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3.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(1): 299-309, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332759

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gut microbiota has been reported to contribute to obesity and the pathology of obesity-related diseases but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique subpopulation of T cells characterized by the expression of a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) α chain (Vα19 in mice; Vα7.2 in humans). The expansion and maturation of MAIT cells require the gut microbiota and antigen-presenting molecule MR1, suggesting that MAIT cells may play a unique role in bridging gut microbiota, obesity, and obesity-associated inflammation. METHODS: The levels of human MAIT cells from obese patients, as well as mouse MAIT cells from obese mouse models, were determined by flow cytometry. By comparing to controls, we analyzed the change of MAIT cells in obese subjects. RESULTS: We found obese patients had fewer circulating MAIT cells than healthy-weight donors and the difference was more distinct in male patients. Consistently, male mice (but not female mice) have shown reduced MAIT cells in the liver and adipose tissue after a 10-week Western diet compared to mice on a control diet. We also explored the possibility of utilizing high-throughput technology (i.e., quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]), other than flow cytometry, to determine the expression levels of the invariant TCR of human MAIT cells. But a minimal correlation (R2 = 0.23, p = .11) was observed between qPCR and flow cytometry data. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that there is a sex discrepancy in the impact of obesity on MAIT cells: MAIT cells in male (but not female) humans and male mice are reduced by obesity.

5.
Melanoma Res ; 30(5): 500-510, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898390

RESUMO

Little is known on whether melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) associated cutaneous melanoma (CM) risk varies depending on histological subtype and body site, and whether tumour thickness at diagnosis (the most important prognostic factor for CM patients) differs between MC1R variant carriers and wild-type individuals. We studied the association between MC1R variants and CM risk by histological subtype, body site, and Breslow thickness, using the database of the M-SKIP project. We pooled individual data from 15 case-control studies conducted during 2005-2015 in Europe and the USA. Study-specific, multi-adjusted odds ratios were pooled into summary odds ratios (SOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. Six thousand eight hundred ninety-one CM cases and 5555 controls were included. CM risk was increased among MC1R variant carriers vs. wild-type individuals. The increase in risk was comparable across histological subtypes (SOR for any variant vs. wild-type ranged between 1.57 and 1.70, always statistical significant) except acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), for which no association emerged; and slightly greater on chronically (1.74, 95% CI 1.47-2.07) than intermittently (1.55, 95% CI 1.34-1.78) sun-exposed skin. CM risk was greater for those carrying 'R' vs. 'r' variants; correlated with the number of variants; and was more evident among individuals not showing the red hair colour phenotype. Breslow thickness was not associated with MC1R status. MC1R variants were associated with an increased risk of CM of any histological subtype (except ALM) and occurring on both chronically and intermittently sun-exposed skin.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958585

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrate mixed evidence regarding the association between metformin and skin cancer risk. To synthesize prior evidence and evaluate the association between metformin and skin cancer risk in patients with diabetes/prediabetes, we conducted a meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was performed up to March 23, 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies of metformin that reported any event of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and melanoma. In a meta-analysis of 6 trials involving 8,541 patients (Peto's method), compared to controls, metformin was not significantly associated with decreased risk of melanoma (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.27-2.43), BCC (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.36-1.57), SCC (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.06-15.60), total non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.24), or total skin cancer (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.42-1.20). This non-significant association pattern was consistent with the random-effects meta-analysis of 4 cohort studies with 354,746 patients (melanoma: RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.62-1.33; NMSC: RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35-1.18; total skin cancer: RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59-1.16). In conclusion, meta-analyses of both RCT and cohort studies showed no statistically significant association between metformin and skin cancer risks, although suggestive evidence of modestly reduced risks of skin cancer among metformin users was observed. Further studies are needed.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 84-94, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is the most lethal type of skin cancers. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) plays an important role in anabolic reactions and tumorigenesis, but many genes are involved in the NADPH system. METHODS: We used 10,912 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (2018 genotyped and 8894 imputed) in 134 NADPH-related genes from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 858 patients from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in a single-locus analysis to predict CM survival. We then replicated the results in another GWAS data set of 409 patients from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). RESULTS: There were 95 of 858 (11.1%) and 48 of 409 (11.7%) patients who died of CM, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, we identified two independent SNPs (TKT rs9864057 G > A and deoxyribose phosphate aldolase (DERA) rs12297652 A > G) to be significantly associated with CM-specific survival [hazards ratio (HR) of 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-1.96, P = 1.06 × 10-3 and 1.51 (1.19-1.91, 5.89 × 10-4)] in the meta-analysis, respectively. Furthermore, an increasing number of risk genotypes of these two SNPs was associated with a higher risk of death in the MDACC, the NHS/HPFS, and their combined data sets (Ptrend<0.001, = 0.004 and <0.001, respectively). In the expression quantitative trait loci analysis, TKT rs9864057 G > A and DERA rs12297652 A > G were also significantly associated with higher mRNA expression levels in sun-exposed lower-leg skin (P = 0.043 and 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that these two potentially functional SNPs may be valuable prognostic biomarkers for CM survival, but larger studies are needed to validate these findings.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

