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1.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 67(2): 273-276, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558529

RESUMO

Increasing prevalence of lifestyle diseases raised global awareness about health consequences of human exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs): synthetic chemicals that mimic natural hormones and affect the biochemical and endocrine balance. As home environment is one of the main sources of the exposure to xenobiotics - especially for pregnant women, infants and young children - health organizations emphasize the need of implementing lifestyle changes to protect human health and child development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of introducing changes in daily life in lowering the exposure to selected EDs in the indoor home environment. Twenty-six healthy volunteers from 9 households from Gdansk (Poland) were enrolled and their home- and lifestyle-related exposure to EDs was analyzed using a designed questionnaire and algorithm. Urine and dust samples were collected before and after introducing the recommended lifestyle changes. The concentrations of selected EDs in the samples were determined using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This pilot study confirmed the ubiquity of harmful chemicals in the home environment and the importance of exposure related to a daily routine. Importantly, it proved that lifestyle modifications implemented by participants led to a significant decrease in both, their home-related exposure to EDs, as well as in urine concentrations of these chemicals. It also demonstrated a need for determining EDs exposure and introducing lifestyle changes as a useful tool for prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512535

RESUMO

Bromhexine (BH), expectorant used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus, is not permitted for use in the competing horse by many authorities in horseracing and Olympic disciplines. Metabolic studies are of the great importance in anti-doping field because they allow for updating the selection of the most appropriate markers for prohibited substances, such as metabolites present at higher concentration levels and/or lasted for a longer period of time in biological samples than a parent drug. This study describes LC-MS/MS-based method for simultaneous determination of BH and its metabolites, including 4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)cyclohexanol (4-HDMB), 3-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)cyclohexanol (3-HDMB), in equine serum samples. The 2-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)cyclohexanol (2-HDMB) was monitored as well. The assay was validated in terms of linearity (R2 greater than 0.9951), intra- and inter-assay accuracy (91.6 - 109.1%) and precision (CV < 9.6%) as well as recovery (94.8 - 105.65%). The LODs were 0.0052, 0.0053, 0.0056 and 0.0043 ng/mL for BH, 2-HDMB, 3-HDMB and 4-HDMB, respectively. The developed method was applied to determine the time curses of BH and its metabolites concentrations in equine serum collected for 95.25 h following a single oral administration of BH to two healthy mares (in dose of 0.8 mg/kg). The parent drug was found at higher concentration levels than 3-HDMB (major metabolite) and 4-HDMB (minor metabolite), however, both BH metabolites lasted for a longer period of time in equine serum than the parent drug. Thus, both metabolites of BH can be considered as BH abuse markers.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 135178, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791752

RESUMO

The problem of the presence of trace organic pollutants in food is of growing importance due to increasing awareness about their impact on newborns, infants and adults of reproductive age. Despite the fact that packaged food products offer many advantages, packaging can be a source of contamination for stored food. Thus, monitoring such pollution in food is of high importance. In this work, a novel methodology based on the solvent extraction of porous membrane-packed samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and their derivatives in packed vegetables. Several parameters of the extraction process were optimized, including the volume and type of extraction solvent as well as the sonication time. Due to advantages such as simplicity of use, short analysis time, and a reduction in the required amount solvent, the developed procedure can be considered green. In addition, the developed methodology was characterized by good validation parameters. Limit if quantitation (LOQ) was found to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.5 ng/g. The obtained recoveries varied from 78.3% to 111.2%. The repeatability of the extraction ranged between 0.6% and 5.8% (RSD). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the presence of BADGE, BFDGE and their derivative compounds in the vegetable samples stored in different types of containers. The obtained data indicate that the majority of investigated samples were contaminated by chlorinated and hydroxyl derivatives of BADGE.


