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1.
Pain Physician ; 24(S1): S27-S208, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic spinal pain is the most prevalent chronic disease with employment of multiple modes of interventional techniques including epidural interventions. Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, systematic reviews, and guidelines have been published. The recent review of the utilization patterns and expenditures show that there has been a decline in utilization of epidural injections with decrease in inflation adjusted costs from 2009 to 2018. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) published guidelines for interventional techniques in 2013, and guidelines for facet joint interventions in 2020. Consequently, these guidelines have been prepared to update previously existing guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing therapeutic epidural procedures, including caudal, interlaminar in lumbar, cervical, and thoracic spinal regions, transforaminal in lumbar spine, and percutaneous adhesiolysis in the lumbar spine. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objective and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of epidural interventions was viewed with best evidence synthesis of available literature and  recommendations were provided. RESULTS: In preparation of the guidelines, extensive literature review was performed. In addition to review of multiple manuscripts in reference to utilization, expenditures, anatomical and pathophysiological considerations, pharmacological and harmful effects of drugs and procedures, for evidence synthesis we have included 47 systematic reviews and 43 RCTs covering all epidural interventions to meet the objectives.The evidence recommendations are as follows: Disc herniation: Based on relevant, high-quality fluoroscopically guided epidural injections, with or without steroids, and results of previous systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I for caudal epidural injections, lumbar interlaminar epidural injections, lumbar transforaminal epidural injections, and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing disc herniation based on one high-quality, placebo-controlled RCT is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement in patients nonresponsive to conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. For thoracic disc herniation, based on one relevant, high-quality RCT of thoracic epidural with fluoroscopic guidance, with or without steroids, the evidence is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.Spinal stenosis: The evidence based on one high-quality RCT in each category the evidence is Level III to II for fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation and Level II for fluoroscopically guided lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural injections is Level IV to III with moderate recommendation with fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections for long-term improvement. The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in lumbar stenosis based on relevant, moderate to high quality RCTs, observational studies, and systematic reviews is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. Axial discogenic pain: The evidence for axial discogenic pain without facet joint pain or sacroiliac joint pain in the lumbar and cervical spine with fluoroscopically guided caudal, lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, based on one relevant high quality RCT in each category is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement, with or without steroids. Post-surgery syndrome: The evidence for lumbar and cervical post-surgery syndrome based on one relevant, high-quality RCT with fluoroscopic guidance for caudal and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, with or without steroids, is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement. For percutaneous adhesiolysis, based on multiple moderate to high-quality RCTs and systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I with strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of these guidelines include a continued paucity of high-quality studies for some techniques and various conditions including spinal stenosis, post-surgery syndrome, and discogenic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These epidural intervention guidelines including percutaneous adhesiolysis were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment and determination of level of evidence with strength of recommendations.

2.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S183-204, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the pain and suffering of chronic pain patients due to stoppage of "elective" interventional pain management and office visits across the United States. The reopening of America and restarting of interventional techniques and elective surgical procedures has started. Unfortunately, with resurgence in some states, restrictions are once again being imposed. In addition, even during the Phase II and III of reopening, chronic pain patients and interventional pain physicians have faced difficulties because of the priority selection of elective surgical procedures.Chronic pain patients require high intensity care, specifically during a pandemic such as COVID-19. Consequently, it has become necessary to provide guidance for triaging interventional pain procedures, or related elective surgery restrictions during a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of these guidelines is to provide education and guidance for physicians, healthcare administrators, the public and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our goal is to restore the opportunity to receive appropriate care for our patients who may benefit from interventional techniques. METHODS: The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) has created the COVID-19 Task Force in order to provide guidance for triaging interventional pain procedures or related elective surgery restrictions to provide appropriate access to interventional pain management (IPM) procedures in par with other elective surgical procedures. In developing the guidance, trustworthy standards and appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest were applied with a section of a panel of experts from various regions, specialties, types of practices (private practice, community hospital and academic institutes) and groups. The literature pertaining to all aspects of COVID-19, specifically related to epidemiology, risk factors, complications, morbidity and mortality, and literature related to risk mitigation and stratification was reviewed. The evidence -- informed with the incorporation of the best available research and practice knowledge was utilized, instead of a simplified evidence-based approach. Consequently, these guidelines are considered evidence-informed with the incorporation of the best available research and practice knowledge. RESULTS: The Task Force defined the medical urgency of a case and developed an IPM acuity scale for elective IPM procedures with 3 tiers. These included urgent, emergency, and elective procedures. Examples of urgent and emergency procedures included new onset or exacerbation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), acute trauma or acute exacerbation of degenerative or neurological disease resulting in impaired mobility and inability to perform activities of daily living. Examples include painful rib fractures affecting oxygenation and post-dural puncture headaches limiting the ability to sit upright, stand and walk. In addition, emergency procedures include procedures to treat any severe or debilitating disease that prevents the patient from carrying out activities of daily living. Elective procedures were considered as any condition that is stable and can be safely managed with alternatives. LIMITATIONS: COVID-19 continues to be an ongoing pandemic. When these recommendations were developed, different stages of reopening based on geographical regulations were in process. The pandemic continues to be dynamic creating every changing evidence-based guidance. Consequently, we provided evidence-informed guidance. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges in IPM creating needless suffering for pain patients. Many IPM procedures cannot be indefinitely postponed without adverse consequences. Chronic pain exacerbations are associated with marked functional declines and risks with alternative treatment modalities. They must be treated with the concern that they deserve. Clinicians must assess patients, local healthcare resources, and weigh the risks and benefits of a procedure against the risks of suffering from disabling pain and exposure to the COVID-19 virus.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/cirurgia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Triagem/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Dor Crônica/classificação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/classificação , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
Pain Physician ; 18(6): E939-1004, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26606031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidural injections have been used since 1901 in managing low back pain and sciatica. Spinal pain, disability, health, and economic impact continue to increase, despite numerous modalities of interventions available in managing chronic spinal pain. Thus far, systematic reviews performed to assess the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic spinal pain have yielded conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and update the clinical utility of the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic spinal pain. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of epidural injections in managing chronic spinal pain. METHODS: In this systematic review, randomized trials with a placebo control or an active-control design were included. The outcome measures were pain relief and functional status improvement. The quality of each individual article was assessed by Cochrane review criteria, as well as the Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB). Best evidence synthesis was conducted based on the qualitative level of evidence (Level I to V). Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed for a period starting in 1966 through August 2015; Cochrane reviews; and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. RESULTS: A total of 52 trials met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not feasible. The evidence in managing lumbar disc herniation or radiculitis is Level II for long-term improvement either with caudal, interlaminar, or transforaminal epidural injections with no significant difference among the approaches. The evidence is Level II for long-term management of cervical disc herniation with interlaminar epidural injections. The evidence is Level II to III in managing thoracic disc herniation with an interlaminar approach. The evidence is Level II for caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections with Level III evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural injections for lumbar spinal stenosis. The evidence is Level II for cervical spinal stenosis management with an interlaminar approach. The evidence is Level II for axial or discogenic pain without facet arthropathy or disc herniation treated with caudal or lumbar interlaminar injections in the lumbar region; whereas it is Level II in the cervical region treated with cervical interlaminar epidural injections. The evidence for post lumbar surgery syndrome is Level II with caudal epidural injections and for post cervical surgery syndrome it is Level II with cervical interlaminar epidural injections. LIMITATIONS: Even though this is a large systematic review with inclusion of a large number of randomized controlled trials, the paucity of high quality randomized trials literature continues to confound the evidence. CONCLUSION: This systematic review, with an assessment of the quality of manuscripts and outcome parameters, shows the efficacy of epidural injections in managing a multitude of chronic spinal conditions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Radiculopatia/diagnóstico , Radiculopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Radiculopatia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico , Estenose Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Espinal/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Pain Physician ; 18(5): E713-56, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26431129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sacroiliac