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PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459822


Uganda adopted the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) as part its preferred first-line HIV treatment regimen in 2018. Prior to the national rollout, the Uganda Ministry of Health and Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) launched a pilot study in July 2017 aimed at better understanding patients' and prescribers' experience and acceptability of DTG. Patients were enrolled in the study if they were newly initiating treatment or switched from an NNRTI regimen due to intolerance. Patients were followed up for 6 months after initiation onto DTG and acceptability and experiences were assessed through questionnaires at one-month and six-month follow-up visits. In addition to acceptability side effects of patients on DTG regimens were assessed. Analysis was conducted using MS Excel and SAS 9.4 and confidence intervals were adjusted for facility level clustering. A total of 365 patients from 6 study sites were enrolled in the study, of whom 50% were treatment-experienced and 50% treatment naïve. 325 patients completed the 6 months of follow-up. Survey results showed a high level of acceptability (more than 90%) of DTG-containing regimens for both categories of patients during the from one-month and six-months interviews. The rate of self-reported side effects amongst patients was 33% overall and higher for experienced (37%) than naïve (29%) patients at 6 months. Although frequencies declined between month-1 and month-6, the changes were not statistically significant. Almost all patients (94%) were virally suppressed at 6 months. Overall, the study findings showed a very high level of acceptability of Dolutegravir-based regimens across both experienced and naïve patients. The overall viral suppression rate in this cohort was 94% at six months of taking DTG-based regimen.

Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxazinas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Piperazinas , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridonas , Uganda , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287264


INTRODUCTION: With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) there is a need to monitor programme performance to maximize ART efficacy and to prevent emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). In keeping with the elements of the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidance we carried out a nationally representative assessment of early warning indicators (EWI) at 304 randomly selected ART service outlets in Uganda. METHODS: Retrospective patient data was extracted for the six EWIs for HIVDR including; on-time antiretroviral (ARV) drug pick-up, patient retention on ART at 12 months, ART dispensing practices, ARV drug stock-outs, viral load suppression (VLS) and viral load (VL) testing completion. Point prevalence for each clinic and national aggregate prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all clinics were estimated and facility performances were computed and association between EWIs and programmatic factors assessed using Fisher's Exact Test. RESULTS: Facilities meeting the EWI targets: on-time pill pick-up was 9.5%, more facilities in the north met this target (p = 0.040). Retention on ART at 12 months was 24.1%, facilities in Kampala region (p<0.001) and Specialized ART clinics (p = 0.01) performed better in this indicator. Pharmacy stock-outs was 33.6%, with more facilities in Kampala (p<0.001), specialized ART clinics (p<0.001) and private-for-profit (p<0.001) meeting this target. Dispensing practices was met by 100% of the facilities. VLS was met by 49.2% and 50.8% of facilities met VL completion target with facilities in central region performing better (p<0.001). National prevalence for the EWIs was: on-time pill pick-up 63.3% (CI: 58.9-67.8); retention on ART at 12 months 69.9% (CI: 63.8-76.0); dispensing practices 100.0%; VLS 85.2% (CI: 81.8-88.5) and VL completion, 60.7% (CI: 56.9-64.6). CONCLUSION: Dispensing practices in all facilities were in line with the national guidelines however, there still remains a challenge to long-term ART programmatic success in monitoring patient response to treatment, and maintaining patients on ART without interruptions arising due to poor patient adherence and as a consequence of ARV supply interruption. It is therefore of high importance that the national ART program ensures intensified follow-up for patients, ensuring uninterrupted supply of ARV drugs and increasing VL monitoring at treatment centres, in order to improve patient outcomes and avert preventable HIVDR.

Antirretrovirais/provisão & distribução , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Carga Viral , Organização Mundial da Saúde
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(5): 1280-1289, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025714


OBJECTIVES: We implemented the WHO cross-sectional survey protocol to determine rates of HIV viral load (VL) suppression (VLS), and weighted prevalence, predictors and patterns of acquired drug resistance (ADR) in individuals with virological failure (VF) defined as VL ≥1000 copies/mL. METHODS: We enrolled 547 and 1064 adult participants on first-line ART for 12 (±3) months (ADR12) and ≥48 months (ADR48), respectively. Dried blood spots and plasma specimens were collected for VL testing and genotyping among the VFs. RESULTS: VLS was 95.0% (95% CI 93.4%-96.5%) in the ADR12 group and 87.9% (95% CI 85.0%-90.9%) in the ADR48 group. The weighted prevalence of ADR was 96.1% (95% CI 72.9%-99.6%) in the ADR12 and 90.4% (95% CI 73.6-96.8%) in the ADR48 group, out of the 30 and 95 successful genotypes in the respective groups. Initiation on a zidovudine-based regimen compared with a tenofovir-based regimen was significantly associated with VF in the ADR48 group; adjusted OR (AOR) 1.96 (95% CI 1.13-3.39). Independent predictors of ADR in the ADR48 group were initiation on a zidovudine-based regimen compared with tenofovir-based regimens, AOR 3.16 (95% CI 1.34-7.46) and ART duration of ≥82 months compared with <82 months, AOR 1.92 (95% CI 1.03-3.59). CONCLUSIONS: While good VLS was observed, the high prevalence of ADR among the VFs before they underwent the recommended three intensive adherence counselling (IAC) sessions followed by repeat VL testing implies that IAC prior to treatment switching may be of limited benefit in improving VLS.

PLoS One ; 10(12): e0145536, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26700639


BACKGROUND: With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), monitoring programme performance is needed to maximize ART efficacy and limit HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). METHODS: We implemented a WHO HIVDR prospective survey protocol at three treatment centers between 2012 and 2013. Data were abstracted from patient records at ART start (T1) and after 12 months (T2). Genotyping was performed in the HIV pol region at the two time points. RESULTS: Of the 425 patients enrolled, at T2, 20 (4.7%) had died, 66 (15.5%) were lost to follow-up, 313 (73.6%) were still on first-line, 8 (1.9%) had switched to second-line, 17 (4.0%) had transferred out and 1 (0.2%) had stopped treatment. At T2, 272 out of 321 on first and second line (84.7%) suppressed below 1000 copies/ml and the HIV DR prevention rate was 70.1%, just within the WHO threshold of ≥ 70%. The proportion of participants with potential HIVDR was 20.9%, which is higher than the 18.8% based on pooled analyses from African studies. Of the 35 patients with mutations at T2, 80% had M184V/I, 65.7% Y181C, and 48.6% (54.8% excluding those not on Tenofovir) had K65R mutations. 22.9% had Thymidine Analogue Mutations (TAMs). Factors significantly associated with HIVDR prevention at T2 were: baseline viral load (VL) <100,000 copies/ml [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-7.19] and facility. Independent baseline predictors for HIVDR mutations at T2 were: CD4 count < 250 cells/µl (AOR 2.80, 95% CI: 1.08-7.29) and viral load ≥ 100,000 copies/ml (AOR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.00-6.14). CONCLUSION: Strengthening defaulter tracing, intensified follow-up for patients with low CD4 counts and/or high VL at ART initiation together with early treatment initiation above 250 CD4 cells/ul and adequate patient counselling would improve ART efficacy and HIVDR prevention. The high rate of K65R and TAMs could compromise second line regimens including NRTIs.

Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral