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1.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101043, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780866

RESUMO

Genetic polymorphisms or variations, randomly distributed in a population, may cause drug-gene response variations. Investigation into these polymorphisms may identify novel mechanisms contributing to a specific disease process. Such investigation necessitates the use of Mendelian randomization, an analytical method that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables for modifiable risk factors that affect population health1. In the past decade, advances in our understanding of genetic polymorphisms have enabled the identification of genetic variants in candidate genes that impact low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) regulating pathways and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. A specific candidate gene of interest is that of the LDL receptor degrading protein, PCSK9. In fact, loss-of-function genetic variants for the PCSK9 gene are what first highlighted this pathway as a candidate for pharmacological inhibition. PCSK9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) are a class of cholesterol-lowering medications that provide significant reductions in LDL by inhibiting the degradation of LDL receptors (LDLR). These inhibitors have also been found to reduce production and enhance clearance of lipoprotein A [Lp(a)], an LDL-like particle currently under study as a separate risk factor for atherosclerotic CVD. Here, we discuss the promise of personalized medicine in developing a more efficacious and individualized pharmacogenomics-based approach for the use of PCSK9i that considers genetic variation and targets different patient populations. This review explores the pharmacogenomics of PCSK9i in the context of PCSK9 allele variants related to drug-metabolizing enzymes and responses since more studies are demonstrating that some patients are hyporesponsive or non-responsive to PCSK9i 2. In summary, the pharmacogenomics of PCSK9 are a promising therapeutic target and genetic information from prospective randomized clinical trials is warranted to gain a full understanding of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of such allele/gene-guided PCSK9i therapy.

2.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin associated side effects (SASE) are a leading cause of statin discontinuation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient, provider, and facility characteristics associated with SASEs and whether these characteristics impact statin utilization. METHODS: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) receiving care across the Veterans Affairs healthcare system from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015 were included. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine (a) factors associated with SASE and (b) factors associated with statin use in those with SASE. RESULTS: Our cohort included 1,225,576 patients with ASCVD. Of these, 171,189 (13.7%) had at least 1 reported SASE since year 2000. The most significant odds for SASEs were observed with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36, 1.45), White race (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.41, 1.45), hypertension (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33, 1.41) and ischemic heart disease (IHD: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.43, 1.47). Lower odds were noted with care at a teaching facility (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.88, 0.90). Factors most associated with being on a statin among patients with SASE included having diabetes (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15, 1.20), IHD (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.35, 1.43) and a higher number of cardiology visits (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07, 1.09), while female sex was associated with lower odds (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.61, 0.69). CONCLUSION: There are significant disparities in statin use by sex, ASCVD type, and comorbidities among secondary prevention patients with SASE, which represent areas for improvement in optimizing statin utilization.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468696

RESUMO

Importance: Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels are associated with risk of heart failure (HF) and mortality among individuals in the general population. However, it is unknown if this risk is modifiable. Objective: To test the hypothesis that elevated hscTnT and NTproBNP levels would identify individuals with the greatest risk for mortality and HF and the largest benefit associated with intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a nonprespecified post hoc analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), conducted from October 20, 2010, to August 20, 2015. A total of 9361 patients without diabetes with increased risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive intensive vs standard SBP lowering. Statistical analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis from September 30, 2019, to July 29, 2021. Interventions: Participants were randomized to undergo intensive (<120 mm Hg) or standard (<140 mm Hg) SBP lowering. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and NTproBNP levels were measured from stored specimens collected at enrollment, with elevated levels defined as 14 ng/L or more for hscTnT (to convert to micrograms per liter, multiply by 0.001) and 125 pg/mL or more for NTproBNP (to convert to nanograms per liter, multiply by 1.0). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of this ancillary study was HF and mortality. Results: Of the 9361 participants enrolled in SPRINT, 8828 (5578 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured hscTnT levels and 8836 (5585 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured NTproBNP levels; 2262 of 8828 patients (25.6%) had elevated hscTnT levels, 3371 of 8836 patients (38.2%) had elevated NTproBNP, and 1411 of 8828 patients (16.0%) had both levels elevated. Randomization to the intensive SBP group led to a 4.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-7.5%) absolute risk reduction (ARR) over 4 years in death and HF (421 events) for those with elevated hscTnT and a 1.7% (95% CI, 0.7%-2.5%) ARR for those without elevated levels. Similarly, for those with elevated NTproBNP, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 4.6% (95% CI, 2.3%-6.5%) vs 1.8% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.5%) in those without elevated levels. For those with elevated levels of both biomarkers, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 7.8% (95% CI, 3.3%-11.3%) vs 1.7% (95% CI, 0.8%-2.3%) in those with neither biomarker elevated. No significant treatment group by biomarker category interactions were detected. Conclusions and Relevance: Intensive SBP control led to large absolute differences in death and HF among patients with abnormal hscTnT and NTproBNP levels. These findings demonstrate that risk associated with elevation of these biomarkers is modifiable with intensive BP control. A prospective, randomized clinical trial is needed to evaluate whether these biomarkers may help guide selection of patients for intensive SBP lowering. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.