joint is well known as a cause of low back and lower extremity pain. Prevalence estimates are 10% to 25% in patients with persistent axial low back pain without disc herniation, discogenic pain, or radiculitis based on multiple diagnostic studies and systematic reviews. However, at present there are no definitive management options for treating sacroiliac joint pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions. METHODS: The available literature on diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac joint interventions was reviewed. The quality assessment criteria utilized were the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) checklist for diagnostic accuracy studies, Cochrane review criteria to assess sources of risk of bias, and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) criteria for randomized therapeutic trials and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR) for observational therapeutic assessments. The level of evidence was based on a best evidence synthesis with modified grading of qualitative evidence from Level I to Level V. Data sources included relevant literature published from 1966 through March 2015 that were identified through searches of PubMed and EMBASE, manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles, and all other sources. OUTCOME MEASURES: For the diagnostic accuracy assessment, and for the therapeutic modalities, the primary outcome measure of pain relief and improvement in functional status were utilized. RESULTS: A total of 11 diagnostic accuracy studies and 14 therapeutic studies were included. The evidence for diagnostic accuracy is Level II for dual diagnostic blocks with at least 70% pain relief as the criterion standard and Level III evidence for single diagnostic blocks with at least 75% pain relief as the criterion standard. The evidence for cooled radiofrequency neurotomy in managing sacroiliac joint pain is Level II to III. The evidence for conventional radiofrequency neurotomy, intraarticular steroid injections, and periarticular injections with steroids or botulinum toxin is limited: Level III or IV. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this systematic review include inconsistencies in diagnostic accuracy studies with a paucity of high quality, replicative, and consistent literature. The limitations for therapeutic interventions include variations in technique, variable diagnostic standards for inclusion criteria, and variable results. CONCLUSION: The evidence for the accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness of sacroiliac joint interventions varied from Level II to Level IV.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/diagnóstico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Articulação Sacroilíaca , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/normas
5.
Pain Physician ; 18(4): E535-82, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26218948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic spinal facet joint interventions generally used for the treatment of axial spinal pain of facet joint origin are intraarticular facet joint injections, facet joint nerve blocks, and radiofrequency neurotomy. Despite interventional procedures being common as treatment strategies for facet joint pathology, there is a paucity of literature investigating these therapeutic approaches. Systematic reviews assessing the effectiveness of various therapeutic facet joint interventions have shown there to be variable evidence based on the region and the modality of treatment utilized. Overall, the evidence ranges from limited to moderate. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and update the clinical utility of therapeutic lumbar, cervical, and thoracic facet joint interventions in managing chronic spinal pain. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of therapeutic lumbar, cervical, and thoracic facet joint interventions for the treatment of chronic spinal pain. METHODS: The available literature on lumbar, cervical, and thoracic facet joint interventions in managing chronic spinal pain was reviewed. The quality assessment criteria utilized were the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group criteria and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) for randomized trials and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR) for observational studies. The level of evidence was classified at 5 levels from Level I to Level V. Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches on PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 through March 2015, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was pain relief (short-term relief = up to 6 months and long-term > 6 months). Secondary outcome measures were improvement in functional status, psychological status, return to work, and reduction in opioid intake consumption. RESULTS: A total of 21 randomized controlled trials meeting appropriate inclusion criteria were assessed in this evaluation. A total of 5 observational studies were assessed. In the lumbar spine, for long-term effectiveness, there is Level II evidence for radiofrequency neurotomy and lumbar facet joint nerve blocks, whereas the evidence is Level III for lumbosacral intraarticular injections. In the cervical spine, for long-term improvement, there is Level II evidence for cervical radiofrequency neurotomy and cervical facet joint nerve blocks, and Level IV evidence for cervical intraarticular injections. In the thoracic spine there is Level II evidence for thoracic facet joint nerve blocks and Level IV evidence for radiofrequency neurotomy for long-term improvement. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this systematic review include an overall paucity of high quality studies and more specifically the lack of investigations related to thoracic facet joint injections. CONCLUSION: Based on the present assessment for the management of spinal facet joint pain, the evidence for long-term improvement is Level II for lumbar and cervical radiofrequency neurotomy, and therapeutic facet joint nerve blocks in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine; Level III for lumbar intraarticular injections; and Level IV for cervical intraarticular injections and thoracic radiofrequency neurotomy.