10.
EBioMedicine ; 57: 102860, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour budding and poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) represent forms of tumour invasion. We hypothesised that T-cell densities (reflecting adaptive anti-tumour immunity) might be inversely associated with tumour budding and PDC in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Utilising 915 colon and rectal carcinomas in two U.S.-wide prospective cohort studies, and multiplex immunofluorescence combined with machine learning algorithms, we assessed CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO (PTPRC), and FOXP3 co-expression patterns in lymphocytes. Tumour budding and PDC at invasive fronts were quantified by digital pathology and image analysis using the International tumour Budding Consensus Conference criteria. Using covariate data of 4,420 incident colorectal cancer cases, inverse probability weighting (IPW) was integrated with multivariable logistic regression analysis that assessed the association of T-cell subset densities with tumour budding and PDC while adjusting for selection bias due to tissue availability and potential confounders, including microsatellite instability status. FINDINGS: Tumour budding counts were inversely associated with density of CD3+CD8+ [lowest vs. highest: multivariable odds ratio (OR), 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-0.70; Ptrend < 0.001] and CD3+CD8+CD45RO+ cells (lowest vs. highest: multivariable OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.63; Ptrend < 0.001) in tumour epithelial region. Tumour budding levels were associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (multivariable hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89; Ptrend < 0.001) in Cox regression analysis. There were no significant associations of PDC with T-cell subsets. INTERPRETATION: Tumour epithelial naïve and memory cytotoxic T cell densities are inversely associated with tumour budding at invasive fronts, suggesting that cytotoxic anti-tumour immunity suppresses tumour microinvasion.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 68: 101778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) is considered a biomarker for mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Although previous studies have suggested a potential relationship between mtDNAcn at the time of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and CRC prognosis, findings have been inconsistent, and no study has specifically investigated the association of pre-diagnostic mtDNAcn with CRC survival. METHODS: We examined the association of pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn (measured by qPCR) with overall and CRC-specific survival among 587 patients in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Cox models were constructed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.5 years, 395 deaths were identified; 180 were due to CRC. Overall, we did not observe significant associations between mtDNAcn and either overall or CRC-specific survival among all cases or by cancer location, grade, or stage. In an exploratory stratified analysis, a suggestive inverse association of mtDNAcn and overall death risk appeared among current smokers [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease in mtDNAcn = 1.50 (0.98, 2.32), P-trend = 0.06]. Reduced mtDNAcn and lower CRC-specific death risk was observed among patients aged ≤ 70.5 at diagnosis [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease of mtDNAcn = 0.71 (0.52, 0.97), P-trend = 0.03], ≤ 5 years from blood collection to diagnosis [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease in mtDNAcn = 0.65 (0.44, 0.96), P-trend = 0.03] and those consuming a low-inflammatory diet [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease in mtDNAcn = 0.61 (0.42, 0.88), P-trend = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: no significant associations between pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn and either overall or CRC-specific survival appeared but exploratory analysis identified potential sub-group associations.