4.
Cardiology ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521081

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a not too uncommon clinical situation and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. After initial treatment, a number of clinical decisions must be made weighing the risks of ischemic events and future bleeding. In particular, healthcare providers must carefully balance the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in the secondary prevention of coronary events, primarily future spontaneous myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis, against the risk of major, most commonly gastrointestinal bleeding. The first question is whether a dual antiplatelet therapy strategy is required or if a single antiplatelet agent will suffice. Then, if a single antiplatelet agent is adequate, which agent should be continued. Although there is some guidance to answer some of these questions, there are inadequate evidence-based data for others. Below, we review the various considerations and summarize our approach and rationale to manage patients who had gastrointestinal bleeding after PCI.

5.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 68: 2-6, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371083

RESUMO

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (U.S.) and incurs significant cost to the healthcare system. Management of cholesterol remains central for ASCVD prevention and has been the focus of multiple national guidelines. In this review, we compare the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Cholesterol guidelines. We review the evidence base that was used to generate recommendations focusing on 4 distinct themes: 1) the threshold of absolute 10-year ASCVD risk to start a clinician-patient discussion for the initiation of statin therapy in primary prevention patients; 2) the utility of coronary artery calcium score to guide clinician-patient risk discussion pertaining to the initiation of statin therapy for primary ASCVD prevention; 3) the use of moderate versus high-intensity statin therapy in patients with established ASCVD; and 4) the utility of ordering lipid panels after initiation or intensification of lipid lowering therapy to document efficacy and monitor adherence to lipid lowering therapy. We discuss why the VA/DoD and AHA/ACC may have reached different conclusions on these key issues.

6.
Vasa ; 50(6): 439-445, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346252

RESUMO

Background: Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a ß-galactoside-binding lectin associated tissue fibrosis and inflammation. There is limited understanding of the relationship between gal-3 and vascular health. Our aim was to assess the association between gal-3 and arterial stiffness in older adults. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4275 participants (mean age of 75 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Central arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). We evaluated the association of gal-3 with cfPWV using multivariable linear regression. Results: The median (interquartile range) gal-3 concentration was 16.5 (13.8, 19.8) ng/mL and mean cfPWV was 1163±303 cm/s. Higher gal-3 concentration was associated with greater central arterial stiffness after adjustment for age, sex, race-center, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication use, and current smoking status (ß=36.4 cm/s change in cfPWV per log unit change in gal-3; 95% CI: 7.2, 65.5, p=0.015). The association was attenuated after adjusting for additional cardiovascular risk factors (ß=17.3, 95% CI: -14.4, 49.0). Conclusions: In community-dwelling older adults, gal-3 concentration was associated with central arterial stiffness, likely sharing common pathways with traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/sangue , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393074

RESUMO

Bempedoic acid is an adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase (ACL) inhibitor that reduces levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in the plasma by inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in hepatic cells, which leads to up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptors. Bempedoic acid is approved as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) who require additional lowering of LDL-C. In this case study, we describe a patient with HeFH who had a prior excellent response to statin but unable to take the same, and a less than expected response to PCSK9i, in whom initiation of bempedoic acid led to a substantial reduction of LDL-C. Our findings suggest that patients who are quite responsive to statins may also be quite responsive to bempedoic acid, a medication that works in the same biochemical pathway as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Additionally, this medication may be particularly effective at lowering LDL-C among individuals not on background statin therapy.

