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1.
Health Sci Rep ; 3(4): e196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145442

RESUMO

Background: An estimated 2.8 million neonatal deaths occur each year globally, which accounts for at least 45% of deaths in children aged less than 5 years. Birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality estimates are limited in low-resource countries like Uganda. A deeper analysis of mortality by birthweight and gestational age is critical in identifying the cause and potential solutions to decrease neonatal mortality. Objectives: We studied mortality before discharge in relation to birthweight and gestational age using a large sample size from selected tertiary care facilities in Uganda. Methods: We used secondary data from the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative study conducted in six tertiary care facilities. Birth records of infants born between October 2016 and March 2019 with a gestational age greater than or equal to 24 weeks and/or birthweight greater than or equal to 500 g were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. Newborn death before discharge was the outcome variable of interest. Multivariable Poisson regression modeling was used to explore birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality rate. Results: We analysed 50 278 birth records. Among these 95.3% (47 913) were live births and 4.8% (2365) were stillbirths. Of the 47 913 live births, 50% (24 147) were males. Overall, pre-discharge mortality was 13.0 per 1000 live births. For each 1 kg increase in birthweight, mortality before discharge decreased by -0.016. As birthweight increases, the mortality before discharge decreased from 336 per 1000 live births among infants born between 500 and 999 g, to 4.7 per 1000 live births among infants born weighing 3500 to 3999 g, and increased again to 11.2 per 1000 live births among infants weighing more than 4500 g. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need for further research to understand newborn survival across different birthweight and gestational categories.

2.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 40(2): 92-104, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290375

RESUMO

Introduction: Accurate documentation of neonatal morbidity and mortality is limited in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This project aimed to establish a surveillance system for neonatal conditions as an approach to improving the quality of neonatal care.Methods: A systematic data capture and surveillance system was established at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda using a standardised neonatal medical record form which collected detailed individual patient level data. Additionally, training and mentorship were conducted and basic equipment was provided.Results: A total of 4178 neonates were hospitalised from July 2014 to December 2016. Median (IQR) age on admission was one day (1-3) and 48.0% (1851/3859) were male. Median (IQR) duration of hospitalisation was 17 days (IQR 10-40) and the longest duration of hospitalisation was 47 days (IQR 41-58). The majority were referrals from government health facilities (54.4%, 2012/3699), though 30.6% (1123/3669) presented as self-referrals. Septicaemia (44.9%, 1962/4371), prematurity (21.0%, 917/4371) and birth asphyxia (19.1%, 833/4371) were the most common diagnoses. The overall mortality was 13.8% (577/4178) and the commonest causes of death included septicaemia (26.9%, 155/577), prematurity (24.3%, 140/577), birth asphyxia (21.0%, 121/577), hypothermia (9.9%, 57/577) and respiratory distress (8.0%, 46/577). The majority of deaths (51.5%, 297/577) occurred within the first 24 h of hospitalisation although a significant proportion of deaths also occurred after 7 days of hospitalisation (24.1%, 139/577). A modest decrease in mortality and improvement in clinical outcome were observed.Conclusion: Improvement in neonatal data capture and quality of care was observed following establishment of an enhanced surveillance system, training and mentorship.Abbreviations: aOR: adjusted odds ratio; CHRP: Centre for Health research and Programmes; HC: health centre; HMIS: Health Management Information System; JRRH: Jinja Regional Referral Hospital; NMRF: neonatal medical record form; PMTCT: prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; UPA: Uganda Paediatric Association.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211027, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726247

RESUMO

Access to therapeutic oxygen remains a challenge in the effort to reduce pneumonia mortality among children in low- and middle-income countries. The use of oxygen concentrators is common, but their effectiveness in delivering uninterrupted oxygen is gated by reliability of the power grid. Often cylinders are employed to provide continuous coverage, but these can present other logistical challenges. In this study, we examined the use of a novel, low-pressure oxygen storage system to capture excess oxygen from a concentrator to be delivered to patients during an outage. A prototype was built and tested in a non-clinical trial in Jinja, Uganda. The trial was carried out at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital over a 75-day period. The flow rate of the unit was adjusted once per week between 0.5 and 5 liters per minute. Over the trial period, 1284 power failure episodes with a mean duration of 3.1 minutes (range 0.08 to 1720 minutes) were recorded. The low-pressure system was able to deliver oxygen over 56% of the 4,295 power outage minutes and cover over 99% of power outage events over the course of the study. These results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a method to extend oxygen availability and provide a basis for clinical trials.


