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1.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Historically, carotid procedures incur a readmission rate of approximately 6%, however, these studies are not nationally representative and are limited to tracking only the index hospitals. We sought to to evaluate a nationally representative database for readmission rates (including different hospitals) after both CEA and CAS, and determine risk factors for poor-outcomes including post-operative mortality, and myocardial infarction. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis utilizing the 2010-2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database to query patients ages >18 years of age undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS). Outcomes included initial admission mortality, and 30- day readmission, including mortality and myocardial infarction (MI). Univariable analysis of thirty-nine demographic, clinical, and hospital variables was conducted with significance set at p<0.05. Significant variables were included in a multivariable logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for readmission. Results were weighted for national estimates. RESULTS: There were 527,622 patients undergoing carotid procedures and 13% (n=69,187) underwent CAS. The thirty-day readmission rate was 7% (n=35,782) and of those, 25% (n=8,862) were readmitted to a different hospital. When controlling for other factors, CAS was a risk factor for mortality at both index admission (OR 2.29 [2.11-2.49]) and 30-day rereadmission (OR 1.48 [1.3-1.69]) and 30-day readmissions at both index hospital (OR 1.11 [1.07-1.14]) and different hospital (OR 1.38 [1.29-1.48]). Readmission to a different hospital increased mortality risk (OR 1.45 [1.29- 1.63]) but did not have an affect on MI. Postoperative infections comprised 15% of readmissions while 6% of all readmissions were for stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Previously unreported, one in four readmissions after carotid procedures occur at a different hospital and this fragmentation of care could increase mortality risk after carotid procedures particularly for CAS which was also an independent risk factor for post-operative mortality and readmissions. Further validation is required to decrease unnecessary hospital after carotid procedures.

2.
J Surg Res ; 250: 59-69, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that a notable portion of patients who are readmitted for reinjury after penetrating trauma present to a different hospital. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for reinjury after penetrating trauma including reinjury admissions to different hospitals. METHODS: The 2010-2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for patients surviving penetrating trauma. E-codes identified patients subsequently admitted with a new diagnosis of blunt or penetrating trauma. Univariable analysis was performed using 44 injury, patient, and hospital characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression using significant variables identified risk factors for the outcomes of reinjury, different hospital readmission, and in-hospital mortality after reinjury. RESULTS: There were 443,113 patients identified. The reinjury rate was 3.5%. Patients presented to a different hospital in 30.0% of reinjuries. Self-inflicted injuries had a higher risk of reinjury (odds ratio [OR]: 2.66, P < 0.05). Readmission to a different hospital increased risk of mortality (OR: 1.62, P < 0.05). Firearm injury on index admission increased risk of mortality after reinjury (OR: 1.94, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first national finding that one in three patients present to a different hospital for reinjury after penetrating trauma and have a higher risk of mortality due to this fragmentation of care. These findings have implications for quality and cost improvements by identifying areas to improve continuity of care and the implementation of penetrating injury prevention programs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039973

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of vitamin C (VitC) and thiamine (THMN) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with sepsis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of VitC and THMN on mortality and lactate clearance in ICU patients. We hypothesized that survival and lactate clearance would be improved when treated with thiamine and/or vitamin C. METHODS: The Philips eICU database version 2.0 was queried for patients admitted to the ICU in 2014-2015 for ≥48 hours and patients with sepsis and an elevated lactate≥2.0 mmol/L. Subjects were categorized according to the receipt of VitC, THMN, both, or neither. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome was lactate clearance defined as lactate<2.0 mmol/L achieved after maximum lactate. Univariable comparisons included age, gender, race, Acute Physiology Score III, APACHE IVa score, SOFA, surgical ICU admission status, intubation status, hospital region, liver disease, vasopressors, steroids, VitC and THMN orders. Kaplan-Meier curves, logistic regression, propensity score matching and competing risks modeling were constructed. RESULTS: Of 146,687 patients from 186 hospitals, 7.7% (n=11,330) were included. Overall mortality was 25.9% (n=2,930). Evidence in favor of an association between VitC and/or THMN administration and survival was found on log rank test (all p<0.001). After controlling for confounding factors, VitC (AOR:0.69[0.50-0.95]) and THMN (AOR:0.71[0.55-0.93]) were independently associated with survival and THMN was associated with lactate clearance (AOR:1.50 [1.22-1.96]). On competing risk model VitC (AOR:0.675 [0.463-0.983]), THMN (AOR:0.744 [0.569-0.974]), and VitC+THMN (AOR:0.335 [0.13-0.865]) were associated with survival but not lactate clearance. For subgroup analysis of patients on vasopressors, VitC+THMN were associated with lactate clearance (AOR:1.85 [1.05-3.24]) and survival (AOR:0.223 [0.0678-0.735]). CONCLUSIONS: VitC+THMN is associated with increased survival in septic ICU patients. Randomized, multicenter trials are needed to better understand their effects on outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Study, Level IV.