Assuntos
Verduras , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Cromatografia Líquida , Compostos de Epóxi , Porosidade , Solventes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752176

RESUMO

The aroma of rice essentially contributes to the quality of rice grains. For some varieties, their aroma properties really drive consumer preferences. In this paper, using a dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) system coupled to a two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector (TOFMS) and multivariate analysis, the volatile compounds of aromatic and non-aromatic rice grains were contrasted to define some chemical markers. Fifty-one volatile compounds were selected for principal component analysis resulting in eight key-marker volatile compounds (i.e., pentanal, hexanal, 2-pentyl-furan, 2,4-nonadienal, pyridine, 1-octen-3-ol and (E)-2-octenal) as responsible for the differences between aromatic and non-aromatic rice varieties. The factors that are most likely to affect the HS-SPME efficiency for the aforementioned key-marker compounds were evaluated using a 2 I I I 5 - 2 fractional factorial design in conjunction with multi-response optimisation. The method precision values, expressed as % of coefficient of variation (CV), were ranging from 1.91% to 26.90% for repeatability (n = 9) and 7.32% to 37.36% for intermediate precision (n = 3 × 3). Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to evaluate the volatile compounds of rice varieties from some Asian countries.


Assuntos
Oryza/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida
5.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108563, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554073

RESUMO

The properties of durian fruit at five stages of ripeness were evaluated and compared. The physicochemical parameters such as titratable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS) increased, whereas the pH slightly decreased during the ripening process. The highest contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, vitamin C and the antioxidant capacities, measured by radical scavenging assays, were found in ripe and overripe fruits. The structural properties of extracted polyphenols were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The interaction of polyphenols with the main drug carrier in blood human serum albumin (HSA) showed decrease in its fluorescence intensity. The binding properties of polyphenols were in direct correlation with the antioxidant capacities of the investigated fruits. HepG2 cells evaluated cytotoxic effect and the mechanism of cell death after treatment with durian. The metabolism of carbohydrates was examined on the expression of glycolysis-related genes (hexokinase 2 (HK2); 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase 4 (PFKFB4); facilitated glucose transporter member 1 (SLC2A1 (Glut1)) and lactate dehydrogenase A and utilization of glucose in the hepatocytes with durian treatment. Durian in immature stage had stronger cytotoxic effect and weak proapoptotic potential on HepG2 cells than the mature and overripe ones. The ripe and overripe fruits increased the expression of hepatic HK2 and PFKFB4 glycolytic genes and stimulated glucose utilization in HepG2 cells. The present results indicate that durians reveal different biological activity and may provide their broad and extensive use as medicinal or functional foods.

6.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109426, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450196

RESUMO

Sewage sludge, one of the main wastes generated during wastewater treatment, constitutes an important source of emissions of volatile chemical compounds such as volatile aromatic compounds These substances may undergo various changes as a result of operations and unit processes, which affects their concentrations in sewage sludge. An important factor determining the potential hazardousness of volatile organic compounds is the quality of wastewater delivered to wastewater treatment plants and the technical and equipment solutions applied to wastewater. In this study, a rapid and sensitive headspace gas chromatography method, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry using the standard addition method, was developed for the determination of selected volatile aromatic compounds in sewage sludge samples collected at different stages from three wastewater treatment plants located in Poland. This study attempted to assess the relationship between differences in the emissions of representative VACs and the given stage of the technological process within three analysed wastewater treatment plants. Toluene was detected with the highest frequency in analysed samples, at concentrations varying from 0.234 ± 0.035 ng/g of sludge to 28.3*102±3.2*102 ng/g of sludge. The highest concentration levels were determined for p-cresol, with concentrations ranging from 44.0*101±5.6*101 ng/g of sludge (sludge from aerobic chamber, wastewater treatment plant no.2) to 47.7*102±6.9*102 ng/g of sludge (sludge from aerobic chamber, wastewater treatment plant no.1), while the lowest concentration levels were observed for chlorobenzene, with concentrations ranging from 0.1300 ±â€¯0.0030 ng/g of sludge (sludge from anaerobic chamber, wastewater treatment plant no.2), to 0.2606 ±â€¯0.0046 ng/g of sludge (primary sludge, wastewater treatment plant no.1). The repeatability of the method was better than 10%, with accuracy levels in the ranges 89%-108%.Wastewater treatment technologies and residual sludge management in the selected wastewater treatment plantsinfluenced volatile aromatic compounds emission. Furthermore, the diversity of the wastewater quality, depending on the catchment area, is also an important factor determining the differentiation in volatile aromatic compounds emission. The microbial composition of raw wastewater highly influenced not only the treatment effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants but also the production of intermediate products, such as volatile aromatic compounds, which may contribute to odour emissions.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Polônia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(24): 6387-6398, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321469

