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1.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 9989-10000, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819632

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to incorporate informative histogram indicator analyses and advanced multimodal MRI parameters to differentiate low-grade gliomas (LGGs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs) and to explore the features associated with patients' survival. Patients and methods: A total of 120 patients with pathologically confirmed LGGs or HGGs receiving conventional and advanced MRI such as three-dimensional arterial spin labeling (3D-ASL), intravoxel incoherent motion-diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) were included. The mean and histogram indicators from advanced MRI were calculated from the entire tumor. The efficacies of a single indicator or multiple parameters were tested in distinguishing HGGs from LGGs and predicting patients' survival. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and multivariable stepwise logistic regression were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacies. Leave-one-out cross-validation was further used to validate the accuracy of the parameter sets in glioma grading. Log-rank test using the Kaplan-Meier curve was utilized to predict patients' survival. Results: Overall, parameters from DCE-MRI performed better than those from 3D-ASL or IVIM-DWI in both glioma grading and survival prediction. The histogram metrics of Ve were demonstrated to have higher accuracies (the accuracies for Extended Tofts_Ve mean and Extended Tofts_Ve median were 68.33% and 71.67%, respectively, while those for the Incremental_Ve mean and Incremental_Ve 75th were 68.33% and 72.50%, respectively) in grading LGGs from HGGs. The combination of Tofts_Ve histogram metrics was the one with the highest accuracy (81.67%) and area under ROC curve (AUC = 0.840). On the other hand, Patlak_Ktrans 95th (AUC = 0.9265) and Extended Tofts_Ve 95th (AUC = 0.9154) performed better than their corresponding means (Patlak_Ktrans mean: AUC = 0.9118 and Extended Tofts_Ve mean: AUC = 0.9044) in predicting patients' overall survival (OS) at 18-month follow-up. Conclusion: DCE-MRI-derived histogram features from the entire tumor were promising metrics for glioma grading and OS prediction. Combining single modal histogram features improved glioma grading. Trial registration: NCT02622620.

2.
Neuroscience ; 419: 72-82, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682827

RESUMO

Previous studies reported that long-term nociceptive stimulation could result in neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction in brain, but these studies were based mainly on unimodal imaging biomarkers, thus could not comprehensively reflect NVC dysfunction. We investigated the potential NVC dysfunction in chronic migraine by exploring the relationship between neuronal activity and cerebral perfusion maps. The Pearson correlation coefficients between these 2 maps were defined as the NVC biomarkers. NVC biomarkers in migraineurs were significantly lower in left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG), left superior marginal gyrus (SMG) and left angular gyrus (AG), but significantly higher in right superior occipital gyrus (SOG), right superior parietal gyrus (SPG), and precuneus. These brain regions were located mainly in parietal or occipital lobes and were related to visual or sensory information processing. ALFF-CBF in right SPG was positively correlated with disease history and that in right precuneus was negatively correlated with migraine persisting time. fALFF-CBF in left SMG and AG were negatively related to headache frequency and positively related to health condition and disease history. In conclusion, multi-modal MRI could be used to detect NVC dysfunction in chronic migraine patients, which is a new method to assess the impact of chronic pain on the brain.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(42): 39077-39087, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573789

RESUMO

Elemental alloying in monolayer, two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) promises unprecedented ability to modulate their electronic structure leading to unique optoelectronic properties. MoS2 monolayer based photodetectors typically exhibit a high photoresponsivity but suffer from a low response time. Here we develop a new approach for Sn alloying in MoS2 monolayers based on the synergy of the customized chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and the effects of common salt (NaCl) to produce high-quality and large-size Mo1-xSnxS2 (x < 0.5) alloy monolayers. The composition difference results in different growth behaviors; Mo dominated alloys (x < 0.5) exhibit uniform and large size (up to 100 µm) triangular monolayers, while Sn-dominated alloys (x > 0.5) present multilayer grains. The Mo1-xSnxS2 (x < 0.5) based photodetectors and phototransistors exhibit a maximum responsitivity of 12 mA/W and a minimum response time of 20 ms, which is faster than most reported MoS2-based photodetectors. This work offers new perspectives for precision 2D alloy engineering to improve the optoelectronic performance of TMD-based photodetectors.

