança , Pessoas com Deficiência , Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , População Rural , Criança , Comunicação , Seguimentos , Humanos , Percepção , Apoio Social , Uganda
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235696, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. Successful management requires consistent access to appropriate medicines. Availability of NCD medicines is generally low, especially in the public sector, however, little is known about other factors affecting access. We explored barriers and facilitators of access to medicines for diabetes and hypertension at public and private health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study at six public hospitals and five private health facilities in different regions of Uganda. Data collection included 36 in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions (n = 128) among purposively selected adult outpatients with diabetes and/or hypertension and 26 key informant interviews with healthcare workers and patient association leaders. Transcripts were coded and emerging themes identified using the Framework method. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: Stocking of medicines and supplies, Financial factors, Individual behaviour and attitudes, and Service delivery at health facilities. Stocking of medicines and supplies mainly presented barriers to access at public facilities including frequent stockouts, failure to stock certain medicines and low quality brands often rejected by patients. Financial factors, especially high cost of medicines and limited insurance coverage, were barriers in private facilities. Free service provision was a facilitator at public facilities. Patients' confusion resulting from mixed messages and their preference for herbal treatments were cross-sector barriers. While flexibility in NCD service provision was a facilitator at private facilities, provider burnout and limited operating hours were barriers in public facilities. Patient-driven associations exist at some public facilities and help mitigate inadequate medicine stock. CONCLUSION: Access to NCD medicines in Uganda is influenced by both health system and patient factors. Some factors are sector-specific, while others cross-cutting between public and private sectors. Due to commonalities in barriers, potential strategies for overcoming them may include patient-driven associations, public-private partnerships, and multi-modal health education platforms.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças não Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Uganda
4.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(3): 79-95, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782634

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uganda. The LMUP was translated into Luganda and adapted for use with FSWs and underwent cognitive testing and two field tests. From the final Luganda LMUP, three other language versions were created (Acholi, Lugisu and Runyakole), and preliminary field test data were collected. Final data were collected from 819 FSWs attending the 'Most at Risk Population Initiative' clinics. The Luganda field testing showed that there were no missing data, the scale was well targeted, Cronbach's alpha was 0.82, weighted Kappa was 0.78, measurement was unidimensional, and all construct validity hypotheses were met. Likewise, with the Acholi, Lugisu, and Runyankole translations, field testing showed that there were no missing data, the scales were well targeted, Cronbach's alpha were<0.70, and measurement was unidimensional. We concluded that the Luganda LMUP is a valid and reliable tool for assessing pregnancy planning among FSWs in Uganda and that the Acholi, Lugisu, and Runyankole versions of the LMUP also had good initial psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Intenção , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tradução , Uganda
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 379, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) is increasingly acknowledged as one of the important causes of disease burden in low income countries. None the less, there is a dearth of data on the burden of NDD and its determinants in these settings. We aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with NDD among infants in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We assessed 487 infants aged 9-12 months within Iganga-Mayuge Health Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda using the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool. The tool has four domains: gross motor, fine motor, language and social domains. An infant failed a domain if she/he failed more than two parameters of the expected at his/her age. We interviewed mothers on factors that could influence the infants' neurodevelopmental outcomes. Data were analysed using STATA version 14. We used odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to assess statistical significance of associations. RESULTS: Of the 487 infants, 62(12.7%) had an NDD in at least one of the domains. The most affected was social behaviour where 52(10.7%) infants had an NDD. Severe impairment was seen among 9(1.8%) infants with NDD in either three or four domains. Factors associated with NDD at multivariate logistic regression included: parity of more than three children (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.02-3.18); failure to cry at birth (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.46-9.17) and post-neonatal complications (aOR = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.22-14.10). Low birth weight, immediate and exclusive breast feeding were not significantly associated with NDD. CONCLUSION: We found a high NDD burden among infants particularly in the social behaviour domain. To optimise the socio-neural development of infants, programs are needed to educate and work with families on how to engage and stimulate infants. Existing immunisation clinics and community health worker strategies provide an excellent opportunity for stemming this burden.