8.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293394

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The utility of conventional upper reference limits (URL) for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains debated. We analyzed the distribution of hsTnT and NT-proBNP in people with CKD in ambulatory settings to examine the diagnostic value of conventional URL in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We studied participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) with CKD and no self-reported history of cardiovascular disease. EXPOSURE: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). OUTCOME: NT-proBNP and hsTnT at baseline. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We described the proportion of participants above the conventional URL for NT-proBNP (125pg/mL) and hsTnT (14ng/L) overall and by eGFR. We then estimated 99th percentile URL for NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Using quantile regression of the 99th percentile, we modeled the association of eGFR with NT-proBNP and hsTnT. RESULTS: Among 2,312 CKD participants, 40% and 43% had levels of NT-proBNP and hsTnT above the conventional URL, respectively. In those with eGFR <30mL/min/1.73m2, 71% and 68% of participants had concentrations of NT-proBNP and hsTnT above the conventional URL, respectively. Among all CKD participants, the 99th percentile for NT-proBNP was 3,592 (95% CI, 2,470-4,849) pg/mL and for hsTnT it was 126 (95% CI, 100-144) ng/L. Each 15mL/min/1.73m2 decrement in eGFR was associated with a ~40% higher threshold for the 99th percentile of NT-proBNP (1.43 [95% CI, 1.21-1.69]) and hsTnT (1.45 [95% CI, 1.31-1.60]). LIMITATIONS: Study included ambulatory patients, and we could not test the accuracy of the URL of NT-proBNP and hsTnT in the acute care setting. CONCLUSIONS: In this ambulatory CKD population with no self-reported history of cardiovascular disease, a range of 40%-88% of participants had concentrations of NT-proBNP and hsTnT above the conventional URL, depending on eGFR strata. Developing eGFR-specific thresholds for these commonly used cardiac biomarkers in the setting of CKD may improve their utility for evaluation of suspected heart failure and myocardial infarction.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(8): 594-603, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the association of diabetes duration with incident heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Diabetes increases HF risk. However, the independent effect of diabetes duration on incident HF is unknown. METHODS: We included 9,734 participants (mean age 63 years, 58% women, 22% Black) at ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Visit 4 (1996-1998) without HF or coronary heart disease. We calculated diabetes duration at Visit 4 (baseline), utilizing diabetes status at the first 4 ARIC visits spaced 3 years apart, and self-reported diagnosis date for those with diabetes diagnosed before Visit 1. We used Cox regression to estimate associations of diabetes duration with incident HF, accounting for intercurrent coronary heart disease and other risk factors. We performed analyses stratified by age (<65 years or ≥65 years), race, sex, and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1C [HbA1C] consistently <7%, vs HbA1C ≥7%), with tests for interaction. RESULTS: Over 22.5 years of follow-up, there were 1,968 HF events. Compared to those without diabetes, HF risk rose with longer diabetes duration, with the highest risk among those with ≥15 y diabetes duration (HR: 2.82; 95% CI: 2.25-3.63). Each 5-year increase in diabetes duration was associated with a 17% (95% CI: 11-22) relative increase in HF risk. Similar results were observed across HF subtypes. The HF and diabetes duration associations were stronger among those aged <65 years, those with HbA1C ≥7%, those with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, women, and Blacks (all P interactions <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Delaying diabetes onset may augment HF prevention efforts, and therapies to improve HF outcomes might target those with long diabetes duration.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(25): 3157-3159, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167640
11.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 35(4): 793-800, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data on the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) therapy with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been inconsistent. We investigate the association between n-3 FA and risk for AF by pooling data from available large, cardiovascular outcome trials. METHODS: We performed a systematic search on PubMed and Embase for studies on n-3 FA with AF as an outcome measure. Large (≥ 1000 participants) randomized controlled trials with ≥ 1-year follow-up period were included. The association between n-3 FA and risk of AF or stroke was assessed. Mantel-Haenszel random effects model was used to calculate risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We then performed meta-regression to evaluate effect on AF by dose of n-3 FA therapy. RESULTS: A total of 8 randomized control trials encompassing 83,112 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, five trials assessed a lower dose of n-3 FA (≤ 1 g daily, n = 61,096) while 3 trials assessed a higher dose (> 1 g daily, n = 22,016). In meta-analysis, a significant association was noted between n-3 FA treatment and risk of AF (4.0% vs 3.3%; RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.38, p = 0.0002). There was a modest but still significant association in the lower dose (n-3 FA ≤ 1 g daily) sub-group (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21, p = 0.004) and stronger association in the higher dose (n-3 FA > 1 g daily) sub-group (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.26-1.80, p < 0.001; p-interaction between low versus high subgroups = 0.003). There was no increase in stroke risk (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.90-1.20). Meta-regression demonstrated a significant association between dose of n-3 FA with risk for AF events (log RR 0.103, 95% CI 0.048-0.159, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: While overall AF event rates were low, n-3 FA treatment is associated with increased risk for AF.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 44(7): 1657-1663, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is controversial whether adults who are obese but "metabolically healthy" have cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk comparable with that of normal-weight adults. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), a biomarker of myocardial damage, is useful in characterizing subclinical CVD. We categorized obesity phenotypes and studied their associations with subclinical and clinical CVD and CVD subtypes, including heart failure (HF). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional and prospective analyses of 9,477 adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We used the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and BMI to define obesity phenotypes as follows: metabolically healthy normal weight, metabolically healthy overweight, metabolically healthy obese, metabolically unhealthy normal weight, metabolically unhealthy overweight, and metabolically unhealthy obese. RESULTS: At baseline (1990-1992), mean age was 56 years, 56% were female, 23% were Black, and 25% had detectable hs-cTnT (≥6 ng/L). Over a median of 17 years of follow-up, there were 2,603 clinical CVD events. Those with the metabolically healthy obese (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.15-1.67), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.30-1.76), metabolically unhealthy overweight (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.41-1.82), and metabolically unhealthy obese (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.88-2.44) phenotypes had higher CVD risks in comparison with metabolically healthy normal weight. Detectable hs-cTnT (≥6 ng/L) was associated with higher CVD risk, even among metabolically healthy normal-weight adults. Metabolically healthy obese adults had higher HF risk (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.30-2.09) in comparison with metabolically healthy normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolically healthy obese phenotype was associated with excess burden of clinical CVD, primarily driven by an excess risk of HF. hs-cTnT was useful in stratifying CVD risk across all obesity phenotypes, even among obese individuals who appear otherwise metabolically healthy.

