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1.
Carcinogenesis ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556446

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is susceptible to oxidative stress and mutation. Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), with inconsistent findings. In this study, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn and CRC risk in a case-control study of 324 female cases and 658 matched controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Relative mtDNAcn in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by quantitative PCR-based assay. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of interest. Results showed lower log-mtDNAcn was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC, in a dose-dependent relationship (P for trend < 0.0001). Compared to the 4th quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.10 (0.69, 1.76) for the 3rd quartile, 1.40 (0.89, 2.19) for the 2nd quartile, and 2.19 (1.43, 3.35) for the 1st quartile. In analysis by anatomic subsite of CRC, we found a significant inverse association for proximal colon cancer [lowest vs. highest quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) = 3.31 (1.70, 6.45), P for trend = 0.0003]. Additionally, stratified analysis according to the follow-up time since blood collection showed that the inverse association between mtDNAcn and CRC remained significant among individuals with ≥ 5 years' follow-up, and marginally significant among those with ≥ 10 years' follow-up since mtDNAcn testing, suggesting that mtDNAcn may serve as a long-term predictor for risk of CRC. In conclusion, pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn was inversely associated with CRC risk. Further basic experimental studies are needed to explore the underlying biological mechanisms linking mtDNAcn to CRC carcinogenesis.

2.
Mol Carcinog ; 58(11): 2091-2103, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435991

RESUMO

Glutamine dependence is a unique metabolic defect seen in cutaneous melanoma (CM), directly influencing the treatment and prognosis. Here, we investigated the associations between 6025 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 77 glutamine metabolic pathway genes with CM-specific survival (CMSS) using genotyping datasets from two published genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In the single-locus analysis, 76 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with CMSS (P < .050, false-positive report probability < 0.2 and Bayesian false discovery probability < 0.8) in the discovery dataset, of which seven SNPs were replicated in the validation dataset and three SNPs (HAL rs17676826T > C, LGSN rs12663017T > A, and NOXRED1 rs8012548A > G) independently predicted CMSS, with an effect-allele attributed adjusted hazards ratio of 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.93) and P < .001, 0.68 (0.54-0.87) and P = .002 and 0.62 (0.46-0.83) and P = .002, respectively. The model including the number of unfavorable genotypes (NUGs) of these three SNPs and covariates improved the five-year CMSS prediction (P = .012) than the one with other covariates only. Further expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis found that the LGSN rs12663017 A allele was significantly associated with increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels (P = 8.89 × 10 -11 ) in lymphoblastoid cell lines of the 1000 Genomes Project database. In the analysis of the genotype tissue expression (GTEx) project datasets, HAL rs17676826 C and NOXRED1 rs8012548 G alleles were significantly associated with their mRNA expression levels in sun-exposed skin of the lower leg (P = 6.62 × 10-6 and 1.37 × 10-7 , respectively) and in sun-not-exposed suprapubic skin (P < .001 and 1.43 × 10-8 , respectively). Taken together, these genetic variants of glutamine-metabolic pathway genes may be promising predictors of survival in patients with CM.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026225, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of educational level and risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer among Asian populations. DESIGN: A pooled analysis of 15 population-based cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 694 434 Asian individuals from 15 prospective cohorts within the Asia Cohort Consortium. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality, as well as for CVD-specific mortality and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 694 434 participants (mean age at baseline=53.2 years) were included in the analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 years, 103 023 deaths were observed, among which 33 939 were due to cancer and 34 645 were due to CVD. Higher educational levels were significantly associated with lower risk of death from all causes compared with a low educational level (≤primary education); HRs and 95% CIs for secondary education, trade/technical education and ≥university education were 0.88 (0.85 to 0.92), 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) and 0.71 (0.63 to 0.80), respectively (ptrend=0.002). Similarly, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94) and 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) for cancer death, and 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) and 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77) for CVD death with increasing levels of education (both ptrend <0.01). The pattern of the association among East Asians and South Asians was similar compared with ≤primary education; HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality associated with ≥university education was 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) among 539 724 East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and 0.61 (0.54 to 0.69) among 154 710 South Asians (Indians and Bangladeshis). CONCLUSION: Higher educational level was associated with substantially lower risk of death among Asian populations.

4.
J Proteome Res ; 18(8): 3184-3194, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290664

RESUMO

High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer (OC) type, accounting for 70-80% of OC deaths. This high mortality is largely due to late diagnosis. Early detection is thus crucial to reduce mortality, yet the tumor pathogenesis of HGSC remains poorly understood, making early detection exceedingly difficult. Faithfully and reliably representing the clinical nature of human HGSC, a recently developed triple-knockout (TKO) mouse model offers a unique opportunity to examine the entire disease spectrum of HGSC. Metabolic alterations were investigated by applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to serum samples collected from these mice at premalignant, early, and advanced stages of HGSC. This comprehensive analysis revealed a panel of 29 serum metabolites that distinguished mice with HGSC from controls and mice with uterine tumors with over 95% accuracy. Meanwhile, our panel could further distinguish early-stage HGSC from controls with 100% accuracy and from advanced-stage HGSC with over 90% accuracy. Important identified metabolites included phospholipids, sphingomyelins, sterols, N-acyltaurine, oligopeptides, bilirubin, 2(3)-hydroxysebacic acids, uridine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, and pyrazine derivatives. Overall, our study provides insights into dysregulated metabolism associated with HGSC development and progression, and serves as a useful guide toward early detection.

5.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335211

RESUMO

Citrus products are rich sources of furocoumarins, a class of photoactive compounds. Certain furocoumarins combined with ultraviolet radiation can induce skin cancer. We examined the relationship between citrus consumption and cutaneous melanoma risk among 56,205 Caucasian postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of melanoma by citrus intake level. During a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 956 incident melanoma cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models, the HR (95% CI) for melanoma was 1.12 (0.91, 1.37) among the highest citrus consumers (1.5+ servings/day of fruit or juice) versus the lowest (<2 servings/week), 0.95 (0.76, 1.20) among the highest citrus fruit consumers (5+ servings/week) versus non-consumers, and was 1.13 (0.96, 1.32) for the highest citrus juice consumers (1+ servings/day) versus the lowest (<1 serving/week). In stratified analyses, an increased melanoma risk associated with citrus juice intake was observed among women who spent the most time outdoors in summer as adults; the HR for the highest versus lowest intake was 1.22 (1.02, 1.46) (p trend = 0.03). Further research is needed to explore the association of melanoma with citrus juices among women with high sun exposure.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240705

RESUMO

Cutaneous malignant melanoma (hereafter called melanoma) is one of the most aggressive cancers with increasing incidence and mortality rates worldwide. In this study, we performed a systematic investigation of the tumor microenvironmental and genetic factors associated with melanoma to identify prognostic biomarkers for melanoma. We calculated the immune and stromal scores of melanoma patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using the ESTIMATE algorithm and found that they were closely associated with patients' prognosis. Then the differentially expressed genes were obtained based on the immune and stromal scores, and prognostic immune-related genes further identified. Functional analysis and the protein-protein interaction network further revealed that these genes enriched in many immune-related biological processes. In addition, the abundance of six infiltrating immune cells was analyzed using prognostic immune-related genes by TIMER algorithm. The unsupervised clustering analysis using immune-cell proportions revealed eight clusters with distinct survival patterns, suggesting that dendritic cells were most abundant in the microenvironment and CD8+ T cells and neutrophils were significantly related to patients' prognosis. Finally, we validated these genes in three independent cohorts from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. In conclusion, this study comprehensively analyzed the tumor microenvironment and identified prognostic immune-related biomarkers for melanoma.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