4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(3): 390-395, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury (BSI) increases, understanding risks, especially infectious complications, becomes more important. There are no national studies on BSI outcomes that track readmissions across hospitals. Prior studies demonstrate that infection is a major cause of readmission after trauma and that a significant proportion is readmitted to different hospitals. The purpose of this study was to compare nationwide outcomes of different treatment modalities for BSI including readmissions to different hospitals. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010 to 2014 was queried for patients 18 years to 64 years old admitted nonelectively with a primary diagnosis of BSI. Organ space infection; a composite infectious incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection, and pneumonia; and sepsis were identified in three groups: NOM, splenic artery embolization (SAE), and operative management (OM). Rates of infection were quantified during index admission and 30-day and 1-year readmission. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. Results were weighted for national estimates. RESULTS: Of the 37,986 patients admitted for BSI, 54.1% underwent NOM, 12.2% SAE, and 33.7% OM. Compared with OM and NOM, SAE had the highest rates of organ space SSI at 1 year (3.9% vs. 2.2% vs. 1.7%, p < 0.001). Compared with NOM, at 1 year, SAE had higher rates of infection (17.2% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001) and sepsis (3.2% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001). Compared with NOM, SAE had an increased risk of infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95 confidence interval [95% CI], 1.10-1.39; p < 0.001) and sepsis (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.06-1.76; p < 0.001) at 1 year. At 1 year, SAE had increased risk of organ space SSI (OR, 1.99; 1.60-2.47; p < 0.001) but OM did not. CONCLUSION: Blunt splenic injury treated with SAE is at increased risk of both immediate and long-term infectious complications. Despite being considered splenic preservation, surgeons should be aware of these risks and incorporate such knowledge into their practice accordingly. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level IV.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928384

RESUMO

Background: The efficacy of oral chlorhexidine (oCHG) for decontamination in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oCHG decontamination on the incidence of pneumonia, sepsis, and death in ICU patients. Methods: The Philips eICU database version 2.0 was queried for patients admitted to the ICU for ≥48 hours in 2014-2015. The primary outcome of interest was death in the ICU. Secondary outcomes were a diagnosis of pneumonia or sepsis. Patients with pneumonia or sepsis diagnosed within the first 48 hours of ICU admission were excluded from the outcome analyses. Univariable analysis was performed comparing age, gender, race, severity of illness scores, hospital characteristics, and oCHG order. Multivariable logistic regression was performed using univariable results with p < 0.05. Results: Of the 64,904 patients from 186 hospitals, 22.1% (n = 14,333) had oCHG ordered. The overall mortality rate was 6.9% (n = 4,449) and the mortality rate in patients receiving oCHG was 10.6% (n = 1,518; p < 0.001). After controlling for confounding factors, oCHG remained an independent risk factor for death (odds ratio [OR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.34). After excluding patients with an early diagnosis of pneumonia, the overall pneumonia incidence was 2.6% (n = 1,431) and the incidence in patients having oCHG was 4.2% (n = 517; p < 0.001). However, multivariable logistic regression revealed no significant difference in the risk of pneumonia with oCHG (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.85-1.09). After excluding patients with an early diagnosis of sepsis, the overall rate of sepsis was 1.8% (n = 949) and for patients with oCHG, the rate was 3.3% (n = 388; p < 0.001). After controlling for other confounders, oCHG remained an independent risk factor for sepsis (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.19-1.59). Conclusions: A chlorhexidine mouthwash order is associated with increased odds of death and sepsis without decreased odds of pneumonia in a heterogeneous cohort of ICU patients. Additional studies are needed to understand better the effect of oCHG on outcomes.

8.
J Surg Res ; 245: 163-167, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) shock classification has been accepted as the conceptual framework for clinicians caring for trauma patients. We sought to validate its ability to predict mortality, blood transfusion, and urgent intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of trauma patients using the 2014 National Trauma Data Bank. Using initial vital signs data, patients were categorized into shock class based on the ATLS program. Rates for urgent blood transfusion, urgent operative intervention, and mortality were compared between classes. RESULTS: 630,635 subjects were included for analysis. Classes 1, 2, 3, and 4 included 312,404, 17,133, 31, and 43 patients, respectively. 300,754 patients did not meet criteria for any ATLS shock class. Of the patients in class 1 shock, 2653 died (0.9%), 3123 (1.0%) were transfused blood products, and 7115 (2.3%) underwent an urgent procedure. In class 2, 219 (1.3%) died, 387 (2.3%) were transfused, and 1575 (9.2%) underwent intervention. In class 3, 7 (22.6%) died, 10 (32.3%) were transfused, and 13 (41.9%) underwent intervention. In class 4, 15 (34.9%) died, 19 (44.2%) were transfused, and 23 (53.5%) underwent intervention. For uncategorized patients, 21,356 (7.1%) died, 15,168 (5.0%) were transfused, and 23,844 (7.9%) underwent intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of trauma patients do not meet criteria for any ATLS shock class. Uncategorized patients had a higher mortality (7.1%) than patients in classes 1 and 2 (0.9% and 1.3%, respectively). Classes 3 and 4 only accounted for 0.005% and 0.007%, respectively, of patients. The ATLS classification system does not help identify many patients in severe shock.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Suporte Avançado de Vida no Trauma/normas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Choque/classificação , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/diagnóstico , Choque/etiologia , Choque/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(12): 1009-1015, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portable noninvasive Heart Rate Complexity (HRC) and Compensatory Reserve Measurement (CRM) monitors have been developed to triage supine combat casualties. Neither monitor has been tested in upright individuals during physical exercise. This study tests the hypothesis that exercise evokes proportional changes in HRC and CRM.METHODS: Two instruments monitored volunteers (9 civilian and 11 soldiers) from the Army Trauma Training Department (ATTD) before, during, and following physical exercise. One recorded heart rate (HR, bpm), cardiac output (CO, L · min-1), heart rate variability (HRV, root mean square of successive differences, ms), and HRC (Sample Entropy, unitless). The other recorded HR, pulse oximetry (Spo2, %), and CRM (%).RESULTS: Baseline HR, CO, HRV, HRC, and CRM averaged 72 ± 1 bpm, 5.6 ± 1.2 L · min-1, 48 ± 24 ms, 1.9 ± 0.5, and 85 ± 10% in seated individuals. Exercise evoked peak HR and CO at > 200% of baseline, while HRC and CRM were simultaneously decreased to minimums that were ≤ 50% of baseline (all P < 0.001). HRV changes were variable and unreliable. Spo2 remained consistently above 95%. During a 60 min recovery, HR and CRM returned to baseline on parallel tracks (t1/2=11 ± 8 and 18 ± 14 min), whereas HRC recovery was slower than either CRM or HR (t1/2=40 ± 18 min, both P < 0.05).DISCUSSION: Exercise evoked qualitatively similar changes in CRM and HRC. CRM recovered incrementally faster than HRC, suggesting that vasodilation, muscle pump, and respiration compensate faster than cardiac autonomic control in young, healthy volunteers. Both HRC and CRM appear to provide reliable, objective, and noninvasive metrics of human performance in upright exercising individuals.Mulder MB, Eidelson SA, Buzzelli MD, Gross KR, Batchinsky AI, Convertino VA, Schulman CI, Namias N, Proctor KG. Exercise-induced changes in compensatory reserve and heart rate complexity. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(12):1009-1015.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755816

RESUMO

The definition of sepsis continues to be as dynamic as the management strategies used to treat this. Sepsis-3 has replaced the earlier systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)-based diagnoses with the rapid Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score assisting in predicting overall prognosis with regards to mortality. Surgeons have an important role in ensuring adequate source control while recognizing the threat of carbapenem-resistance in gram-negative organisms. Rapid diagnostic tests are being used increasingly for the early identification of multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs), with a key emphasis on the multidisciplinary alert of results. Novel, higher generation antibiotic agents have been developed for resistance in ESKCAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) organisms while surgeons have an important role in the prevention of spread. The Study to Optimize Peritoneal Infection Therapy (STOP-IT) trial has challenged the previous paradigm of length of antibiotic treatment whereas biomarkers such as procalcitonin are playing a prominent role in individualizing therapy. Several novel therapies for refractory septic shock, while still investigational, are gaining prominence rapidly (such as vitamin C) whereas others await further clinical trials. Management strategies presented as care bundles continue to be updated by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, yet still remain controversial in its global adoption. We have broadened our temporal and epidemiologic perspective of sepsis by understanding it both as an acute, time-sensitive, life-threatening illness to a chronic condition that increases the risk of mortality up to five years post-discharge. Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and bedside scoring systems can assist the clinician in predicting post-operative sepsis. The public health role of the surgeon is key. This includes collaboration and multi-disciplinary antibiotic stewardship at a hospital level. It also requires controlling pharmaceutical sales and the unregulated dispensing of antibiotic agents globally through policy initiatives to control emerging resistance through prevention.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687887

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the presentation, management, and outcomes of appendicitis in pregnant and non-pregnant females of childbearing age (18-45 years). Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively collected database (January 2017-June 2018) from 28 centers in America. We compared pregnant and non-pregnant females' demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory data, imaging findings, management, and clinical outcomes. Results: Of the 3,597 subjects, 1,010 (28%) were of childbearing age, and 41 were pregnant: The mean age of the pregnant subjects was 30 ± 8 years at a median gestational age of 15 (range 10-23) weeks. The two groups had similar demographics and clinical presentation, but there were differences in management and outcomes. For example, in pregnant subjects, abdominal ultrasound scans (US) plus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was the most frequently used imaging method (41%) followed by MRI alone (29%), US alone (22%), computed tomography (CT) (5%), and no imaging (2%). Despite similar American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Emergency General Surgery Clinical and Imaging Grade at presentation, pregnant subjects were more likely to be treated with antibiotics alone (15% versus 4%; p = 0.008). Pregnant subjects were less likely to have simple appendicitis and were more likely to have complicated (perforated or gangrenous) appendicitis or a normal appendix. With the exception of index hospital length of stay, there were no significant differences between the groups in clinical outcomes at index hospitalization or at 30 days. Conclusion: Almost 1 in 20 women of childbearing age presenting with appendicitis is pregnant. Appendicitis most commonly affects women in early to mid-pregnancy. Compared with non-pregnant women of childbearing age, pregnant women presenting with appendicitis undergo non-operative management more often and are less likely to have simple appendicitis. Compared with non-pregnant patients, they have similar clinical outcomes at both index hospitalization and 30 days after discharge.

12.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 700-707, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405411

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for hospital readmission for child maltreatment after trauma, including admissions across different hospitals nationwide. The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients younger than 18 years admitted for trauma. The primary outcome was readmission for child maltreatment. The secondary outcome was readmission for maltreatment presenting to a hospital different than the index admission hospital. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients without a diagnosis of maltreatment during the index admission. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for each outcome. There were 608,744 admissions identified and 44,569 (7.32%) involved maltreatment at the index admission. Readmission for maltreatment was found in 1,948 (0.32%) patients and 368 (18.89%) presented to a different hospital. The highest risk for readmission for maltreatment was found in patients with maltreatment identified at the index admission (odds ratios (OR) 9.48 [8.35-10.76]). The strongest risk factor for presentation to a different hospital was found with the lowest median household income quartile (OR 3.50 [2.63-4.67]). The subgroup analysis identified 647 (0.11%) children with readmission for maltreatment that was missed during the index admission. The strongest risk factor for this outcome was Injury Severity Score > 15 (OR 3.29 [2.68-4.03]). This study demonstrates that a significant portion of admissions for trauma in children and teenagers could be misrepresented as not involving maltreatment. These index admissions could be the only chance for intervention for child maltreatment. Identifying these at-risk individuals is critical to prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 725-729, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405416