4.
Nanoscale ; 11(41): 19202-19213, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436772

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials have recently attracted great interest because of their tantalising prospects for a broad range of applications including electronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage. Unlike bulk materials, the device performance of atomically thin 2D materials is determined by the interface, thickness and defects. Plasma processing is very effective for diverse modifications of nanoscale 2D TMDC materials, owing to its uniquely controllable, effective processes and energy efficiency. Herein, we critically discuss selected recent advances in plasma modification of 2D TMDC materials and their optical and electronic (including optoelectronic) properties of relevance to applications in hydrogen production, gas sensing and energy storage devices. Challenges and future research opportunities in the relevant research field are presented. This review contributes to directing future advances of plasma processing of TMDC materials for targeted applications.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies presumed that the disturbed neurovascular coupling to be a critical risk factor of cognitive impairments in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but distinct clinical manifestations were lacked. Consequently, we decided to investigate the neurovascular coupling in T2DM patients by exploring the MRI relationship between neuronal activity and the corresponding cerebral blood perfusion. METHODS: Degree centrality (DC) map and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) map were used to represent neuronal activity. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was used to represent cerebral blood perfusion. Correlation coefficients were calculated to reflect the relationship between neuronal activity and cerebral blood perfusion. RESULTS: At the whole gray matter level, the manifestation of neurovascular coupling was investigated by using 4 neurovascular biomarkers. We compared these biomarkers and found no significant changes. However, at the brain region level, neurovascular biomarkers in T2DM patients were significantly decreased in 10 brain regions. ALFF-CBF in left hippocampus and fractional ALFF-CBF in left amygdala were positively associated with the executive function, while ALFF-CBF in right fusiform gyrus was negatively related to the executive function. The disease severity was negatively related to the memory and executive function. The longer duration of T2DM was related to the milder depression, which suggests T2DM-related depression may not be a physiological condition but be a psychological condition. CONCLUSION: Correlations between neuronal activity and cerebral perfusion maps may be a method for detecting neurovascular coupling abnormalities, which could be used for diagnosis in the future. Trial registry number: This study has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02420470) on April 2, 2015 and published on July 29, 2015.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 598, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723204

RESUMO

Epitaxial growth of atomically thin two-dimensional crystals such as transition metal dichalcogenides remains challenging, especially for producing large-size transition metal dichalcogenides bilayer crystals featuring high density of states, carrier mobility and stability at room temperature. Here we achieve in epitaxial growth of the second monolayer from the first monolayer by reverse-flow chemical vapor epitaxy and produce high-quality, large-size transition metal dichalcogenides bilayer crystals with high yield, control, and reliability. Customized temperature profiles and reverse gas flow help activate the first layer without introducing new nucleation centers leading to near-defect-free epitaxial growth of the second layer from the existing nucleation centers. A series of bilayer crystals including MoS2 and WS2, ternary Mo1-xWxS2 and quaternary Mo1-xWxS2(1-y)Se2y are synthesized with variable structural configurations and tunable electronic and optical properties. The robust, potentially universal approach for the synthesis of large-size transition metal dichalcogenides bilayer single crystals is highly-promising for fundamental studies and technological applications.

7.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 49(5): 1263-1274, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate glioma grading plays an important role in patient treatment. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of varied texture retrieving models on the efficacy of grading glioma with support vector machine (SVM). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: In all, 117 glioma patients including 25, 29, and 63 grade II, III, and IV gliomas, respectively, based on WHO 2007. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T MRI/ T1 WI, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, contrast enhanced T1 , arterial spinal labeling, diffusion-weighted imaging (0, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000, 3000, and 3500 sec/mm2 ), and dynamic contrast-enhanced. ASSESSMENT: Texture attributes from 30 parametric maps were retrieved using four models, including Global, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and gray-level size-zone matrix (GLSZM). Attributes derived from varied models were input into radial basis function SVM (RBF-SVM) combined with attribute selection using SVM-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE). The SVM model was trained and established with 80% randomly selected data of each category using 10-fold crossvalidation. The model performance was further tested using the remaining 20% data. STATISTICAL TESTS: Ten-fold crossvalidation was used to validate the model performance. RESULTS: Based on 30 parametric maps, 90, 240, 390, or 390 texture attributes were retrieved using the Global, GLCM, GLRLM, or GLSZM model, respectively. SVM-RFE was able to reduce attribute redundancy as well as improve RBF-SVM performance. Training data were oversampled by applying the Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) method to overcome the data imbalance problem; test results were able to further demonstrate the classifying performance of the final models. GLSZM using gray-level 64 was the optimal model to retrieve powerful image texture attributes to produce enough classifying power with an accuracy / area under the curve of 0.760/0.867 for the training and 0.875/0.971 for the independent test. Fifteen attributes were selected with SVM-RFE to provide comparable classifying efficacy. DATA CONCLUSION: When using image textures-based SVM classification of gliomas, the GLSZM model in combination with gray-level 64 and attribute selection may be an optimized solution. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;49:1263-1274.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 30(3): 034004, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452391