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Articulação Zigapofisária/cirurgia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Pain Physician ; 18(4): E497-533, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26218947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal zygapophysial, or facet, joints are a source of axial spinal pain and referred pain in the extremities. Conventional clinical features and other noninvasive diagnostic modalities are unreliable in diagnosing zygapophysial joint pain. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of spinal facet joint nerve blocks. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of spinal facet joint nerve blocks in chronic spinal pain. METHODS: A methodological quality assessment of included studies was performed using Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL). Only diagnostic accuracy studies meeting at least 50% of the designated inclusion criteria were utilized for analysis. The level of evidence was classified as Level I to V based on the grading of evidence utilizing best evidence synthesis. Data sources included relevant literature identified through searches of PubMed and other electronic searches published from 1966 through March 2015, Cochrane reviews, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles. OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies must have been performed utilizing controlled local anesthetic blocks. The criterion standard must have been at least 50% pain relief from baseline scores and the ability to perform previously painful movements. RESULTS: The available evidence is Level I for lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with the inclusion of a total of 17 studies with dual diagnostic blocks, with at least 75% pain relief with an average prevalence of 16% to 41% and false-positive rates of 25% to 44%. The evidence for diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain with cervical facet joint nerve blocks is Level II based on a total of 11 controlled diagnostic accuracy studies, with significant variability among the prevalence in a heterogenous population with internal inconsistency. The prevalence rates ranged from 36% to 67% with at least 80% pain relief as the criterion standard and a false-positive rate of 27% to 63%. The level of evidence for the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic facet joint nerve blocks is Level II with 80% or higher pain relief as the criterion standard with a prevalence ranging from 34% to 48% and false-positive rates ranging from 42% to 48%. LIMITATIONS: The shortcomings of this systematic review include a paucity of literature related to the thoracic spine, continued debate on an appropriate gold standard, appropriateness of diagnostic blocks, and utility. CONCLUSION: The evidence is Level I for the diagnostic accuracy of lumbar facet joint nerve blocks, Level II for cervical facet joint nerve blocks, and Level II for thoracic facet joint nerve blocks in assessment of chronic spinal pain.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Articulação Zigapofisária , Humanos , Injeções , Manejo da Dor , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Surg Neurol Int ; 6(Suppl 4): S194-235, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26005584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of epidural and facet joint injections has been assessed utilizing multiple solutions including saline, local anesthetic, steroids, and others. The responses to these various solutions have been variable and have not been systematically assessed with long-term follow-ups. METHODS: Randomized trials utilizing a true active control design were included. The primary outcome measure was pain relief and the secondary outcome measure was functional improvement. The quality of each individual article was assessed by Cochrane review criteria, as well as the criteria developed by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) for assessing interventional techniques. An evidence analysis was conducted based on the qualitative level of evidence (Level I to IV). RESULTS: A total of 31 trials met the inclusion criteria. There was Level I evidence that local anesthetic with steroids was effective in managing chronic spinal pain based on multiple high-quality randomized controlled trials. The evidence also showed that local anesthetic with steroids and local anesthetic alone were equally effective except in disc herniation, where the superiority of local anesthetic with steroids was demonstrated over local anesthetic alone. CONCLUSION: This systematic review showed equal efficacy for local anesthetic with steroids and local anesthetic alone in multiple spinal conditions except for disc herniation where the superiority of local anesthetic with steroids was seen over local anesthetic alone.

8.
Korean J Pain ; 28(2): 75-87, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25852828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar discogenic pain without pain mediated by a disc herniation, facet joints, or the sacroiliac joints, is common and often results in chronic, persistent pain and disability. After conservative treatment failure, injection therapy, such as an epidural injection, is frequently the next step considered in managing discogenic pain. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the efficacy of lumbar epidural injections in managing discogenic pain without radiculopathy, and compare this approach to lumbar fusion or disc arthroplasty surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized trials published from 1966 through October 2014 of all types of epidural injections and lumbar fusion or disc arthroplasty in managing lumbar discogenic pain was performed with methodological quality assessment and grading of evidence. The level of evidence was based on the grading of evidence criteria which, was conducted using 5 levels of evidence ranging from levels I to V. RESULTS: Based on a qualitative assessment of the evidence for both approaches, there is Level II evidence for epidural injections, either caudal or lumbar interlaminar. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence suggests fluoroscopically directed epidural injections provide long-term improvement in back and lower extremity pain for patients with lumbar discogenic pain. There is also limited evidence showing the potential effectiveness of surgical interventions compared to nonsurgical treatments.