RESUMO

Prior studies have used vital signs and laboratory measurements with conventional modeling techniques to predict acute kidney injury (AKI). The purpose of this study was to use the trend in vital signs and laboratory measurements with machine learning algorithms for predicting AKI in ICU patients. The eICU Collaborative Research Database was queried for five consecutive days of laboratory measurements per patient. Patients with AKI were identified and trends in vital signs and laboratory values were determined by calculating the slope of the least-squares-fit linear equation using three days for each value. Different machine learning classifiers (gradient boosted trees [GBT], logistic regression, and deep learning) were trained to predict AKI using the laboratory values, vital signs, and slopes. There were 151,098 ICU stays identified and the rate of AKI was 5.6 per cent. The best performing algorithm was GBT with an AUC of 0.834 ± 0.006 and an F-measure of 42.96 per cent ± 1.26 per cent. Logistic regression performed with an AUC of 0.827 ± 0.004 and an F-measure of 28.29 per cent ± 1.01 per cent. Deep learning performed with an AUC of 0.817 ± 0.005 and an F-measure of 42.89 per cent ± 0.91 per cent. The most important variable for GBT was the slope of the minimum creatinine (30.32%). This study identifies the best performing machine learning algorithms for predicting AKI using trends in laboratory values in ICU patients. Early identification of these patients using readily available data indicates that incorporating machine learning predictive models into electronic medical record systems is an inevitable requisite for improving patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Creatinina/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sinais Vitais/fisiologia
14.
J Surg Res ; 243: 515-523, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric pelvic fractures are rare. The contribution of pelvic fracture pattern, risk factors for associated injuries, and mortality are poorly defined in this population. METHODS: Patients aged 0-17 with pelvic fractures at a level I trauma center over a 20-y period were reviewed. Fracture patterns were classified according to the Young-Burgess classification when applicable. Fractures were analyzed for location, pubic symphysis or sacroiliac widening, and contrast extravasation. RESULTS: There were 163 pelvic fractures in 8758 admissions (incidence 2%). The most common associated injures were extremity fractures (60%, n = 98), abdominal solid organ (55%, n = 89), and chest (48%, n = 78), with the majority (61%, n = 99) sustaining injuries to multiple organs. Unstable fractures were associated with injures to the thorax (70% versus 40%), heart (15% versus 2%), and spleen (40% versus 18%), all P < 0.05. Nonpelvic operative interventions were required in 45% (n = 73) and were more common in unstable fractures (36% versus 19%), contrast extravasation (63% versus 26%), sacroiliac widening (36% versus 20%), and sacral fractures (39% versus 13%), all P < 0.05. Mortality was 13% and higher in males versus females (18% versus 5%), contrast extravasation (50% versus 3%), or sacroiliac/pubic symphysis widening (13% versus 2%) (all P < 0.05). Male gender (OR 6.03), brain injury (OR 6.18), spine injury (OR 5.06), and cardiac injury (OR 35.0) were independently associated with mortality (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric pelvic fractures are rare but critical injuries associated with significant morbidity and need for interventions. Increasing fracture severity corresponds to injuries to other body systems and increased mortality.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 117-124, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodynamically unstable patients with severe pelvic fracture are a significant challenge to trauma surgeons and have high mortality. Significant variability across institutions in hemorrhage control adjuncts used to quell pelvic bleeding has been demonstrated. However, the effect of these methods on time to definitive bleeding control, type of resuscitation given, and outcomes remains unknown. We sought to elucidate those effects. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective review of severe pelvic fracture patients in shock between 2011 and 2016. Shock was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, heart rate greater than 120 beats per minute, or base deficit less than -5. Definitive bleeding control was defined as time to surgical control in the operating room or embolization by interventional radiology. Significance level was at p less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 279 severe pelvic fracture patients with shock on admission from 12 trauma centers were included. The cohort was primarily male (62%) with median (interquartile range) age of 40 years (28-54 years), Injury Severity Score of 38 (29-50), and Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 (3-15). Overall mortality was 32%. The most common adjunct used was pelvic binder (50%) followed by no adjunct (30.5%); least common was resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) (2.5%). Preperitoneal packing alone and REBOA alone/with other adjunct(s) resulted in the fastest times to operating room/interventional radiology but also had the highest blood utilization and mortality rates. Resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta was most often used along with pelvic binder (6 of 13; 46%). CONCLUSION: Marked variation in management of severe pelvic fracture patients in shock indicates the need for a standardized approach to maximize outcomes and minimize transfusion requirements. The use of preperitoneal packing and/or REBOA yielded fastest times to definitive bleeding control. However, REBOA continues to be infrequently used. Future prospective analysis of this combination needs further validation in patients with severe pelvic hemorrhage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Técnicas Hemostáticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Surg Res ; 244: 477-483, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Augmented renal clearance (ARC; i.e., creatinine clearance [CLCr] ≥ 130 mL/min) has an incidence of 14%-80% in critically ill patients and has been associated with therapy failures for renally cleared drugs. However, the clinical implications of ARC are poorly defined. We hypothesize that modifiable risk factors that contribute to ARC can be identified in severely injured trauma patients and that these risk factors influence clinical outcome. METHODS: In 207 trauma intensive care unit patients, 24-h CLCr was correlated with clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate (by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, or chronic kidney disease epidemiology), and clinical outcomes (infection, venous thromboembolism [VTE], length of stay, and mortality). RESULTS: The population was 45 ± 20 y, 68% male, 77% blunt injury with injury severity score of 24 (17-30). Admission serum creatinine was 1.02 ± 0.35 mg/dL, CLCr was 154 ± 77 mL/min, VTE incidence was 15%, ARC incidence was 57%, and mortality was 11%. Clinical estimates of glomerular filtration rate by Cockroft-Gault, modification of diet in renal disease, chronic kidney disease epidemiology underestimated actual CLCr by 20%, 22%, or 15% (all P < 0.01). CLCr was higher in males and those who survived, and lower in those with hypertension, diabetes, positive cultures, receiving transfusions, or pressors (all P < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, male gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.9 [1.4-6.1]), age (OR 0.97 [0.95-0.99]), and packed red blood cells transfusion (OR 0.31 [0.15-0.66]) were the only independent predictors of ARC. CONCLUSIONS: ARC occurs in more than half of all high-risk trauma intensive care unit patients and is underestimated by standard clinical equations. ARC was not associated with increased incidence of VTE or infection but rather is associated with younger healthier males and reduced mortality. ARC seems to be a beneficial compensatory response to trauma.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
17.
Clin Transplant ; 33(7): e13619, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152563