RESUMO

Phase transition from the semiconducting hexagonal (2H) phase to the metallic monoclinic (1T') phase in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides like MoTe2 is not only of great importance in fundamental study but also of technological significance for broad device applications. Here we report a universal, facile, scalable and reversible phase engineering technique (between 2H and 1T' phases) for both monolayer and few-layer MoTe2 based on a soft hydrogen plasma treatment. The 2H â†’ 1T' transition was confirmed by a series of characterizations including Raman spectra and mapping studies, XPS analysis and FET device measurements at varying temperatures. We attribute the phase transition to the warping of Te-Mo bonds and the lateral sliding of the top Te-layer induced by the soft hydrogen ion bombardment according to both the structural and electronic characterizations as well as the horizontal comparison with the cases of Ar or O2 plasma treatment. We have also prepared a 2D heterostructure containing periodical 2H and 1T' MoTe2 and showed that such phase transition can be readily reversed by post annealing. These results thus provide a robust and efficient approach for the phase engineering of monolayer and few-layer MoTe2 and could aid the development of 2D optoelectronic, memory and reconfigurable devices.

9.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 804, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498429

RESUMO

Background: Accurate glioma grading before surgery is of the utmost importance in treatment planning and prognosis prediction. But previous studies on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were not effective enough. According to the remarkable performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) in medical domain, we hypothesized that a deep learning algorithm can achieve high accuracy in distinguishing the World Health Organization (WHO) low grade and high grade gliomas. Methods: One hundred and thirteen glioma patients were retrospectively included. Tumor images were segmented with a rectangular region of interest (ROI), which contained about 80% of the tumor. Then, 20% data were randomly selected and leaved out at patient-level as test dataset. AlexNet and GoogLeNet were both trained from scratch and fine-tuned from models that pre-trained on the large scale natural image database, ImageNet, to magnetic resonance images. The classification task was evaluated with five-fold cross-validation (CV) on patient-level split. Results: The performance measures, including validation accuracy, test accuracy and test area under curve (AUC), averaged from five-fold CV of GoogLeNet which trained from scratch were 0.867, 0.909, and 0.939, respectively. With transfer learning and fine-tuning, better performances were obtained for both AlexNet and GoogLeNet, especially for AlexNet. Meanwhile, GoogLeNet performed better than AlexNet no matter trained from scratch or learned from pre-trained model. Conclusion: In conclusion, we demonstrated that the application of CNN, especially trained with transfer learning and fine-tuning, to preoperative glioma grading improves the performance, compared with either the performance of traditional machine learning method based on hand-crafted features, or even the CNNs trained from scratch.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(38): 25078-25084, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250949

RESUMO

Two transparent graphene-metal nanoparticle (NP) hybrid schemes, namely Au NPs covered by graphene layers and Au NPs encapsulated by graphene layers, are presented and the effect of graphene on the localized surface plasmon resonance of metal NPs is systematically investigated. For both schemes, the direct contact of graphene with Au NPs would strongly tune the resonant frequency due to the electron transfer from Au NPs to graphene. Such electron transfer is demonstrated by comparing the absorption spectra of Au NPs with different free electron densities between calculation results via FDTD simulation and experimental results, comparing Raman properties of graphene between pure graphene and the Au-NP/graphene hybrid nanostructure, correlating the electron doping concentration in graphene with the electron density change in Au NPs, and ruling out the possible mechanism of the change of the effective refractive index of Au NPs. Such an effective tuning of the resonant frequency may shed light on the future applications of 2D based materials in plasmonic devices.