8.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(2): 489-499, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found familial aggregation of melanoma and keratinocyte cancers (KCs). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the risk of melanoma and KCs in those with a positive family history of melanoma while controlling for pigmentary and environmental risk factors. METHODS: We prospectively followed 216,115 participants from the Nurses' Health Study, Nurse's Health Study 2, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study for more than 20 years. Cox proportional hazards regression controlling for known risk factors for skin cancer was used to estimate association between family history of melanoma and melanoma and KCs. RESULTS: Compared with those without a family history of melanoma, individuals with a family history of melanoma had a 74% increased risk of melanoma (hazard ratio [HR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.09), a 22% increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.40), and a 27% increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12-1.44). Family history of melanoma increased the risk of development of truncal melanoma in both sexes, extremity melanoma in women, and extremity squamous cell carcinoma in women. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of this study include self-reported family history and detection bias. CONCLUSION: Individuals with a family history of melanoma are at an increased risk of melanoma and KCs.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 635-647, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee consumption has been linked to lower risk of various health outcomes. However, the biological pathways mediating the associations remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between coffee consumption and concentrations of plasma biomarkers in key metabolic and inflammatory pathways underlying common chronic diseases. METHODS: We investigated the associations of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption with 14 plasma biomarkers, including C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein (IGFBP) 1, IGFBP-3, estrone, total and free estradiol, total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR-2). Data were derived from 2 cohorts of 15,551 women (Nurses' Health Study) and 7397 men (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study), who provided detailed dietary data before blood draw and were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate the percentage difference of biomarker concentrations comparing coffee drinkers with nondrinkers, after adjusting for a variety of demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Compared with nondrinkers, participants who drank ≥4 cups of total coffee/d had lower concentrations of C-peptide (-8.7%), IGFBP-3 (-2.2%), estrone (-6.4%), total estradiol (-5.7%), free estradiol (-8.1%), leptin (-6.4%), CRP (-16.6%), IL-6 (-8.1%), and sTNFR-2 (-5.8%) and higher concentrations of SHBG (5.0%), total testosterone (7.3% in women and 5.3% in men), total adiponectin (9.3%), and HMW adiponectin (17.2%). The results were largely similar for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that coffee consumption is associated with favorable profiles of numerous biomarkers in key metabolic and inflammatory pathways. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03419455.

11.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 332-342, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline variants in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) might increase the risk of childhood and adolescent melanoma, but a clear conclusion is challenging because of the low number of studies and cases. We assessed the association of MC1R variants with childhood and adolescent melanoma in a large study comparing the prevalence of MC1R variants in child or adolescent patients with melanoma to that in adult patients with melanoma and in healthy adult controls. METHODS: In this retrospective pooled analysis, we used the M-SKIP Project, the Italian Melanoma Intergroup, and other European groups (with participants from Australia, Canada, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the USA) to assemble an international multicentre cohort. We gathered phenotypic and genetic data from children or adolescents diagnosed with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma at age 20 years or younger, adult patients with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed at age 35 years or older, and healthy adult individuals as controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for childhood and adolescent melanoma associated with MC1R variants by multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was done for children aged 18 or younger and 14 years or younger. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 233 young patients, 932 adult patients, and 932 healthy adult controls. Children and adolescents had higher odds of carrying MC1R r variants than did adult patients (OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·02-2·33), including when analysis was restricted to patients aged 18 years or younger (1·80, 1·06-3·07). All investigated variants, except Arg160Trp, tended, to varying degrees, to have higher frequencies in young patients than in adult patients, with significantly higher frequencies found for Val60Leu (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·05-2·44; p=0·04) and Asp294His (2·15, 1·05-4·40; p=0·04). Compared with those of healthy controls, young patients with melanoma had significantly higher frequencies of any MC1R variants. INTERPRETATION: Our pooled analysis of MC1R genetic data of young patients with melanoma showed that MC1R r variants were more prevalent in childhood and adolescent melanoma than in adult melanoma, especially in patients aged 18 years or younger. Our findings support the role of MC1R in childhood and adolescent melanoma susceptibility, with a potential clinical relevance for developing early melanoma detection and preventive strategies. FUNDING: SPD-Pilot/Project-Award-2015; AIRC-MFAG-11831.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 424-432, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721920