RESUMO

Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycydyl ether (BFDGE), and their related compounds are widely used as precursors in production of epoxy resins. The high reactivity of these compounds makes the development of analytical methodologies that ensure appropriate metrological accuracy crucial. Consequently, we aimed to determine whether and to what extent the composition of the solution and storage conditions affect the stability of selected BADGE and BFDGE derivatives. The stabilities of these compounds were studied using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The chromatographic method elaborated here has allowed for separation of the analytes in time shorter than 6 min, for both methanol and acetonitrile-based mobile phases. The obtained calibration curves for all analytes were linear in the range tested. The values of limit of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.91-2.7 ng/mL, while values of limit of quantitation (LOQs) were in the range of 2.7-5.7 ng/mL. The chosen experimental conditions were compared in terms of the content of organic solvent in solution, storage temperature, and time. Our results show that the content of BADGE, BADGE·HCl, BFDGE, three-ring NOGE decreased with increasing water content (> 40% v/v). For BADGE and three-ring NOGE, significant changes in concentration were noted as early as 24 h after the test solutions had been prepared. In addition, a reduction in the storage temperature (4 to - 20 °C) reduced the rate of transformation of the monitored analytes. Our study will increase quality control in future research and may increase the reliability of the obtained results. Graphical abstract.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 246: 914-920, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159141

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals and analogs of bisphenol A (BPA) are increasingly threatening environmental pollutants. In this study, mixtures of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac sodium salt, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride, estrone, ketoprofen, progesterone, gemfibrozil and androstenedione) were prepared with BPA and its two analogs (namely, bisphenols F and S) at such ratios to reflect environmentally detectable levels. Then, the mixture solutions were studied with a XenoScreen YES/YAS assay to determine the variations in the initial hormonal response of each pharmaceutical compound due to the presence of a bisphenol analog. The results obtained were modeled with the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) approaches, the trueness of which was studied with model deviation ratios (MDR). The estrogenic agonistic activity of the drugs studied was most strongly affected by the presence of BPA in solution (twenty-one cases of synergy observed for CA models versus twelve cases of antagonism in the case of IA predictions). BPS shows a strong agonistic estrogenic impact on most of the drugs studied at medium and high concentration levels; androgenic agonistic activity was also impaired with elevated concentrations of BPS. Increasing the concentration of BPF in a reaction mixture also increased the number of YES + synergism incidences (for CA modeling). Estrone, progesterone and androstenedione were mostly affected by the highest BPF concentrations studied in the case of androgenic agonistic research performed.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Fenóis/toxicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Androgênios/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Bioensaio , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Estrogênios/análise , Fenóis/química , Testes de Toxicidade
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 172: 339-348, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085396