12.
J Glaucoma ; 29(6): 448-455, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487970

RESUMO

PRECIS: In a cohort study of 120,307 participants with 25+ years of follow-up, a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was associated with a 40% higher exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) risk. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NMSC (a marker of ultraviolet radiation exposure) and XFG. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of US women (n=79,102; 1980-2014) and men (n=41,205; 1986-2014), aged 40+ years and at risk for glaucoma who reported eye examinations. From 1984 (women)/1988 (men), we asked about basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma history separately; in prior years, we asked about any NMSC history in a single question. Squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed with histopathology reports while basal cell carcinoma and any early (<1984/<1988) NMSC history was self-reported. Incident XFG cases (362 women and 83 men) were confirmed with medical records. Using pooled data, we estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks [MVRRs; 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] with Cox proportional hazards models that were stratified by age (in mo), 2-year time period at risk and average lifetime residential latitude. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted analyses, we observed a 40% higher XFG risk with any NMSC history (MVRR=1.40; 95% CI=1.08-1.82); the association was observed even with 4 and 8-year lags in NMSC history. Also, the NMSC association was stronger in younger (below 65 y; MVRR=2.56; 95% CI=1.62-4.05) versus older participants (65 y and above; MVRR=1.25; 95% CI=0.94-1.66; P for interaction=0.01) and those living in the northern latitudes (≥42°N; MVRR=1.92; 95% CI=1.28-2.88) versus more southern latitudes (<42°N; MVRR=1.19; 95% CI=0.86-1.66; P for interaction=0.04). CONCLUSION: NMSC was associated with higher XFG risk, particularly among younger participants and those living in the Northern US.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Exfoliação/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Síndrome de Exfoliação/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
13.
J Nutr ; 150(8): 2156-2163, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor lifestyles have been linked to insulin insensitivity/hyperinsulinemia, which may contribute to downstream changes such as inflammation and oxidative damage and the development of chronic diseases. As a biomarker of intracellular oxidative stress, leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has been related to lifestyle factors including diet and weight. No epidemiologic study has examined the relation between combined insulinemic potential of lifestyle and mtDNA-CN. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association between Empirical Lifestyle Index for Hyperinsulinemia (ELIH) and leukocyte mtDNA-CN in US men and women. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 2835 white adults without cancers, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease at blood collection, including 2160 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 675 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. ELIH is an index based on plasma C-peptide that characterizes the insulinemic potential of lifestyle (diet, body weight, and physical activity). Relative mtDNA-CN in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by qPCR-based assay. RESULTS: We found a significant inverse association between ELIH and mtDNA-CN. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, absolute least squares means ± SDs of mtDNA-CN z score across ELIH quintiles in women were as follows: Q1: 0.14 ± 0.05; Q2: 0.04 ± 0.06; Q3: 0.008 ± 0.05; Q4: 0.01 ± 0.05; and Q5: -0.06 ± 0.05 (P-trend = 0.006). Means ± SDs in men were as follows: Q1: 0.25 ± 0.09; Q2: 0.23 ± 0.09; Q3: 0.07 ± 0.09; Q4: 0.02 ± 0.09; and Q5: -0.04 ± 0.09 (P-trend = 0.007). Means ± SDs in all participants were as follows: Q1: 0.16 ± 0.05; Q2: 0.07 ± 0.05; Q3: 0.01 ± 0.05; Q4: 0.01 ± 0.05; and Q5: -0.05 ± 0.05 (P-trend = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperinsulinemic lifestyles (i.e., higher ELIH) were associated with lower leukocyte mtDNA-CN among subjects without major diseases, suggesting that the difference in lifestyle insulinemic potential may be related to excessive oxidative stress damage.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Hiperinsulinismo , Leucócitos , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Estados Unidos
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1817-1824, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors, such as smoking and sex, also remain to be investigated. METHODS: We conducted gene-wide analyses of colorectal cancer prognosis in 4,896 invasive colorectal cancer cases from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO); 1,871 common variants within 13 telomere maintenance genes were included. Cox models were fit to estimate associations of these variants individually with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for interaction by smoking and sex. P values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: The association between minor allele of rs7200950 (ACD) with colorectal cancer-specific survival varied significantly by smoking pack-years (corrected P = 0.049), but no significant trend was observed. By sex, minor alleles for rs2975843 (TERF1), rs75676021 (POT1), and rs74429678 (POT1) were associated with decreased overall and/or colorectal cancer-specific survival in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a gene-wide statistically significant interaction with sex (TERF1, POT1). Although significant interaction by smoking pack-years (ACD) was observed, there was no evidence of a dose response. Validation of these findings in other large studies and further functional annotation on these SNPs are warranted. IMPACT: Our study found a gene-smoking and gene-sex interaction on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, providing new insights into the role of genetic polymorphisms in telomere maintenance on colorectal cancer prognosis.