6.
Appetite ; 143: 104409, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of type 2 diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa is projected to double by 2040, partly attributable to rapidly changing diets. In this paper, we analysed how community members in rural Uganda understood the concept of a healthy or unhealthy diet, food preparation and serving practices to inform the process of facilitating knowledge and skill necessary for self-management and care for type 2 diabetes. This was a qualitative study involving 20 focus group discussions and eight in-depth interviews among those at risk, patients with type 2 diabetes and the general community members without diabetes mellitus. Data was coded and entered into Atlas ti version 7.5.12 and interpreted using thematic analysis. We identified three main themes, which revealed, the perceptions on food and diet concerning health; the social dimensions of food and influence on diet practices; and food as a gendered activity. Participants noted that eating and cooking practices resulted in unhealthy diets. Their practices were affected by beliefs, poverty and food insecurity. Women determined which foods to prepare, but men prepared only some of the foods such as delicacies like a rice dish "pilau." New commercial and processed foods were increasingly available and consumed even in rural areas. Participants linked signs and symptoms of illness to diet as they narrated changes from past to current food preparation behaviours. Their view of overweight and obesity was also gendered and linked to social status. Participants' perception of disease influenced by diet was similar among those with and without type 2 diabetes, and those at risk. People described what is a healthy diet was as recommended by the health workers, but stated that their practices differed greatly from their knowledge. There was high awareness about healthy and balanced diets, but food is entrenched within social and gendered paradigms, which are slowly changing. Social and gender dimensions of food will need to be addressed through interventions in communities to promote change on a society level.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , Uganda
7.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166405, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27855186

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescent childbearing remains a major challenge to improving neonatal mortality especially in Sub Saharan countries which are still struggling with high neonatal mortality rates. We explored essential newborn care practices and associated factors among adolescent mothers in Western Uganda. METHODS: Data were collected among 410 adolescent mothers with children aged one to six months in Hoima district. Three composite variables (appropriate neonatal breastfeeding, cord care and thermal protection) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors independently associated with practice of essential newborn care. RESULTS: Appropriate newborn feeding, optimal thermal protection and dry cord care were practiced by 60.5%, 67.2% and 31% of adolescent mothers respectively. Independent predictors' of cord care were: knowledge of cord care (AOR 5.34, 95% CI (1.51-18.84) and having delivered twins (AOR 0.04, 95% CI (0.01-0.22). The only predictor of thermal care was knowledge (AOR 25.15, 95% CI (7.01-90.20). Staying in a hospital for more than one day postpartum (AOR 2.45, 95%CI (1.23-4.86), knowledge of the correct time of breastfeeding initiation (AOR 14.71, 95% CI (5.20-41.58), predicted appropriate neonatal feeding, whereas; adolescent mothers who had had a caesarean delivery (AOR 0.19, 95% CI (I 0.04-0.96) and a male caretaker in the postnatal period (AOR 0.18, 95% CI (0.07-0.49) were less likely to practice the recommended newborn feeding. CONCLUSION: Sub optimal essential newborn care practice was noted especially suboptimal cord care. Adolescent mothers should be a focus of strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Glob Health Action ; 9: 33194, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to reduce child mortality by improving access to care, especially in remote areas. Uganda has one of the highest child mortality rates globally. Moreover, rural areas bear the highest proportion of this burden. The optimal performance of CHWs is critical. In this study, we assess the performance of CHWs in managing malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in the rural district of Lira, in northern Uganda. DESIGNS: A cross-sectional mixed methods study was undertaken to investigate the performance of 393 eligible CHWs in the Lira district of Uganda. Case scenarios were conducted with a medical officer observing CHWs in their management of children suspected of having malaria, pneumonia, or diarrhea. Performance data were collected using a pretested questionnaire with a checklist used by the medical officer to score the CHWs. The primary outcome, CHW performance, is defined as the ability to diagnose and treat malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia appropriately. Participants were described using a three group performance score (good vs. moderate vs. poor). A binary measure of performance (good vs. poor) was used in multivariable logistic regression to show an association between good performance and a range