9.
Pain Physician ; 18(1): 39-60, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25675059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of chronic persistent neck pain not only leads to disability but also has a significant economic, societal, and health impact. Among multiple modalities of treatments prescribed in the management of neck and upper extremity pain, surgical, interventional and conservative modalities have been described. Cervical epidural injections are also common modalities of treatments provided in managing neck and upper extremity pain. They are administered by either an interlaminar approach or transforaminal approach. OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term efficacy of cervical interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections in the treatment of cervical disc herniation, spinal stenosis, discogenic pain without facet joint pain, and post surgery syndrome. METHODS: The literature search was performed from 1966 to October 2014 utilizing data from PubMed, Cochrane Library, US National Guideline Clearinghouse, previous systematic reviews, and cross-references. The evidence was assessed based on best evidence synthesis with Level I to Level V. RESULTS: There were 7 manuscripts meeting inclusion criteria. Of these, 4 assessed the role of interlaminar epidural injections for managing disc herniation or radiculitis, and 3 assessed these injections for managing central spinal stenosis, discogenic pain without facet joint pain, and post surgery syndrome. There were 4 high quality manuscripts. A qualitative synthesis of evidence showed there is Level II evidence for each etiology category. The evidence is based on one relevant, high quality trial supporting the efficacy of cervical interlaminar epidural injections for each particular etiology. There were no randomized trials available assessing the efficacy of cervical transforaminal epidural injections. LIMITATIONS: Paucity of available literature, specifically conditions other than disc herniation. CONCLUSION: This systematic review with qualitative best evidence synthesis shows Level II evidence for the efficacy of cervical interlaminar epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroids, based on at least one high-quality relevant randomized control trial in each category for disc herniation, discogenic pain without facet joint pain, central spinal stenosis, and post surgery syndrome.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Cervicalgia/tratamento farmacológico , Radiculopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Braço , Vértebras Cervicais , Dor Crônica , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Manejo da Dor , Radiculopatia/complicações , Estenose Espinal/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pain Med ; 15(2): 196-205, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24308292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study's objective was to determine if the literature supports use of the Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression (mild®) procedure (Vertos Medical, Aliso Viejo, CA, USA) to reduce pain and improve function in patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. DESIGN/SETTINGS: The study was designed as an evidence-based review of available data. Studies were identified from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Articles were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group system. Results were compiled assessing short- (4-6 weeks), medium- (3-6 months), and long-term (>1 year) outcomes. The primary outcomes evaluated were pain, measured by the visual analog scale (VAS), and function, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Secondary outcomes included pain and patient satisfaction, measured by the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire, adverse effects/complications, and changes in utilization of co-interventions. RESULTS: The literature search revealed one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and 12 other studies (seven prospective cohort, four retrospective, and one case series) that provided information on the use of mild® in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All studies showed statistically significant improvements in VAS and ODI scores at all time frames compared with preprocedure levels; the RCT showed improvement over controls. Categorical data were not provided; thus, the proportion of patients who experienced minimal clinically meaningful outcomes is unknown. CONCLUSION: The current body of evidence addressing mild® is of low quality. High-quality studies that are independent of industry funding and provide categorical data are needed to clarify the proportions of patients who benefit from mild® and the degree to which these patients benefit. Additional data at up to 2 years are needed to determine the overall utility of the procedure.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 91(2): 162-76, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22037559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes related to analgesia, function, mortality, and adverse effects of oral opioid analgesics and spinal steroid injections on low back pain syndromes. DESIGN: Databases including Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were searched in September 2009 using combinations of terms related to spinal pain and its treatment. A systematic review was performed of randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with low back pain syndromes and that evaluated patient outcomes after intervention using either oral opioids or spinal steroid injections. RESULTS: Eight high-quality and ten moderate-quality randomized controlled trials were identified. One high-quality study on oral opioid therapy showed significant improvements in pain relief and patient function. Those on spinal steroid injections had a decreased Visual Analog Scale pain score by 7.18 (95% confidence interval, 2.21-12.1) points more than the control group at 1 mo or less and by 0.429 (95% confidence interval, -4.41 to 5.27) points at 1-3 mos. At more than 6 mos, there was no significant benefit: 0.930 (95% confidence interval, -5.03 to 6.89). Spinal steroids decreased the Oswestry Disability Index by 3.