13.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(5): 700-708.e1, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905766

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is highly prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not requiring kidney replacement therapy. We studied the associations of PH with mortality, kidney failure, as well as cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries with a CKD diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study using a matched cohort design. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients with PH (based on 2 claims within 2 years) and patients without PH matched on CKD stage from the Medicare 5% CKD sample (1996-2016). PREDICTOR: Presence of pulmonary hypertension. OUTCOME: Mortality, kidney failure, and all-cause, CV, and non-CV hospitalization. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between PH and mortality, adjusting for age, sex, race, and comorbidities. Death was considered as a competing event in Fine-Gray models to assess the association between PH and kidney failure. Negative binomial model was used to evaluate the relationship between PH and all-cause, CV, and non-CV hospitalizations. RESULTS: 30,052 patients with PH and CKD and 150,260 CKD stage-matched patients without diagnosed PH were studied. The median age of the study population was 80.7 years, 57.8% were women, and 10.3% were African Americans. The presence of PH was associated with an increased risk of mortality after 1 (HR, 2.87 [95% CI, 2.79-2.95]), 2-3 (HR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.51-1.61]), and 4-5 (HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.40-1.53]) years of follow-up, and a higher risk of all-cause, CV, and non-CV hospitalization during the same period. PH was also associated with kidney failure in after 1 and 2-3 years but not after 4-5 years of follow-up evaluation. Patients with PH also experienced higher rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), and AKI requiring dialysis support within 30 and 90 days of AKI. LIMITATIONS: Reliance on billing codes and lack of echocardiogram or right heart catheterization data CONCLUSIONS: Among older Medicare beneficiaries with a CKD diagnosis not requiring kidney replacement therapy, the presence of PH was associated with an increased risk of mortality, kidney failure, and hospitalization. Understanding of the mechanism of these associations, especially the increased risk of kidney failure, requires further study.