RESUMO

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important component of the aging process and has been implicated in the development of many human diseases. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), an indirect biomarker of mitochondrial function, is sensitive to oxidative damage. Few population-based studies have investigated the impact of fruit and vegetable consumption and cigarette smoke (2 major sources of exogenous antioxidants and oxidants) on leukocyte mtDNAcn. Objectives: We investigated the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mtDNAcn based on data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Methods: Data from 2769 disease-free women in the NHS were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary sources of antioxidants, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mtDNAcn. In vitro cell-based experiments were conducted to support the findings from the population-based study. Results: In the multivariable-adjusted model, both whole-fruit consumption and intake of flavanones (a group of antioxidants abundant in fruit) were positively associated with leukocyte mtDNAcn (P-trend = 0.005 and 0.02, respectively), whereas pack-years of smoking and smoking duration were inversely associated with leukocyte mtDNAcn (P-trend = 0.01 and 0.007, respectively). These findings are supported by in vitro cell-based experiments showing that the administration of naringin, a major flavanone in fruit, led to a substantial increase in mtDNAcn in human leukocytes, whereas exposure to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, a key carcinogenic ingredient of cigarette smoke, resulted in a significant decrease in mtDNAcn of cells (all P < 0.05). Further in vitro studies showed that alterations in leukocyte mtDNAcn were functionally linked to the modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Conclusions: Fruit consumption and intake of dietary flavanones were associated with increased leukocyte mtDNAcn, whereas cigarette smoking was associated with decreased leukocyte mtDNAcn, which is a promising biomarker for oxidative stress-related health outcomes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Dieta , Leucócitos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Cetonas/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Nitrosaminas/efeitos adversos , Oxidantes/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/análise , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Verduras/química
13.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2619-2628, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734280

RESUMO

Fatty acids play a key role in cellular bioenergetics, membrane biosynthesis and intracellular signaling processes and thus may be involved in cancer development and progression. In the present study, we comprehensively assessed associations of 14,522 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 149 genes of the fatty-acid synthesis pathway with cutaneous melanoma disease-specific survival (CMSS). The dataset of 858 cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients from a published genome-wide association study (GWAS) by The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was used as the discovery dataset, and the identified significant SNPs were validated by a dataset of 409 CM patients from another GWAS from the Nurses' Health and Health Professionals Follow-up Studies. We found 40 noteworthy SNPs to be associated with CMSS in both discovery and validation datasets after multiple comparison correction by the false positive report probability method, because more than 85% of the SNPs were imputed. By performing functional prediction, linkage disequilibrium analysis, and stepwise Cox regression selection, we identified two independent SNPs of ELOVL2 rs3734398 T>C and HSD17B12 rs11037684 A>G that predicted CMSS, with an allelic hazards ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.84 and p = 8.34 × 10-4 ) and 2.29 (1.55-3.39 and p = 3.61 × 10-5 ), respectively. Finally, the ELOVL2 rs3734398 variant CC genotype was found to be associated with a significantly increased mRNA expression level. These SNPs may be potential markers for CM prognosis, if validated by additional larger and mechanistic studies.

14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 80(4): 970-978, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of nevi portends an increased risk for melanoma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association between extremity nevus count and the risk of melanoma and keratinocyte cancers. METHODS: We evaluated prospective cohorts of 176,317 women (the Nurses' Health Study, 1986-2012 and the Nurses' Health Study 2, 1989-2013) and 32,383 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986-2012). Information on nevus count (none, 1-5, 6-14, ≥15) on the extremity was collected at baseline. RESULTS: There were 1704 incident cases of melanoma, 2296 incident cases of squamous cell carcinoma, and 30,457 incident cases of basal cell carcinoma, with a total of 4,655,043 person-years for melanoma and 4,267,708 person-years for keratinocyte cancers. The presence of an extremity nevus was associated with an increased risk of melanoma in all anatomic areas and increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Individuals with ≥15 nevi had the highest risk of melanoma and BCC compared to those without any extremity nevi (melanoma hazard ratio 2.79 [95% confidence interval 2.04-3.83]; BCC HR 1.40 [95% confidence interval 1.32-1.49]). No significant association was observed for squamous cell carcinoma. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of our study included self-reported nevus count and detection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Extremity nevus count is a helpful clinical marker in risk-stratifying individuals for BCC and melanoma on all body sites.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Nevo Pigmentado/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carga Tumoral , Feminino , Antebraço , Humanos , Incidência , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(5): 283-294, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760501