15.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(4): 1049-1056, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taller individuals are at higher risk of melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association of height with nevus count and melanoma and estimate the proportion of height-melanoma association explained by nevus count among white participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study 2 (NHS2). METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazards regression and multinomial logistic regression for data analyses, with adjustment of potential confounders in the multivariate model. RESULTS: We included 82,468 and 106,069 women from NHS and NHS2, respectively. The hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.31) for the association between every 10-cm increase in height and melanoma. Compared with women with no nevi, the odds ratios (95% CIs) associated with a 10-cm increase in height were 1.35 (95% CI 1.23-1.48) in the NHS and 1.12 (95% CI 1.09-1.15) in the NHS2 for women with greater than or equal to 10 moles. The proportion of excess melanoma risk associated with each 10-cm increase in height explained by nevus count was 8.03% in the NHS and 10.22% in the NHS2. LIMITATION: Self-reported height and nevus count. Mole counts were limited to 1 arm or both legs. CONCLUSION: Nevus count is an important explanatory factor for the excess risk of melanoma among taller white women.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 257-267, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] tend to be lower in African Americans than in non-Hispanic whites, but whether adding information on parathyroid hormone (PTH) can help explain the higher cardiometabolic risk among African Americans is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study examined race (black/white)-specific independent and joint associations of 25(OH)D and PTH with cardiometabolic biomarkers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ß-cell function (HOMA-B). METHODS: Among 1500 white and 1300 black postmenopausal women without cardiovascular disease from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a weighted linear regression analysis and a novel penalized spline-based semiparametric model with contour plots, accounting for possible nonlinear relations and interactions simultaneously, were used to investigate the race-specific independent and joint associations of 25(OH)D and PTH with each biomarker. RESULTS: Black women had lower concentrations of 25(OH)D and higher PTH, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, hs-CRP, and eGFR than white women (all P values < 0.0001). Lower 25(OH)D and higher PTH were each independently and jointly associated with higher HOMA-IR in both white and black women, whereas a similar joint relation with HOMA-B was observed in white women only. In contrast, PTH was nonlinearly associated with HOMA-B in black women and positively associated with hs-CRP in white women, independently of 25(OH)D. Whereas there was an inverse linear relation between PTH and eGFR in white women after accounting for 25(OH)D, PTH and 25(OH)D were jointly and nonlinearly associated with eGFR in black women. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the joint association of 25(OH)D and PTH with ß-cell function, systemic inflammation, and kidney function apparently differed between white and black women. Further studies are needed to determine whether differences in the vitamin D-PTH endocrine system contribute to racial disparities in cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Vitamina D/sangue
17.
Environ Int ; 141: 105761, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with mitochondrial damage and dysfunction caused by excessive oxidative stress, but the associations between long-term PM exposure and leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress, are less studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between short-, intermediate- and long-term exposure (1-, 3- and 12-months) to different size fractions of PM (PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10) and leukocyte mtDNAcn in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: The associations between each of the PM exposure metrics with z scores of log-transformed mtDNAcn were examined using generalized linear regression models in 2758 female participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Monthly exposures to PM were estimated from spatio-temporal prediction models matched to each participants' address history. Potential effect modification by selected covariates was examined using multiplicative interaction terms and subgroup analyses. RESULTS: In single-size fraction models, increases in all size fractions of PM were associated with decreases in mtDNAcn, although only models with longer averages of PM2.5 reached statistical significance. For example, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 12-month average ambient PM2.5 (5.5 µg/m3) was associated with a 0.07 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.13, -0.01; p-value = 0.02] decrease in mtDNAcn z score in both basic- and multivariable-adjusted models. Associations for PM2.5 were stronger after controlling for PM2.5-10 in two size-fraction models. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with decreased mtDNAcn in healthy women.