of independent variables. The qualitative component comprised seven key informant interviews with experts who had informed knowledge with regard to the functionality of CHWs in Lira district. RESULTS: Overall, 347 CHWs (88.3%) had poor scores in managing malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia, 26 (6.6%) had moderate scores, and 20 (5.1%) had good scores. The factors that were positively associated with performance were secondary-level education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-4.92) and meeting with supervisors in the previous month (AOR 2.52; 95% CI 1.12-5.70). Those factors negatively associated with CHW performance included: serving 100-200 households (AOR 0.24; 95% CI 0.12-0.50), serving more than 200 households (AOR 0.22; 95% CI 0.10-0.48), and an initial training duration lasting 2-3 days (AOR 0.13; 95% CI 0.04-0.41). The qualitative findings reinforced the quantitative results by indicating that refresher training, workload, and in-kind incentives were important determinants of performance. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of CHWs in Lira was inadequate. There is a need to consider pre-qualification testing before CHWs are appointed. Providing ongoing support and supervision, and ensuring that CHWs have at least secondary education can be helpful in improving their performance. Health system managers also need to ensure that the CHWs' workload is moderated as work overload will reduce performance. Finally, although short training programs are beneficial to some degree, they are not sufficient and should be followed up with regular refresher training.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 268, 2015 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At least 1.4 million people are affected globally by nosocomial infections at any one time, the vast majority of these occurring in low-income countries. Most of these infections can be prevented by adopting inexpensive infection prevention and control measures such as hand washing. We assessed the implementation of infection control in health facilities and determined predictors of hand washing among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Arua district, Uganda. METHODS: We interviewed 202 HCWs that included 186 randomly selected and 16 purposively selected key informants in this cross-sectional study. We also conducted observations in 32 health facilities for compliance with infection control measures and availability of relevant supplies for their implementation. Quantitative data underwent descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regressions at 95 % confidence interval while qualitative data was coded and thematically analysed. RESULTS: Most respondents (95/186, 51 %) were aware of at least six of the eight major infection control measures assessed. Most facilities (93.8 %, 30/32) lacked infection control committees and adequate supplies or equipment for infection control. Respondents were more likely to wash their hands if they had prior training on infection control (AOR = 2.71, 95 % CI: 1.03-7.16), had obtained at least 11 years of formal education (AOR = 3.30, 95 % CI: 1.44-7.54) and had reported to have acquired a nosocomial infection (AOR = 2.84, 95 % CI: 1.03-7.84). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers are more likely to wash their hands if they have ever suffered from a nosocomial infection, received in-service training on infection control, were educated beyond ordinary level, or knew hand washing as one of the infection control measures. The Uganda Ministry of Health should provide regular in-service training in infection control measures and adequate necessary materials.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Glob Health Action ; 8: 24386, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first week of life is the time of greatest risk of death and disability, and is also associated with many traditional beliefs and practices. Identifying sick newborns in the community and referring them to health facilities is a key strategy to reduce deaths. Although a growing area of interest, there remains a lack of data on the role of sociocultural norms and practices on newborn healthcare-seeking in sub-Saharan Africa and the extent to which these norms can be modified. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand the community's perspective of potential sociocultural barriers and facilitators to compliance with newborn referral. METHOD: In this qualitative study, focus group discussions (n=12) were conducted with mothers and fathers of babies aged less than 3 months. In addition, in-depth interviews (n=11) were also held with traditional birth attendants and mothers who had been referred by community health workers to seek health-facility-based care. Participants were purposively selected from peri-urban and rural communities in two districts in eastern Uganda. Data were analysed using latent content analysis. RESULTS: The community definition of a newborn varied, but this was most commonly defined by the period between birth and the umbilical cord stump falling off. During this period, newborns are perceived to be vulnerable to the environment and many mothers and their babies are kept in seclusion, although this practice may be changing. Sociocultural factors that influence compliance with newborn