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.480-6.57) at 1 mo or less, by -0.281 (95% confidence interval, -3.18 to 2.62) at 1-3 mos, by -11.0 (95% confidence interval, -14.8 to -7.16) at 3-6 mos, and by -0.205 (95% confidence interval, -3.50 to 3.09) compared with the control group at 6 mos or more, suggesting that there was improvement in function. All-cause mortality was low in our analysis of patients attending specialty clinics. It was difficult to assess the adverse effects of opioid therapy because they influenced up to 28% of patients to withdraw from the original studies. In terms of spinal steroid injections, headache appeared to be the most common adverse effect. However, there was no significantly increased risk of headaches associated with spinal steroids compared with control injections: odds ratio, 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.39). CONCLUSIONS: Oral opioid therapy may be helpful for the treatment of low back pain, but it is unclear from the high-quality literature whether there are limitations from adverse effects. Spinal steroid injections are beneficial for low back pain and disability in the short-term. The high dropout rates caused by insufficient pain relief and adverse effects suggest that opioids may not be as effective as spinal steroid injections. There is more high-quality literature to support the use of spinal steroid injections compared with oral opioids in this condition.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Pain Med ; 10(4): 716-21, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19453964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this pilot study is to understand the relationship between physicians' characteristics and physicians' management decisions about pain. The secondary aim is to understand how patient characteristics, including race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) may affect these treatment decisions in chronic low back pain. METHODS: We conducted a double-blinded randomized controlled study using a survey instrument. Ninety physicians were randomly allocated one of two scenarios of a patient with chronic low back and lower extremity pain. In one version, the patient is a Caucasian male with Blue Cross health insurance. In the other version, the patient is an African American male with Medicaid. All other aspects of the survey scenarios are identical. The physicians were subsequently presented with questionnaires about their treatment plans. We analyzed the physician demographic variables in addition to patient ethnicity and SES to differentiate which variables affected treatment preferences. RESULTS: Based on bivariate analysis, physician specialty, gender, ethnicity, and professional status significantly affected treatment plans, including analgesic prescription and referrals for invasive therapy. Patient ethnicity/SES trended toward significance for the prescription of opioids. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first randomized controlled study assessing patient and treatment variables in the management of chronic pain. It suggests that physicians' demographic variables and perhaps patient demographic variables influence pain management decisions.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor , Dor/epidemiologia , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito , Classe Social , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Coleta de Dados , Tomada de Decisões , Método Duplo-Cego , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/ética , Dor/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/ética , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med ; 2(1): 15-24, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19468914

RESUMO

Low back pain is the most common pain symptom experienced by American adults and is the second most common reason for primary care physician visits. There are many structures in the lumbar spine that can serve as pain generators and often the etiology of low back pain is multifactorial. However, the facet joint has been increasingly recognized as an important cause of low back pain. Facet joint pain can be diagnosed with local anesthetic blocks of the medial branches or of the facet joints themselves. Subsequent radiofrequency lesioning of the medial branches can provide more long-term pain relief. Despite some of the pitfalls associated with facet joint blocks, they have been shown to be valid, safe, and reliable as a diagnostic tool. Medial branch denervation has shown some promise for the sustained control of lumbar facet joint-mediated pain, but at this time, there is insufficient evidence that it is a wholly efficacious treatment option. Developing a universal algorithm for evaluating facet joint-mediated pain and standard procedural techniques may facilitate the performance of larger outcome studies. This review article provides an overview of the anatomy, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of facet joint-mediated pain.

18.
JAMA ; 300(6): 711-9, 2008 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18698069

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 1.4 million US individuals sustain traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) per year. Previous reports suggest an association between TBI and chronic pain syndromes (eg, headache) thought to be more common in patients with mild TBI and in those who have sustained brain injury from violent rather than unintentional trauma. Comorbid psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may also mediate chronic pain symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of chronic pain as an underdiagnosed consequence of TBI and to review the interaction between chronic pain and severity of TBI as well as the characteristics of pain after TBI among civilians and combatants. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The Ovid/MEDLINE database was searched for articles published between 1951 and February 2008 using any combination of the terms brain injury, pain, headache, blast injury, and combat (combat disorders, war, military medicine, wounds and injuries, military personnel, veterans). The PubMed and MD Consult databases were searched in a similar fashion. The Cochrane Collaboration, National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Database, Meta-Register of Current Controlled Trials, and CRISP databases were searched using the keyword brain injury. All articles in peer-reviewed journals reporting original data on pain syndromes in adult patients with TBI with regard to pain prevalence, pain category, risk factors, pathogenesis, and clinical course were selected, and manual searches were performed of their reference lists. The data were pooled and prevalence rates calculated. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty-three studies (15 cross-sectional, 5 prospective, and 3 retrospective) including 4206 patients were identified. Twelve studies assessed headache pain in 1670 patients. Of these, 966 complained of chronic headache, yielding a prevalence of 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.5%-60.2%). Among civilians, the prevalence of chronic pain was greater in patients with mild TBI (75.3% [95% CI, 72.7%-77.9%]) compared with moderate or severe TBI (32.1% [95% CI, 29.3%-34.9%]). Twenty studies including 3289 civilian patients with TBI yielded a chronic pain prevalence of 51.5% (95% CI, 49.8%-53.2%). Three studies assessed TBI among 917 veterans and yielded a pain prevalence of 43.1% (95% CI, 39.9%-46.3%). PTSD may mediate chronic pain, but brain injury appears to have an independent correlation with chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic pain is a common complication of TBI. It is independent of psychologic disorders such as PTSD and depression and is common even among patients with apparently minor injuries to the brain.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Transtornos da Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/etiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica , Distúrbios de Guerra/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/epidemiologia , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Guerra
19.
Cornea ; 27(1): 124-6, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18245982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the option of using anticonvulsant drugs to modulate pain from corneal erosions. METHODS: N.M. is a 28-year-old woman with posttraumatic recurrent corneal erosions treated with bandage contact lenses, Muro-128, topical ketorolac, doxycycline, stromal micropuncture, and laser epithelial keratomileusis over the course of 4 years. Because of persistent episodes of corneal pain, she was prescribed topiramate. RESULTS: Before starting topiramate therapy, N.M. had experienced 3-4 awakenings at night because of pain and 5-6 episodes of spontaneous tearing and pain during the day. She started topiramate at 25 mg orally 4 times a day without significant change in her symptoms. After 1 week, the dose was escalated to 50 mg orally 4 times a day, and within 1 day, she experienced 0-1 awakenings at night. She had approximately 2-3 episodes of pain and tearing during the day. The dose was escalated to 100 mg orally 4 times a day. At that dose, the patient continued to have pain relief but complained of nausea. The patient's topiramate was weaned off to determine whether her symptom relief was caused by the medication or improvement in her condition. Once off the topiramate, N.M.'s nausea resolved but her corneal symptoms returned at the same frequency as before the initiation of topiramate. Therefore, she was restarted on topiramate 50 mg orally 4 times a day with rapid onset of improvement in her symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Anticonvulsants such as topiramate may be effective in the management of pain caused by recurrent corneal erosions.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Frutose/análogos & derivados , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Doenças da Córnea/complicações , Feminino , Frutose/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dor/etiologia , Topiramato
20.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 14(4): 356-8, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17761450

RESUMO

This case series describes the inpatient rehabilitation of two medically complex patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone deep brain stimulator (DBS) placement. Most patients may not require inpatient rehabilitation. However, a short rehabilitation stay might be of use to patients who need to be weaned off medications or who need frequent adjustments of their deep brain stimulators. This is the first case series to describe the inpatient rehabilitation of patients with deep brain stimulators.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/reabilitação , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
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