Assuntos
Emergências , Sistemas de Medicação no Hospital , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Armazenamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares , Estudos de Viabilidade , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Oxigênio/provisão & distribução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Uganda
4.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210982, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In resource limited settings, there is variability in the level of adherence to clinical guidelines in the inpatient management of children with common conditions like severe anemia. However, there is limited data on the effect of adherence to clinical guidelines on inpatient mortality in children managed for severe anemia. METHODS: We analyzed data from an uncontrolled before and after in-service training intervention to improve quality of care in Lira and Jinja regional referral hospitals in Uganda. Inpatient records of children aged 0 to 5 years managed as cases of 'severe anemia (SA)' were reviewed to ascertain adherence to clinical guidelines and compare inpatient deaths in SA children managed versus those not managed according to clinical guidelines. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between clinical care factors and inpatient deaths amongst patients managed for SA. RESULTS: A total of 1,131 children were assigned a clinical diagnosis of 'severe anemia' in the two hospitals. There was improvement in the level of care after the in-service training intervention with more children being managed according to clinical guidelines compared to the period before, 218/510 (42.7%) vs 158/621 (25.4%) (p < 0.001). Overall, children managed according to clinical guidelines had reduced risk of inpatient mortality compared to those not managed according to clinical guidelines, [OR 0.28, (95%, CI 0.14, 0.55), p = 0.001]. Clinical care factors associated with decreased risk of inpatient death included, having pre-transfusion hemoglobin done to confirm diagnosis [OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.29, 0.87], a co-morbid diagnosis of severe malaria [OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.25, 0.76], and being reviewed after admission by a clinician [OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.18, 0.59], while a co-morbid diagnosis of severe acute malnutrition was associated with increased risk of inpatient death [OR 4.2; 95% CI 2.15, 8.22]. CONCLUSION: Children with suspected SA who are managed according to clinical guidelines have lower in-hospital mortality than those not managed according to the guidelines. Efforts to reduce inpatient mortality in SA children in resource-limited settings should focus on training and supporting health workers to adhere to clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Anemia/mortalidade , Anemia/terapia , Anemia/sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Mortalidade da Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207156, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, there were 2.7 million neonatal deaths in 2015. Significant mortality reduction could be achieved by improving care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where the majority of deaths occur. Determining the physical readiness of facilities to identify and manage complications is an essential component of strategies to reduce neonatal mortality. METHODS: We developed clinical cascades for 6 common neonatal conditions then utilized these to assess 23 health facilities in Kenya and Uganda at 2 time-points in 2016 and 2017. We calculated changes in resource availability over time by facility using McNemar's test. We estimated mean readiness and loss of readiness for the 6 conditions and 3 stages of care (identification, treatment, monitoring-modifying treatment). We estimated overall mean readiness and readiness loss across all conditions and stages. Finally, we compared readiness of facilities with a newborn special care unit (NSCU) to those without using the two-sample test of proportions. RESULTS: The cascade model estimated mean readiness of 26.3-26.6% across the 3 stages for all conditions. Mean readiness ranged from 11.6% (respiratory distress-apnea) to 47.8% (essential newborn care) across both time-points. The model estimated overall mean readiness loss of 30.4-31.9%. There was mild to moderate variability in the timing of readiness loss, with the majority occurring in the identification stage. Overall mean readiness was higher among facilities with a NSCU (36.8%) compared to those without (20.0%). CONCLUSION: The cascade model provides a novel approach to quantitatively assess physical readiness for neonatal care. Among 23 facilities in Kenya and Uganda, we identified a consistent pattern of 30-32% readiness loss across cascades and stages. This aggregate measure could be used to monitor and compare readiness at the facility-, health system-, or national-level. Estimates of readiness and loss of readiness may help guide strategies to improve care, prioritize resources, and promote neonatal survival in LMICs.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Cuidado do Lactente , Morte Perinatal/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Berçários Hospitalares , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 566, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia (SA) is a common reason for hospitalisation of children in sub-Saharan Africa but the extent to which blood transfusion is used appropriately in the management of severe anemia has hitherto remained unknown. We report on the use of blood transfusion in the management of anemic children in two hospitals in Uganda. METHODS: Inpatient records of children 0-5 years of age admitted to Lira and Jinja regional referral hospitals in Uganda were reviewed for children admitted on selected days between June 2016 and May 2017. Data was extracted on the results, if any, of pre-transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) level, whether or not a blood transfusion was given and inpatient outcome for all children with a diagnosis of 'severe anemia'. Qualitative data was also collected from health workers to explain the reasons for the clinical practices at the two hospitals. RESULTS: Overall, 574/2275 (25.2%) of the children admitted in the two hospitals were assigned a diagnosis of SA. However 551 (95.9%) of children assigned a diagnosis of SA received a blood transfusion, accounting for 551/560 (98.4%) of the blood transfusions in the pediatric wards. Of the blood transfusions in SA children, only 245 (44.5%) was given appropriately per criteria (Pre-transfusion Hb ≤ 6 g/dL), while 306 (55.5%) was given inappropriately; (pre-transfusion Hb not done, n = 216, or when a transfusion is not indicated [Hb > 6.0 g/dl], n = 90). SA children transfused appropriately per Hb criteria had lower inpatient mortality compared to those transfused inappropriately, (7 (2.9%) vs. 22 (7.2%), [OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.16, 0.90]). Major issues identified by health workers as affecting use of blood transfusion included late presentation of SA children to hospital and unreliable availability of equipment for measurement of Hb. CONCLUSION: More than half the blood transfusions given in the management of anemic children admitted to Lira and Jinja hospitals was given inappropriately either without pre-transfusion Hb testing or when not indicated. Verification of Hb level by laboratory testing and training of health workers to adhere to transfusion guidelines could result in a substantial decrease in inappropriate blood transfusion in Ugandan hospitals.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Uganda
7.
Acta Paediatr ; 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603791