RESUMO

Gamma-oryzanol (GO) has gained special attention in the equine sports industry in recent years due to its touted properties, including the fact that it may cause anabolic effects on muscle growth and reduce fatigue. Many manufactures offer supplements containing GO as a naturally occurring anabolic substance; however, some producers do not declare its presence in product compositions. Taking into consideration the touted properties of GO, its ambiguous effectiveness and the open character of the Prohibited Substances List established by the Fédération Equestre Internationale, there is an urgent need to elaborate procedures for the estimation of horse exposure to GO during supplementation, as well as during routine analysis of supplements. This work describes the development and validation of the method for determination of the four main GO components, i.e., cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and ß-sitosteryl ferulate, in equestrian supplements based on LC-MS/MS after a simple ultrasound-assisted extraction (Eco-Scale score value of 76). The analytical performance achieved satisfactory results in terms of linearity (R2 > 0.9910), sensitivity (LODs ranged from 0.4 to 1.9 ng/mL), intra- and interday accuracy (from 90.4-115.8%), precision (CV < 9.6%) and recovery (from 87.6-108.6%) for all of the investigated compounds. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of thirty equestrian supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fenilpropionatos/química , Anabolizantes/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Cavalos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Congêneres da Testosterona/química
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100774

RESUMO

The paper describes an attempt at health risk assessment and odour concentration determination in the most important units of a wastewater treatment plant. The cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI) parameters in selected measurement locations were calculated based on the results of chromatographic analyses (GCxGC-TOF-MS) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) guidelines. No exceedance of the CR and HI acceptable levels was observed for identified and quantitatively determined compounds from the VOCs group. The acceptable level was exceeded for the summary HI parameter. Following a classification of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), it was noticed that the highest hazard was connected to the presence of formaldehyde belonging to group 1-the compounds regarded as carcinogenic. Based on the olfactometric analyses, it was estimated that the highest odour concentration, 37.2 ou/m3, occurred at the solid waste composting piles. It was also revealed that an increase in odour concentration corresponded to a higher health risk for employees of the wastewater treatment plant, due to exposure to volatile odorous compounds. Accordingly, this method of odour measurement can be a fast indicator describing health risk level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Monitoramento Biológico , Compostagem , Humanos , Olfatometria , Medição de Risco , Resíduos Sólidos
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(7)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939836

RESUMO

The biogenic amines index of fresh chicken meat samples during refrigerated storage was predicted based on the headspace analysis using an electronic nose equipped with an array of electrochemical sensors. The reference biogenic amines index values were obtained using dispersive liquid⁻liquid microextraction⁻gas chromatography⁻mass spectrometry. A prototype electronic nose with modular construction and a dedicated sample chamber was used to rapidly analyze the volatile fraction of chicken meat samples, with a single measurement time of five minutes. Back-propagation artificial neural network was used to estimate the biogenic amines index of the samples with a determination coefficient of 0.954 based on ten-fold stratified cross-validation. The results indicate that the determination of the biogenic amines index is a good reference method for studies in which the freshness of meat products is assessed based on headspace analysis and fingerprinting, and that the described electronic device can be used to assess poultry meat freshness based on this value with high accuracy.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Nariz Eletrônico , Carne/análise , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Redes Neurais de Computação
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 309-323, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928760

RESUMO

The aim of the following paper was to gather current scientific information about the analytical protocols dedicated to measuring the content level of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in various types of environmental samples. Moreover, the data about the basic validation parameters of applied procedures for SCCPs determination are listed. The main issue which is highlighted in the paper is the possibility of the application of green analytical chemistry (GAC) principals in the SCCPs measuring process to reduce the environmental impact of the applied methodology. Analytical methods dedicated to SCCPs determination contain a significant number of steps and require advanced analytical equipment during the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In addition, there is a substantial issue associated with the reliability of the obtained results, especially in the case of the quantification of individual SCCPs in the studied samples. Due to this fact, the paper attempts to discuss the various stages of the analytical procedure, in which appropriate changes in the formula or equipment solutions might be introduced to ensure a better quality of the analytical results, as well as to meet the requirements of the philosophy of green analytical chemistry. The most important case which concerns this subject is finding an optimal consensus between the economic and logistic aspects and the quality and "greenness" of the analytical procedure employed in SCCPs determination process.