RESUMO

Pancreas transplant achieves consistent long-term euglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Allograft thrombosis (AT) causes the majority of early graft failure. We compared outcomes of four anticoagulation regimens administered to 95 simultaneous kidney-pancreas or isolated pancreas transplanted between 1/1/2015 and 11/20/2018. Early postoperative anticoagulation regimens included the following: none, subcutaneous heparin/aspirin, with or without dextran, and heparin infusion. The regimens were empirically selected based on each surgeon's assessment of hemostasis of the operative field and personal preference. A sonographic-based global scoring system of AT is presented. The 47-month recipients and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively. Recipients with or without AT had similar survival. Five and four grafts were lost due to death and AT, respectively. Outcomes of prophylaxis regimens correlated with intensity of anticoagulation. Compared with no anticoagulation, an increase in hemorrhagic complications occurred exclusively with iv heparin. The higher arterial AT score found in regimens lacking antiplatelet therapy highlights the importance of early antiaggregants therapy. Abnormal fibrinolysis was associated with an increase in AT score. Platelet dysfunction, warm ischemia time, and enteric drainage were predictive of AT and, along with other known risk factors, were incorporated into an algorithm that matches intensity of early postoperative anticoagulation to the thrombotic risk.

18.
J Surg Res ; 243: 23-26, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is commonly taught that a widened mediastinum (WM) on chest X-ray (CXR) is a marker for aortic injury (AI). We sought to describe the epidemiology of injuries for all patients with WM and compare their CXR to those of patients with confirmed AI. METHODS: Adults (age ≥ 18) sustaining blunt traumatic injuries from January 2017 to June 2017 with both CXR (supine, anterior-posterior) and chest CT were included. We excluded those whose CT preceded CXR and those with missing data. Basic demographics, injury characteristics, mediastinal width (MW), mediastinal-to-thoracic width ratio (MTR), and all thoracic imaging findings were analyzed. MW > 8 cm was considered WM. We also queried our registry for all AI patients over a 4-year period. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of WM on CXR for AI were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with positive traumatic findings, controlling for body mass index (BMI), sex, high-energy mechanism, MTR, and mediastinal width. RESULTS: Of 749 included subjects, 502 (67%) had an MW > 8 cm: mean age was 48 ± 20 y, 381 (76%) were men, and BMI was 28 ± 5 kg/m2. Mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crash in 335 (67%); fall in 113 (23%); assault in 31 (6%); other (jet-ski accidents, etc.) in 17 (3%), and unknown in 6 (1%). Only 128 (26%) of patients with WM had positive findings on CT, with the most common [80 (16%)] being nontraumatic findings (pericardial infusion, lymph nodes, etc.), followed by hemomediastinum/pneumomediastinum [32 (6%)], sternal fractures [18 (4%)], multiple findings [15 (3%)], and vertebral fractures [6 (1%)]. Only 2 (1%) had AI. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 33%, PPV was 0.4%, NPV was 100%, and accuracy was 33%. From 2013 to 2017, 38 patients had AI: mean age was 46 ± 19 y, 26 (68%) were men, and BMI was 28 ± 4 kg/m2. Motor vehicle crash was the most common mechanism (89%), followed by "other" trauma mechanism (5%), fall (3%), and assault (3%). On univariate analysis, compared with all patients with WM, patients with AI had significantly greater MW (9.5 [8.8-10.4] versus 10.2 [9.1-11.1]; P = 0.042) and MTR (0.31 [0.28-0.34] versus 0.32 [0.31-0.37]; P = 0.001), although the actual differences were not clinically significant. The regression analysis did not identify any factors associated with traumatic CXR findings. CONCLUSIONS: Most bluntly injured adults have a WM, and the majority have either no findings or nontraumatic findings. The PPV of a WM for AI is <1%. WM on supine CXR is nonspecific and inaccurate for diagnosing traumatic injuries, especially AI.