14.
JAMA ; 325(15): 1545-1555, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877270

RESUMO

Importance: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with an annual incidence of approximately 1 million. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel) reduces cardiovascular event rates after ACS. Observations: In 2016, the updated guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommended aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for at least 12 months for patients with ACS. Since these recommendations were published, new randomized clinical trials have studied different regimens and durations of antiplatelet therapy. Recommendations vary according to the risk of bleeding. If bleeding risk is low, prolonged DAPT may be considered, although the optimal duration of prolonged DAPT beyond 1 year is not well established. If bleeding risk is high, shorter duration (ie, 3-6 months) of DAPT may be reasonable. A high risk of bleeding traditionally is defined as a 1-year risk of serious bleeding (either fatal or associated with a ≥3-g/dL drop in hemoglobin) of at least 4% or a risk of an intracranial hemorrhage of at least 1%. Patients at higher risk are 65 years old or older; have low body weight (BMI <18.5), diabetes, or prior bleeding; or take oral anticoagulants. The newest P2Y12 inhibitors, prasugrel and ticagrelor, are more potent, with high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity of about 3% vs 30% to 40% with clopidogrel and act within 30 minutes compared with 2 hours for clopidogrel. Clinicians should avoid prescribing prasugrel to patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack because of an increased risk of cerebrovascular events (6.5% vs 1.2% with clopidogrel, P = .002) and should avoid prescribing it to patients older than 75 years or who weigh less than 60 kg. The ISAR-REACT-5 trial found that prasugrel reduced rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year compared with ticagrelor among patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (9.3% vs 6.9%, P = .006) with no significant difference in bleeding. Recent trials suggested that discontinuing aspirin rather than the P2Y12 inhibitor may be associated with better outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Dual antiplatelet therapy reduces rates of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Specific combinations and duration of dual antiplatelet therapy should be based on patient characteristics-risk of bleeding myocardial ischemia.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Aspirina/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/farmacologia , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
15.
Am J Med ; 134(8): 992-1001.e4, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of contemporary data regarding the outcomes of acute myocardial infarction among patients with familial hypercholesteremia. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Readmissions Database (2016-2018) for hospitalizations with acute myocardial infarction. Multivariable regression analysis was used to compare in-hospital outcomes and 30-day readmissions among patients with and without familial hypercholesteremia. RESULTS: The analysis included 1,363,488 hospitalizations with acute myocardial infarction. The prevalence of familial hypercholesteremia was 0.07% among acute myocardial infarction admissions. Compared with those without familial hypercholesteremia, admissions with familial hypercholesteremia were younger and had less comorbidities but were more likely to have had prior infarct and revascularization. Admissions with familial hypercholesteremia were more likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and undergo revascularization. After multivariable adjustment, there was no difference in in-hospital case fatality among patients with hypercholesteremia compared with those without it (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-1.39). Admissions with acute myocardial infarction and familial hypercholesteremia had higher adjusted rates of cardiac arrest and utilization of mechanical support. There were no group differences in overall 30-day readmission (aOR 0.75; 95% CI 0.51-1.10) or 30-day readmission for acute myocardial infarction. However, a nonsignificant trend toward higher readmission for percutaneous coronary intervention was observed among patients with familial hypercholesteremia (aOR 1.89; 95% CI 0.98-3.64). CONCLUSION: In this contemporary nationwide observational analysis, patients with familial hypercholesteremia represent a small proportion of the overall population with acute myocardial infarction and have a distinctive clinical profile but do not appear to have worse in-hospital case fatality compared with those without familial hypercholesteremia.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Circulation ; 143(24): 2370-2383, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) risk and the underlying risk factors vary by race. Traditional models for HF risk prediction treat race as a covariate in risk prediction and do not account for significant parameters such as cardiac biomarkers. Machine learning (ML) may offer advantages over traditional modeling techniques to develop race-specific HF risk prediction models and to elucidate important contributors of HF development across races. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 4 large, community cohort studies (ARIC [Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities], DHS [Dallas Heart Study], JHS [Jackson Heart Study], and MESA [Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis]) with adjudicated HF events. The study included participants who were >40 years of age and free of HF at baseline. Race-specific ML models for HF risk prediction were developed in the JHS cohort (for Black race-specific model) and White adults from ARIC (for White race-specific model). The models included 39 candidate variables across demographic, anthropometric, medical history, laboratory, and electrocardiographic domains. The ML models were externally validated and compared with prior established traditional and non-race-specific ML models in race-specific subgroups of the pooled MESA/DHS cohort and Black participants of ARIC. The Harrell C-index and Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino χ2 tests were used to assess discrimination and calibration, respectively. RESULTS: The ML models had excellent discrimination in the derivation cohorts for Black (n=4141 in JHS, C-index=0.88) and White (n=7858 in ARIC, C-index=0.89) participants. In the external validation cohorts, the race-specific ML model demonstrated adequate calibration and superior discrimination (Black individuals, C-index=0.80-0.83; White individuals, C-index=0.82) compared with established HF risk models or with non-race-specific ML models derived with race included as a covariate. Among the risk factors, natriuretic peptide levels were the most important predictor of HF risk across both races, followed by troponin levels in Black and ECG-based Cornell voltage in White individuals. Other key predictors of HF risk among Black individuals were glycemic parameters and socioeconomic factors. In contrast, prevalent cardiovascular disease and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were stronger predictors of HF risk in White adults. CONCLUSIONS: Race-specific and ML-based HF risk models that integrate clinical, laboratory, and biomarker data demonstrated superior performance compared with traditional HF risk and non-race-specific ML models. This approach identifies distinct race-specific contributors of HF.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(9): 1194-1196, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663736
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 146: 15-21, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539861