RESUMO

AIM: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of reducing neonatal mortality in resource-limited settings, but there has been a lack of data on the duration of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) in busy, low-resource newborn units. Previous studies of intermittent KMC suggest the duration of SSC ranged from 10 minutes to 17 hours per day. METHODS: This was an observational study of newborn infants born weighing less than 2000 g, which collected quantitative data on SSC over the first week after birth. The study took place in July 2016 in the newborn unit of a low-resource facility in Uganda. RESULTS: The mean daily duration of SSC over the first week after birth was three hours. This differed significantly from the World Health Organization recommendation of at least 20 hours of SSC per day. SSC was provided by mothers most of the time (73.5%), but other family members also took part, especially on the day of birth. CONCLUSION: Our study found a disappointingly low daily duration of SSC in this Ugandan newborn unit. However, advocacy and community education of SSC may help to decrease the stigma of KMC, improve overall acceptance and reduce the age at SSC initiation.

8.
J Glob Health ; 8(1): 010701, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497509

RESUMO

Background: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) for stable neonates ≤2000 g (g) is associated with decreased mortality, sepsis, hypothermia, and length of stay compared to conventional care. The World Health Organization states that KMC "should be initiated… as soon as newborns are clinically stable" [12]. However, the majority of deaths occur in unstable neonates. We aimed to determine the proportion of admitted neonates meeting proposed instability criteria, assess the feasibility of providing KMC to unstable neonates, and evaluate the acceptability of this intervention to parents and providers at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. Methods: This was a mixed-methods study. We recorded data including birthweight, chronological age, and treatments administered from medical charts, and calculated the percentage of clinically unstable neonates, defined as the need for ≥2 medical therapies in the first 48 hours of admission. We enrolled a sample of neonates meeting pre-defined instability criteria. Mothers were counselled to provide KMC as close to continuously as possible. We calculated the median duration of KMC per episode and per day. To explore acceptability, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents and newborn unit care providers, and analysed data using the thematic content approach. Findings: We included 254 neonates in the audit, 10 neonates in the feasibility sub-study, and 20 participants in the acceptability sub-study. Instability criteria were easily implementable, identifying 89% of neonates as unstable in the audit. The median duration of individual KMC episodes ranged from 115 to 134 minutes. The median daily duration ranged from 4.5 to 9.7 hours. Seventy-five percent of interviewees felt KMC could be used in neonates concurrently receiving other medical therapies. Barriers included lack of resources (beds/space, monitoring devices), privacy issues, inadequate education, and difficulties motivating mothers to devote time to KMC. Recommendations included staff/peer counselling, resources, family support, and community outreach. Conclusions: There remains a need for an evidence-based approach to consistently define stability criteria for KMC to improve care. We found that KMC for unstable neonates weighing ≤2000g was feasible and acceptable at Jinja Hospital in Uganda. Randomised controlled trials are needed to demonstrate the effect of KMC on survival among unstable neonates in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Método Canguru , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda
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