Assuntos
Aorta/lesões , Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia
19.
J Burn Care Res ; 40(4): 427-429, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051035

RESUMO

Electrocutions during tree trimming or fruit harvesting are occasionally reported in the public media, but the actual incidence is unknown. Some fruit trees (eg, mango and avocado) can exceed 30 feet, with dense foliage concealing the fruit and overlying power lines so burns associated with harvesting these fruits are often exacerbated with falls. However, there are limited data on this subject. To fill this gap, we provide some of the first information on this unique injury pattern. All electrocutions from 2013 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed at an ABA-verified burn center. Demographics, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Of 97 electrocutions, 22 (23%) were associated with fruit procurement. This population was aged 43 ± 14 years, 95% (n = 21) male, injury severity score of 15 ± 13, and total body surface area burned 4% [1%-9%]. Third-degree burns were present in 36% (n = 8). ICU admission was required in 59% (n = 13) and 39% of the survivors required operative interventions for the burn. Compartment syndrome occurred in 18% (n = 4) and 14% (n = 3) patients required amputations. Falls complicated the care in 50% (n = 11), with associated head, chest, and/or extremity trauma. Mortality was 32% (n = 7), with three patients presenting dead on arrival. All but 3 injuries occurred between June and December, coinciding with mango and avocado season. Electrocution during fruit picking is a seasonal injury often exacerbated by falls. Management is challenging, and favorable outcome depends on recognition of the complexity of the polytrauma.

20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(5): 864-870, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, hemorrhage has been attributed as the leading cause (40%) of early death. However, a rigorous, real-time classification of the cause of death (COD) has not been performed. This study sought to prospectively adjudicate and classify COD to determine the epidemiology of trauma mortality. METHODS: Eighteen trauma centers prospectively enrolled all adult trauma patients at the time of death during December 2015 to August 2017. Immediately following death, attending providers adjudicated the primary and contributing secondary COD using standardized definitions. Data were confirmed by autopsies, if performed. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred thirty-six patients were enrolled with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range, 32-75 years), 74.5% were male. Penetrating mechanism (n = 412) patients were younger (32 vs. 64, p < 0.0001) and more likely to be male (86.7% vs. 69.9%, p < 0.0001). Falls were the most common mechanism of injury (26.6%), with gunshot wounds second (24.3%). The most common overall primary COD was traumatic brain injury (TBI) (45%), followed by exsanguination (23%). Traumatic brain injury was nonsurvivable in 82.2% of cases. Blunt patients were more likely to have TBI (47.8% vs. 37.4%, p < 0.0001) and penetrating patients exsanguination (51.7% vs. 12.5%, p < 0.0001) as the primary COD. Exsanguination was the predominant prehospital (44.7%) and early COD (39.1%) with TBI as the most common later. Penetrating mechanism patients died earlier with 80.1% on day 0 (vs. 38.5%, p < 0.0001). Most deaths were deemed disease-related (69.3%), rather than by limitation of further aggressive care (30.7%). Hemorrhage was a contributing cause to 38.8% of deaths that occurred due to withdrawal of care. CONCLUSION: Exsanguination remains the predominant early primary COD with TBI accounting for most deaths at later time points. Timing and primary COD vary significantly by mechanism. Contemporaneous adjudication of COD is essential to elucidate the true understanding of patient outcome, center performance, and future research. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic, level II.

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