RESUMO

Membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is important in regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but the association of cleaved soluble ACE2 (sACE2) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. We evaluated the association of sACE2 with cardiac biomarkers, structure, and function and cardiovascular events in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. sACE2 was measured in a subset of 497 participants (mean age 78±5.4 years, 53% men, 27% black); Cox regression analyses assessed prospective associations of sACE2 with time to first CVD event at median 6.1-year follow-up. sACE2 was higher in men, blacks, and participants with prevalent CVD, diabetes, or hypertension. Higher sACE2 levels were associated with significantly higher biomarkers of cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), greater left ventricular mass index, and impaired diastolic function in linear regression analyses, and with increased risk for heart failure hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio per natural log unit increase [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 to 1.58), CVD events (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.60), and all-cause death (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.57). In an elderly biracial cohort, sACE2 was positively associated with biomarkers reflecting myocardial injury and neurohormonal activation, left ventricular mass index, impaired diastolic function, CVD, events and all-cause death.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580780

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite statin and antihypertensive therapies, older Americans have high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Novel measures of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (LDL-TG), and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), are associated with ASCVD in middle-aged adults. Polymorphisms in genes encoding angiopoietin-related protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), two proteins involved in triglyceride catabolism, are associated with increased risk for hypertriglyceridaemia and ASCVD and are potential therapeutic targets. We examined associations of LDL-TG, RLP-C, apoC-III, and ANGPTL3 levels with ASCVD events in older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 6359 participants (mean age 75.8 ± 5.3 years) followed for ASCVD events [coronary heart disease (CHD) or ischaemic stroke] up to 6 years, associations between LDL-TG, RLP-C, apoC-III, and ANGPTL3 and ASCVD events were assessed using Cox regression. With adjustment for age, sex, and race, RLP-C, LDL-TG, apoC-III, and ANGPTL3 (as continuous variables) were significantly associated with CHD. However, after adjustment for traditional risk factors and lipid-lowering medications, only LDL-TG and ANGPTL3 were significantly associated with ASCVD events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-2.37 per log unit increase in LDL-TG; HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.17-2.28 per log unit increase in ANGPTL3]. CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, LDL-TG, RLP-C, apoC-III, and ANGPTL3 were associated with CHD events in minimally adjusted models; LDL-TG and ANGPTL3 remained independent predictors of ASCVD events with further adjustment. Future studies should assess potential benefit of lowering hepatic apoC-III or ANGPTL3 expression in patients with elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(5): 559-571, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although intensive blood pressure reduction has cardiovascular benefits, the absolute benefit is greater in those at higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) helps identify subjects at higher risk for CVD events across systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), or pulse pressure (PP) categories. METHODS: Participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study visit 4 (1996 to 98) were grouped according to SBP, DBP, or PP categories and further stratified by NT-proBNP categories. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for incident CVD (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, or heart failure hospitalization) and mortality across combined NT-proBNP and/or BP categories, adjusting for CVD risk factors. RESULTS: There were 9,309 participants (age: 62.6 ± 5.6 years; 58.3% women) with 2,416 CVD events over a median follow-up of 16.7 years. Within each SBP, DBP, or PP category, a higher category of NT-proBNP (100 to <300 or 300 pg/ml, compared with NT-proBNP <100 pg/ml) was associated with a graded increased risk for CVD events and mortality. Participants with SBP 130 to 139 mm Hg but NT-proBNP ≥300 pg/ml had a hazards ratio of 3.4 for CVD (95% confidence interval: 2.44 to 4.77) compared with a NT-proBNP of <100 pg/ml and SBP of 140 to 149 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NT-proBNP is independently associated with CVD and mortality across SBP, DBP, and PP categories and helps identify subjects at the highest risk. Participants with stage 1 hypertension but elevated NT-proBNP had greater cardiovascular risk compared with those with stage 2 SBP but lower NT-proBNP. Future studies are needed to evaluate use of biomarker-based strategies for CVD risk assessment to assist with initiation or intensification of BP treatment.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Precursores de Proteínas , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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