RESUMO

Calcium intake has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. Calcium signaling may enhance T-cell proliferation and differentiation, and contribute to T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association between calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk according to tumor immunity status to provide additional insights into the role of calcium in colorectal carcinogenesis. The densities of tumor-infiltrating T-cell subsets [CD3+, CD8+ , CD45RO (PTPRC) + , or FOXP3+ cell] were assessed using IHC and computer-assisted image analysis in 736 cancer cases that developed among 136,249 individuals in two cohorts. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Total calcium intake was associated with a multivariable HR of 0.55 (comparing ≥1,200 vs. <600 mg/day; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84; P trend = 0.002) for CD8+ T-cell-low but not for CD8+ T-cell-high tumors (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.67-1.55; P trend = 0.47). Similarly, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for calcium for low versus high T-cell-infiltrated tumors were 0.63 (0.42-0.94; P trend = 0.01) and 0.89 (0.58-1.35; P trend = 0.20) for CD3+ ; 0.58 (0.39-0.87; P trend = 0.006) and 1.04 (0.69-1.58; P trend = 0.54) for CD45RO+ ; and 0.56 (0.36-0.85; P trend = 0.006) and 1.10 (0.72-1.67; P trend = 0.47) for FOXP3+ , although the differences by subtypes defined by T-cell density were not statistically significant. These potential differential associations generally appeared consistent regardless of sex, source of calcium intake, tumor location, and tumor microsatellite instability status. Our findings suggest a possible role of calcium in cancer immunoprevention via modulation of T-cell function.

16.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(2): 279-288, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596980

RESUMO

Remodeling or deregulation of the calcium signaling pathway is a relevant hallmark of cancer including cutaneous melanoma (CM). In this study, using data from a published genome-wide association study (GWAS) from The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, we assessed the role of 41,377 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 167 calcium signaling pathway genes in CM survival. We used another GWAS from Harvard University as the validation dataset. In the single-locus analysis, 1830 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with CM-specific survival (CMSS; P ≤ 0.050 and false-positive report probability ≤ 0.2), of which 9 SNPs were validated in the Harvard study (P ≤ 0.050). Among these, three independent SNPs (i.e. PDE1A rs6750552 T>C, ITPR1 rs6785564 A>G and RYR3 rs2596191 C>A) had a predictive role in CMSS, with a meta-analysis-derived hazards ratio of 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.19-1.94, P = 7.21 × 10-4), 0.49 (0.33-0.73, 3.94 × 10-4) and 0.67 (0.53-0.86, 0.0017), respectively. Patients with an increasing number of protective genotypes had remarkably improved CMSS. Additional expression quantitative trait loci analysis showed that these genotypes were also significantly associated with mRNA expression levels of the genes. Taken together, these results may help us to identify prospective biomarkers in the calcium signaling pathway for CM prognosis.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1115-1122, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018150

RESUMO

Incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has continued to rise despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors among populations at risk. However, dietary factors may also affect the development of melanoma. In the past few decades, findings from epidemiologic and experimental research have linked consumption of several foods and other nutrients to the risk of melanoma. Caffeine has been associated with a lower risk of melanoma, and citrus fruits and alcohol with increased risk. Associations between polyunsaturated fatty acid, niacin/nicotinamide, folate, and vitamin D with melanoma remain controversial. Diet likely influences melanoma development through several potential mechanisms, such as enhancing UV-induced apoptosis and increasing photosensitivity. We conducted a narrative review to summarize recent epidemiologic studies of diet and melanoma based on published literature. Given the high prevalence of the food items and nutrients covered in this review and the decades-long rising melanoma incidence worldwide, the associations we discuss may have important public health implications in terms of reducing melanoma incidence through dietary modification. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1115-22. ©2018 AACR.