11.
BMC Med Imaging ; 18(1): 26, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a common clinical symptom that often bothers midlife females, migraine is closely associated with perimenopause. Previous studies suggest that one of the most prominent triggers is the sudden decline of estrogen during perimenopausal period. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is widely used to prevent this suffering in perimenopausal women, but effective diagnostic system is lacked for quantifying the severity of the diseaase. To avoid the abuse and overuse of HRT, we propose to conduct a diagnostic trial using multimodal MRI techniques to quantify the severity of these perimenopausal migraineurs who are susceptible to the decline of estrogen. METHODS: Perimenopausal women suffering from migraine will be recruited from the pain clinic of our hospital. Perimenopausal women not suffering from any kind of headache will be recruited from the local community. Clinical assessment and multi-modal MR imaging examination will be conducted. A follow up will be conducted once half year within 3 years. Pain behavior, neuropsychology scores, fMRI analysis combined with suitable statistical software will be used to reveal the potential association between these above traits and the susceptibility of migraine. DISCUSSION: Multi-modal imaging features of both healthy controls and perimenopausal women who are susceptible to estrogen decline will be acquired. Imaging features will include volumetric characteristics, white matter integrity, functional characteristics, topological properties, and perfusion properties. Clinical information, such as basic information, blood estrogen level, information of migraine, and a bunch of neurological scale will also be used for statistic assessment. This clinical trial would help to build an effective screen system for quantifying the severity of illness of those susceptible women during the perimenopausal period. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has already been registered at Clinical Trials. gov (ID: NCT02820974 ). Registration date: September 28th, 2014.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Perimenopausa/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estrogênios/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Imagem Multimodal , Clínicas de Dor , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Software
12.
Nanotechnology ; 29(45): 455707, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160236

RESUMO

Heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer attractive prospects for practical applications by combining unique physical properties that are distinct from those of traditional structures. In this paper, we demonstrate a three-stage chemical vapor deposition method for the growth of bilayer MoS2-WS2/WS2 heterostructures with the bottom layers being the lateral MoS2-center/WS2-edge monolayer heterostructures and the top layers being the WS2 monolayers. The alternative growth of lateral and vertical heterostructures can be realized by adjusting both the temperature and the carrier gas flow direction. The combined effect of both reverse gas flow and higher growing temperature can promote the epitaxial growth of second layer on the activated nucleation centers of the first monolayer heterostructures. By using customized temperature profiles, single heterostructures including monolayer lateral MoS2-WS2 heterostructures and bilayer lateral WS2(2L)-MoS2(2L) heterostructures could also be obtained. Atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence and Raman mapping studies clearly reveal that these different heterostructure samples are highly uniform. These results thus provide a promising and efficient method for the synthesis of complex heterostructures based on different TMDs materials, which would greatly expand the heterostructure family and broaden their applications.

13.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 48(6): 1518-1528, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate glioma grading plays an important role in the clinical management of patients and is also the basis of molecular stratification nowadays. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To verify the superiority of radiomics features extracted from multiparametric MRI to glioma grading and evaluate the grading potential of different MRI sequences or parametric maps. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective; radiomics. POPULATION: A total of 153 patients including 42, 33, and 78 patients with Grades II, III, and IV gliomas, respectively. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T MRI/T1 -weighted images before and after contrast-enhanced, T2 -weighted, multi-b-value diffusion-weighted and 3D arterial spin labeling images. ASSESSMENT: After multiparametric MRI preprocessing, high-throughput features were derived from patients' volumes of interests (VOIs). The support vector machine-based recursive feature elimination was adopted to find the optimal features for low-grade glioma (LGG) vs. high-grade glioma (HGG), and Grade III vs. IV glioma classification tasks. Then support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were established using the optimal features. The accuracy and area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess the grading efficiency. STATISTICAL TESTS: Student's t-test or a chi-square test were applied on different clinical characteristics to confirm whether intergroup significant differences exist. RESULTS: Patients' ages between LGG and HGG groups were significantly different (P < 0.01). For each patient, 420 texture and 90 histogram parameters were derived from 10 VOIs of multiparametric MRI. SVM models were established using 30 and 28 optimal features for classifying LGGs from HGGs and grades III from IV, respectively. The accuracies/AUCs were 96.8%/0.987 for classifying LGGs from HGGs, and 98.1%/0.992 for classifying grades III from IV, which were more promising than using histogram parameters or using the single sequence MRI. DATA CONCLUSION: Texture features were more effective for noninvasively grading gliomas than histogram parameters. The combined application of multiparametric MRI provided a higher grading efficiency. The proposed radiomic strategy could facilitate clinical decision-making for patients with varied glioma grades. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;48:1518-1528.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Radiografia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Gradação de Tumores , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Headache Pain ; 19(1): 24, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of pain disorders in women is higher than in men, making gender differences in pain a research focus. The human insular cortex is an important brain hub structure for pain processing and is divided into several subdivisions, serving different functions in pain perception. Here we aimed to examine the gender differences of the functional connectivities (FCs) between the twelve insular subdivisions and selected pain-related brain structures in healthy adults. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy males and 11 age-matched healthy females were recruited in this cross-sectional study. FCs between the 12 insular subdivisions (as 12 regions of interest (ROIs)) and the whole brain (ROI-whole brain level) or 64 selected pain-related brain regions (64 ROIs, ROI-ROI level) were measured between the males and females. RESULTS: Significant gender differences in the FCs of the insular subdivisions were revealed: (1) The FCs between the dorsal dysgranular insula (dId) and other brain regions were significantly increased in males using two different techniques (ROI-whole brain and ROI-ROI analyses); (2) Based on the ROI-whole brain analysis, the FC increases in 4 FC-pairs were observed in males, including the left dId - the right median cingulate and paracingulate/ right posterior cingulate gyrus/ right precuneus, the left dId - the right median cingulate and paracingulate, the left dId - the left angular as well as the left dId - the left middle frontal gyrus; (3) According to the ROI-ROI analysis, increased FC between the left dId and the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex was investigated in males. CONCLUSION: In summary, the gender differences in the FCs of the insular subdivisions with pain-related brain regions were revealed in the current study, offering neuroimaging evidence for gender differences in pain processing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02820974 . Registered 28 June 2016.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Conectoma/métodos , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 215, 2018 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The methylation status of oxygen 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter has been associated with treatment response in glioblastoma(GBM). Using pre-operative MRI techniques to predict MGMT promoter methylation status remains inconclusive. In this study, we investigated the value of features from structural and advanced imagings in predicting the methylation of MGMT promoter in primary glioblastoma patients. METHODS: Ninety-two pathologically confirmed primary glioblastoma patients underwent preoperative structural MR imagings and the efficacy of structural image features were qualitatively analyzed using Fisher's exact test. In addition, 77 of the 92 patients underwent additional advanced MRI scans including diffusion-weighted (DWI) and 3-diminsional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D pCASL) imaging. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values within the manually drawn region-of-interest (ROI) were calculated and compared using independent sample t test for their efficacies in predicting MGMT promoter methylation. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to investigate the predicting efficacy with the area under the curve (AUC) and cross validations. Multiple-variable logistic regression model was employed to evaluate the predicting performance of multiple variables. RESULTS: MGMT promoter methylation was associated with tumor location and necrosis (P <  0.05). Significantly increased ADC value (P <  0.001) and decreased rCBF (P <  0.001) were associated with MGMT promoter methylation in primary glioblastoma. The ADC achieved the better predicting efficacy than rCBF (ADC: AUC, 0.860; sensitivity, 81.1%; specificity, 82.5%; vs rCBF: AUC, 0.835; sensitivity, 75.0%; specificity, 78.4%; P = 0.032). The combination of tumor location, necrosis, ADC and rCBF resulted in the highest AUC of 0.914. CONCLUSION: ADC and rCBF are promising imaging biomarkers in clinical routine to predict the MGMT promoter methylation in primary glioblastoma patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Feminino , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(48): 42121-42130, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111648

RESUMO

Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently drawn major attention due to its promising applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a scalable method to produce large-area MoS2 monolayers, yet it is challenging to achieve shape-uniform, high-quality monolayered MoS2 grains as random, diverse crystallographic orientations and various shapes are produced in the same CVD process. Here, we report the growth of high-quality MoS2 monolayers with uniform triangular shapes dominating (up to 89%) over other shapes on both SiO2/Si and sapphire substrates. The new confined-space CVD process prevents contamination and helps regulate the Mo/S ratio during the deposition. The as-grown triangular MoS2 monolayers exhibit grain sizes up to 150 µm and possess better crystalline properties and lighter n-type doping concentration than those of the monolayers grown by common CVD methods. The corresponding field effect transistor devices show high electron mobilities of 50-60 cm2 V-1 s-1 and positive threshold voltages of 21-35 V. This mild n-type behavior makes it possible to regulate the formation of excitons by back-gate voltage due to the interaction of excitons with free charge carriers in the MoS2 channel. As a result, gate-tunable photoluminescence (PL) effect, which is rarely achievable for MoS2 samples prepared by common CVD or mechanical exfoliation, is demonstrated. This study provides a simple versatile approach to fabricating monolayered crystals of MoS2 and other high-quality transition metal dichalcogenides and could lead to new optoelectronic devices based on gate-tunable PL effect.

17.
Nano Lett ; 17(10): 6391-6396, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876943

RESUMO

Interfacing light-sensitive semiconductors with graphene can afford high-gain phototransistors by the multiplication effect of carriers in the semiconductor layer. So far, most devices consist of one semiconductor light-absorbing layer, where the lack of internal built-in field can strongly reduce the quantum efficiency and bandwidth. Here, we demonstrate a much improved graphene phototransistor performances using an epitaxial organic heterostructure composed of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and pentacene as the light-absorbing layer. Compared with single light-absorbing material, the responsivity and response time can be simultaneously improved by 1 and 2 orders of magnitude over a broad band of 400-700 nm, under otherwise the same experimental conditions. As a result, the external quantum efficiency increases by over 800 times. Furthermore, the response time of the heterostructured phototransistor is highly gate-tunable down to sub-30 µs, which is among the fastest in the sensitized graphene phototransistors interfacing with electrically passive light-absorbing semiconductors. We show that the improvement is dominated by the efficient electron-hole pair dissociation due to interfacial built-in field rather than bulk absorption. The structure demonstrated here can be extended to many other organic and inorganic semiconductors, which opens new possibilities for high-performance graphene-based optoelectronics.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(31): 25929-25940, 2017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28718622

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can proliferate infinitely. Their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes provides abundant sources for disease modeling, drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) display a low degree of maturation and fetal-like properties. Current in vitro differentiation methods do not mimic the structural, mechanical, or physiological properties of the cardiogenesis niche. Recently, we present an efficient cardiac maturation platform that combines hiPSCs monolayer cardiac differentiation with graphene substrate, which is a biocompatible and superconductive material. The hiPSCs lines were successfully maintained on the graphene sheets and were able to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes. This strategy markedly increased the myofibril ultrastructural organization, elevated the conduction velocity, and enhanced both the Ca2+ handling and electrophysiological properties in the absence of electrical stimulation. On the graphene substrate, the expression of connexin 43 increased along with the conduction velocity. Interestingly, the bone morphogenetic proteins signaling was also significantly activated during early cardiogenesis, confirmed by RNA sequencing analysis. Here, we reasoned that graphene substrate as a conductive biomimetic surface could facilitate the intrinsic electrical propagation, mimicking the microenvironment of the native heart, to further promote the global maturation of hiPSC-CMs. Our findings highlight the capability of electrically active substrates to influence cardiomyocyte development. We believe that application of graphene sheets will be useful for simple, fast, and scalable maturation of regenerated cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Diferenciação Celular , Grafite , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Regeneração
19.
Oncotarget ; 8(27): 44579-44592, 2017 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574817

RESUMO

We evaluated the performance of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters for preoperatively predicting the subtype and Masaoka stage of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs). Seventy-seven patients with pathologically confirmed TETs underwent a diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequence with 9 b values. Differences in the slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast perfusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) IVIM parameters, as well as the multi b-value fitted apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmb), were compared among patients with low-risk (LRT) and high-risk thymomas (HRT) and thymic carcinomas (TC), and between early stage (stages I and II) and advanced stage (stages III and IV) TET patients. ADCmb, D, and D* values were higher in the LRT group than in the HRT or TC group, but did not differ between the HRT and TC groups. The mean ADCmb, D, and D* values were higher in the early stage TETs group than the advanced stage TETs group. The f values did not differ among the groups. These results suggest that IVIM DWI could be used to preoperatively predict subtype and Masaoka stage in TET patients.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Timo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/terapia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias do Timo/terapia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nanotechnology ; 28(10): 105301, 2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28139464

RESUMO

Ultra-thin anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are efficient templates for the fabrication of patterned nanostructures. Herein, a three-step etching method to control the morphology of AAO is described. The morphological evolution of the AAO during phosphoric acid etching is systematically investigated and a nonlinear growth mechanism during unsteady-state anodization is revealed. The thickness of the AAO can be quantitatively controlled from ∼100 nm to several micrometers while maintaining the tunablity of the pore diameter. The AAO membranes are robust and readily transferable to different types of substrates to prepare patterned plasmonic nanoarrays such as nanoislands, nanoclusters, ultra-small nanodots, and core-satellite superstructures. The localized surface plasmon resonance from these nanostructures can be easily tuned by adjusting the morphology of the AAO template. The custom AAO template provides a platform for the fabrication of low-cost and large-scale functional nanoarrays suitable for fundamental studies as well as applications including biochemical sensing, imaging, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics.

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