referrals to seek care emerged along three sub-themes: community understanding of the newborn period and cultural expectations; the role of community health actors; and caretaker knowledge, experience, and decision-making autonomy. CONCLUSION: In this setting, there is discrepancy between biomedical and community definitions of the newborn period. There were a number of sociocultural factors that could potentially affect compliance to newborn referral. The widely practised cultural seclusion period, knowledge about newborn sickness, individual experiences in households, perceived health system gaps, and decision-making processes were facilitators of or barriers to compliance with newborn referral. Designers of newborn interventions need to address locally existing cultural beliefs at the same time as they strengthen facility care.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Cordão Umbilical , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Terminologia como Assunto , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e81610, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24312326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seventy-five percent of newborn deaths happen in the first-week of life, with the highest risk of death in the first 24-hours after birth.WHO and UNICEF recommend home-visits for babies in the first-week of life to assess for danger-signs and counsel caretakers for immediate referral of sick newborns. We assessed timely compliance with newborn referrals made by community-health workers (CHWs), and its determinants in Iganga and Mayuge Districts in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: A historical cohort study design was used to retrospectively follow up newborns referred to health facilities between September 2009 and August 2011. Timely compliance was defined as caretakers of newborns complying with CHWs' referral advice within 24-hours. RESULTS: A total of 724 newborns were referred by CHWs of whom 700 were successfully traced. Of the 700 newborns, 373 (53%) were referred for immunization and postnatal-care, and 327 (47%) because of a danger-sign. Overall, 439 (63%) complied, and of the 327 sick newborns, 243 (74%) caretakers complied with the referrals. Predictors of referral compliance were; the newborn being sick at the time of referral- Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.3, and 95% Confidence-Interval (CI) of [1.6 - 3.5]), the CHW making a reminder visit to the referred newborn shortly after referral (AOR =1.7; 95% CI: [1.2 -2.7]); and age of mother (25-29) and (30-34) years, (AOR =0.4; 95% CI: [0.2 - 0.8]) and (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI: [0.2 - 0.8]) respectively. CONCLUSION: Caretakers' newborn referral compliance was high in this setting. The newborn being sick, being born to a younger mother and a reminder visit by the CHW to a referred newborn were predictors of newborn referral compliance. Integration of CHWs into maternal and newborn care programs has the potential to increase care seeking for newborns, which may contribute to reduction of newborn mortality.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida , Uganda
12.
Trop Med Int Health ; 18(7): 898-906, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23551394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine community health workers' (CHWs) competence in identifying and referring sick newborns in Uganda. METHODS: Case-vignettes, observations of role-plays and interviews were employed to collect data using checklists and semistructured questionnaires, from 57 trained CHWs participating in a community health facility-linked cluster randomised trial. Competence to identify and refer sick newborns was measured by knowledge of newborn danger signs, skills to identify sick newborns and effective communication to mothers. Proportions and median scores were computed for each attribute with a pre-defined pass mark of 100% for knowledge and 90% for skill and communication. RESULTS: For knowledge, 68% of the CHWs attained the pass mark. The median percentage score was 100 (IQR 94 100). 74% mentioned the required five newborn danger signs unprompted. 'Red umbilicus/cord with pus' was mentioned by all CHWs (100%), but none mentioned chest in-drawing and grunting as newborn danger signs. 63% attained the pass mark for both skill and communication. The median percentage scores were 91 (IQR 82 100) for skills and 94 (IQR 89, 94) for effective communication. 98% correctly identified the four case-vignettes as sick or not sick newborn. 'Preterm birth' was the least identified danger sign from the case-vignettes, by 51% of the CHWs. CONCLUSION: CHWs trained for a short period but effectively supervised are competent in identifying and referring sick newborns in a poor resource setting.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Adulto , Cor , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Nascimento Prematuro , Encaminhamento e Consulta , População Rural , Supuração , Tórax , Uganda , Cordão Umbilical , Sinais Vitais
13.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 12(1): 61-9, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25871312

RESUMO

This study modelled estimates of the cost and impact of male circumcision (MC) under different scenarios using the Decision Maker's Program Planning Tool on data from Uganda. Results showed that the number of new adult HIV infections could be reduced by 23 000 if MC could be increased from the current 25% to 80% by 2015. The incidence of HIV could be reduced by 0.2 percentage points over the same period. If a scale up programme is to meet a target of 80% by 2015 then the annual number of MCs performed should be over twice as many as those performed in 2011. The discounted net cost per infection averted would be US$559 for the period 2011-2015 and the country would save US$6 841 per infection. A scale up of MC will reduce HIV prevalence and incidence substantially and it would be highly cost effective. The government should mobilise funding to meet high MC targets that would deliver the desired reduction in prevalence and incidence in a short period of time.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (7): CD008405, 2011 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21735429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual practice, whereby health workers hold two or more jobs, is a common phenomenon globally. In resource constrained low- and middle-income countries dual practice poses an ongoing threat to the efficiency, quality and equity of health services, especially in the public sector. Identifying effective interventions to manage dual practice is important. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of regulations implemented to manage dual practice. SEARCH STRATEGY: Databases searched included: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) 2011, Issue 4, part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations May 24, 2011 (searched 26 May 2011); MEDLINE, Ovid (1948 to May week 2 2011) (searched 26 May 2011); EMBASE, Ovid (1980 to 2011 week 20) (searched 26 May 2011); Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index, ISI Web of Science (1975 to present) (searched 04 December 2009); LILACS (searched January 2010); and AIM (December 2009) (searched 18 December 2009). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted-time-series studies. Dual practice was defined as holding more than one job. Studies for inclusion were those focusing on interventions to manage dual practice among health professionals employed in the public health sector. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently applied the criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies when scanning the identified titles and abstracts. The same two review authors independently screened full reports of selected citations. At each stage, results were compared and discrepancies settled through discussion. MAIN RESULTS: No studies were found which were eligible for inclusion in this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to rigorously evaluate the effects of interventions implemented to manage dual practice among health workers. However, there is still much that is unknown about dual practice itself. The designing of studies to evaluate the effects of interventions to manage dual practice could benefit from prior studies to assess the various manifestations of dual practice, their prevalence and their likely impacts on health services delivery. These findings would then inform the design of studies to evaluate interventions to manage dual practice.


Assuntos
Emprego , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Setor Público
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 10 Supp 1: 11, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22359699

RESUMO

The objective of this work is to describe the experience of the Uganda Public Health School Without Walls (PHSWOW) in training public health professionals at post-graduate level to offer leadership in planning, delivery of health services and research within a decentralized health system. As one of the constituents of the Makerere University College of Health Sciences, the Uganda PHSWOW has the vision of becoming a Centre of Excellence, providing leadership in public health and the mission of promoting the attainment of better health of the people in Uganda and beyond through public health training, research and community service. Key to the successes of the program are the 238 program graduates, most of whom have remained in-country to serve at district and national levels of service delivery. Collaborations have been established with government, private, non-governmental and international institutions leading to increased health service provision and research for the improvement of health status of populations and influence on public policy. There is still a lot to do in diversifying the skills mix of graduates and contributing to an ambitious increment from 0.4 to 4.7 public health professionals per 10,000 population; as is currently the case in high-middle income countries. Currently, the Uganda PHSWOW has exceeded the proposed output for FETPs of training 3 to 5 graduates per 1 million population suggested by some authors, however the output is still inadequate. More also needs to be done to promote a culture of publication in an effort to translate public health evidence into policy and practice.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Prática de Saúde Pública , Saúde Pública/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Liderança , Saúde Pública/métodos , Política Pública , Uganda
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