18.
Cancer Med ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761859

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence implies that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in predicting survival for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. This study aims to capture the current research hotspots of HCC, based on the analysis of publications related to HCC research from 2013 to 2017, and to identify a novel lncRNA signature for HCC prognosis through the data mining in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). "Prognosis" and "biomarker" were located in the core of the HCC research hotspot. Moreover, long noncoding RNA was the top one research frontier in HCC research. The associations between survival outcome and the expression of lncRNAs were evaluated by the univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Four lncRNAs (LINC00261, TRELM3P, GBP1P1, and CDKN2B-AS1) were identified as significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). These four lncRNAs were gathered as a single prognostic signature. There was a significant positive correlation between HCC patients with low-risk scores and overall survival (HR = 1.802, 95%CI [1.224-2.652], P = .003). Further analysis suggested that the prognostic value of this four-lncRNA signature was independent in clinical features. The enrichment analysis of prognostic lncRNA-related gene was performed to find out the related pathways. Our study indicates that this novel lncRNA expression signature may be a useful biomarker of the prognosis for HCC patients, based on bioinformatics analysis.

19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 33(5): 485-495, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619669

RESUMO

Adiposity may cause adverse health outcomes by increasing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, which can be reflected by altered telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtCN) in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on TL and mtCN in later life. This study was performed to investigate the associations of lifetime adiposity with leukocyte TL and mtCN in 9613 participants from the Nurses' Health Study. A group-based trajectory modelling approach was used to create trajectories of body shape from age 5 through 60 years, and a genetic risk score (GRS) was created based on 97 known adiposity susceptibility variants. Associations of body shape trajectories and GRS with dichotomized TL and mtCN were assessed by logistic regression models. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors, compared with the lean-stable group, the lean-marked increase group had higher odds of having below-median TL (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.04, 1.35; P = 0.01), and the medium-marked increase group had higher odds of having below-median mtCN (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.00, 1.64; P = 0.047). There was a suggestive trend toward lower mtCN across the GRS quartiles (P for trend = 0.07). In conclusion, telomere attrition may be accelerated by marked weight gain in middle life, whereas mtCN is likely to be reduced persistently by adiposity over the life course. The findings indicate the importance of lifetime weight management to preserve functional telomeres and mitochondria.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(12): 1550-1558, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27909090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of numerous cancers, but existing evidence for an association with melanoma is equivocal. No study has evaluated the association with different anatomic locations of melanoma. METHODS: We used data from three large prospective cohort studies to investigate whether alcohol intake was associated with risk of melanoma. Alcohol intake was assessed repeatedly by food-frequency questionnaires. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: A total of 1,374 cases of invasive melanoma were documented during 3,855,706 person-years of follow-up. There was an association between higher alcohol intake and incidence of invasive melanoma (pooled multivariate HR 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.29] per drink/day; Ptrend = 0.04). Among alcoholic beverages, white wine consumption was associated with an increased risk of melanoma (pooled multivariate HR 1.13 [95% CI, 1.04-1.24] per drink/day; Ptrend <0.01) after adjusting for other alcoholic beverages. The association between alcohol consumption and melanoma risk was stronger for melanoma in relatively UV-spared sites (trunk) versus more UV-exposed sites (head, neck, or extremities). Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled multivariate-adjusted HRs for ≥20 g/day of alcohol were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.64-1.62; Ptrend = 0.25) for melanomas of the head, neck, and extremities and 1.73 (95% CI, 1.25-2.38; Ptrend = 0.02) for melanomas of the trunk. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake was associated with a modest increase in the risk of melanoma, particularly in UV-protected sites. IMPACT: These findings further support American Cancer Society Guidelines for Cancer Prevention to limit alcohol intake. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1550-8. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
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