13.
Food Chem ; 288: 154-161, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902276

RESUMO

The complex nature of human breast milk (HBM) makes samples difficult to analyze, requiring several extraction techniques and analytical platforms to obtain high metabolome coverage. In this work, we combined liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques to prepare HBM samples to overcome the challenge of low- and high-abundance lipid species, enabling the semiquantitative analysis of total HBM lipids in one liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) run. A nonorganic fraction obtained during the LLE step was used to analyze small polar metabolites. This analytical approach allows extensive metabolome coverage, especially for low-abundance glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The method was applied to monitor short-term metabolome changes in HBM composition within individual mothers and the results showed variable metabolite composition patterns. Simultaneous detection of high-abundance glycerolipids and low-abundance but not less significant phospholipids in one LC-MS run saves time, decreases cost, and enables comprehensive insight into the dynamics of HBM composition.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Lactente , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Metabolômica , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Electrophoresis ; 40(11): 1540-1549, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838663

RESUMO

In this study, GC-MS- and MEKC-based methods for determination of caffeine (CAF) in preworkout supplements were developed and validated. The proposed protocols utilized minimal sample preparation (simple dilution and syringe filtration). The developed methods achieved satisfactory validation parameters, i.e. good linearity (R2 > 0.9988 and R2 > 0.9985 for GC-MS- and MEKC-based method, respectively), satisfactory intra- and interaccuracy (within 92.6-100.7% for method utilizing GC-MS and 92.1-110.3% for protocol based on MEKC) and precision (CV < 15.9% and CV < 6.3% for GC-MS- and MEKC-based method, respectively) and recovery (within 100.1-100.8% for method utilizing GC-MS and 101.5-106.2% for protocol based on MEKC). The LOD was 0.03 and 3 µg/mL for method utilizing GC-MS and MEKC, respectively. The CAF concentrations determined by GC-MS- and MEKC-based methods were found to be in the range of 8.53-11.23 and 8.20-11.61 µg/mL, respectively. Taking into consideration information on the labels, the investigated supplements were found to contain from 110.0 to 167.3% of the declared CAF content, which confirmed the literature reports on incompatibility of the declared product compositions with real ones. Nevertheless, the consumption of examined supplements as recommended by producers did not lead to exceeding the CAF safe limit of 400 mg per day. Additionally, the MEKC-based method allowed for detection and identification of vitamin B3 and B6 in all of the investigated supplement samples, which demonstrated that MEKC-based protocols may be an appropriate assays for simultaneous determination of CAF and vitamins.


Assuntos
Cafeína/análise , Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vitaminas/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escore Lod , Niacinamida/análise , Vitamina B 6/análise
15.
Nutrition ; 62: 201-208, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925445

RESUMO

Tomato and its derived products have a very interesting nutritional value in addition to prominent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Tomatoes are generally quite safe to eat. However, overall consumption varies from individual to individual. Indeed, either beneficial or harmful effects of plants or their derived products are closely related to quality, including the presence of biologically active compounds. On the other hand, the synthesis and accumulation of these bioactive molecules depends on many other factors, such as environmental conditions. In this sense, this review briefly highlights the relationship between the chemistry of tomato and its derived products and their beneficial or harmful effects on human health, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or heartburn, allergies, kidney and cardiovascular disorders, prostate cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, lycopenodermia, body aches, arthritis, and urinary problems.

16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1054: 1-16, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712579

RESUMO

Ionic liquids with their unique properties found so far numerous analytical applications. Among them ionic liquids immobilized on the surface or within the pores of a solid support were successfully utilized in extraction techniques dedicated to preconcentration of the analytes from food, environmental and biological samples. In this review we focus on comprehensive summarizing of available literature data on the examples of ionic liquid-based hybrid materials implementation in selected analytical extraction techniques, namely solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, hollow-fiber solid-phase microextraction, stir-bar sorptive extraction and biosensors. Additionally, this work is supported by concise discussion on strategies of ionic liquids immobilization in order to form hybrid materials (both chemical and physical) and the effects of confinement on structures along with ionic liquids physicochemical properties. This work allows for identifying the opportunities, challenges and shortcomings of this powerful and convenient, yet still not fully discovered analytical approach.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(10): 9409-9434, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715695

RESUMO

There is an increasing number of citizens' complaints about odor nuisance due to production or service activity. High social awareness imposes pressure on entrepreneurs and service providers forcing them to undertake effective steps aimed at minimization of the effects of their activity, also with respect to emission of malodorous substances. The article presents information about various technologies used for gas deodorization. Known solutions can be included into two groups: technologies offering prevention of emissions, and methodological solutions that enable removal of malodorous substances from the stream of emitted gases. It is obvious that the selection of deodorization technologies is conditioned by many factors, and it should be preceded by an in-depth analysis of possibilities and limitations offered by various solutions. The aim of the article is presentation of the available gas deodorization technologies as to facilitate the potential investors with selection of the method of malodorous gases emission limitation, suitable for particular conditions.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Odorantes/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Gases , Odorantes/prevenção & controle
19.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-11, 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607992

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical residues are present in the environment in mixtures and their adverse effects may also result from interactions that occur between compounds. Studies presented in this work focus on genotoxicity of pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic groups in mixtures and in individual solutions impacted with different environmental conditions assessed using comet assay (alkaline approach). Binary mixtures of pharmaceuticals (in different concentration ratios) and in individual solutions impacted with pH change (range from 5.5 to 8.5) or addition of inorganic ions, were incubated with HT29 cells and after 24 h time period cells were tested for the presence of DNA damage. To estimate whether mixtures act more (synergistic) or less (antagonistic) efficiently Concentrations Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA) approaches were applied followed by a calculation of the Model Deviation Ratio (MDR) to determine deviation from the predicted values. Addition of inorganic ions mainly reduced their genotoxicity. Diclofenac s. was the most susceptible to potassium, fluoride, and bromide ions. Change of the pH of pharmaceutical solutions had significant impact on genotoxicity of diclofenac s. and fluoxetine h. Among mixtures, more commonly observed interactions were synergistic ones, exactly twenty-five cases (ten pairs containing chloramphenicol or oxytetracycline h.) and ten cases of antagonism (four for pairs containing chloramphenicol or fluoxetine h.). The results obtained indicate that interactions between tested compounds occur frequently and can lead to DNA damage. This topic especially concerning in vitro tests using cells is still rare, however, it should not be neglected.

20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 5500-5513, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610582

RESUMO

One of the potential emission sources of odorous compounds from wastewater treatment plants is sludge processing. The odorous compounds released from dewatered sludge can result in odor nuisance. This study concerns the use of flux hood chamber combined with proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) technique for periodical monitoring of odorous compounds emitted from aged, stabilized dewatered sludge samples from 2 different wastewater treatment plants located in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. Based on determined concentration of the chemical compounds and olfactory threshold values, theoretical odor concentrations (known also as "odor activity value" or "odor index") were calculated for 17 selected odorous compounds. As a result, sulfur compounds such as diethyl sulphide, dimethyl sulphide, methanethiol, and ethanethiol were estimated as the most significant chemical compounds responsible for malodorous effect (average results, e.g., methanethiol, 178 ou/m3; diethyl sulphide, 184 ou/m3). Based on Pearson correlation coefficient, we revealed a correlation between odorous substances emitted from aged, stabilized dewatered sludge cakes. It was revealed that stabilized dewatered sludge still possessed significant amount of odorous compounds and applied measurement technique could be used for monitoring of odor concentration level of selected malodorous compounds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Espectrometria de Massas , Polônia , Prótons , Esgotos/química , Olfato , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Sulfetos , Compostos de Enxofre , Águas Residuárias
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