18.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(6): 640-650, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232919

RESUMO

A few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to be associated with cutaneous melanoma (CM) survival through genome-wide association studies, but stringent multiple testing corrections required for the hypothesis-free testing may have masked some true associations. Using a hypothesis-driven analysis approach, we sought to evaluate associations between SNPs in ketone body metabolic pathway genes and CM survival. We comprehensively assessed associations between 4196 (538 genotyped and 3658 imputed) common SNPs in 44 ketone body metabolic pathway genes and CM survival, using a dataset of 858 patients of a case-control study from The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center as the discovery set and another dataset of 409 patients from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study as the replication set. There were 95/858 (11.1%) and 48/409 (11.7%) patients who died of CM, respectively. We identified two independent SNPs (ie, PDSS1 rs12254548 G>C and SLC16A6 rs71387392 G>A) that were associated with CM survival, with allelic hazards ratios of 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44-0.76, P = 9.00 × 10-5 ) and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.34-2.94, P = 6.30 × 10-4 ), respectively. Additionally, associations between genotypes of the SNPs and messenger RNA expression levels of their corresponding genes support the biologic plausibility of a role for these two variants in CM tumor progression and survival. Once validated by other larger studies, PDSS1 rs12254548 and SLC16A6 rs71387392 may be valuable biomarkers for CM survival.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Cetonas/metabolismo , Melanoma/mortalidade , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Simportadores/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Nutr ; 150(6): 1535-1544, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In prior studies, higher citrus consumption was associated with higher risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Furocoumarins, compounds with phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity in citrus, may be responsible for the association. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between furocoumarin intake and skin cancer risk. METHODS: A total of 47,453 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and 75,291 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) with diet data collected every 2-4 y in the 2 prospective cohort studies were included. A furocoumarin food composition database for 7 common furocoumarins [bergaptol, psoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (6'7'-DHB), epoxybergamottin, and bergamottin] was developed and used to calculate participants' cumulative average and energy-adjusted furocoumarin intake. Multivariate HRs and 95% CIs of the associations between furocoumarin intake and skin cancer risk were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were performed separately in each cohort as well as pooled using a fixed-effects model. RESULTS: Throughout follow-up (1984-2012 in the NHS and 1986-2012 in the HPFS), we identified 1593 melanoma, 4066 SCC, and 28,630 BCC cases. Higher intake of total furocoumarins was associated with an increased risk of BCC; the pooled HR comparing the top with the bottom quintile was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.21; P-trend = 0.002). Higher intakes of bergaptol, bergapten, 6'7'-DHB, and bergamottin were also significantly associated with increased BCC risk. No significant associations were found between intake of total furocoumarins and the risks of SCC or melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of total furocoumarins as well as some individual furocoumarins were associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, especially BCC, in 2 cohorts of US health professionals.


Assuntos
Citrus , Furocumarinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Feminino , Furocumarinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/classificação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Cancer Med ; 9(10): 3563-3573, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and diabetes are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), likely through perturbations in metabolic traits (e.g. insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis). Identification of interactions between variation in genes and these metabolic risk factors may identify novel biologic insights into CRC etiology. METHODS: To improve statistical power and interpretation for gene-environment interaction (G × E) testing, we tested genetic variants that regulate expression of a gene together for interaction with BMI (kg/m2 ) and diabetes on CRC risk among 26 017 cases and 20 692 controls. Each variant was weighted based on PrediXcan analysis of gene expression data from colon tissue generated in the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project for all genes with heritability ≥1%. We used a mixed-effects model to jointly measure the G × E interaction in a gene by partitioning the interactions into the predicted gene expression levels (fixed effects), and residual G × E effects (random effects). G × BMI analyses were stratified by sex as BMI-CRC associations differ by sex. We used false discovery rates to account for multiple comparisons and reported all results with FDR <0.2. RESULTS: Among 4839 genes tested, genetically predicted expressions of FOXA1 (P = 3.15 × 10-5 ), PSMC5 (P = 4.51 × 10-4 ) and CD33 (P = 2.71 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for men; KIAA0753 (P = 2.29 × 10-5 ) and SCN1B (P = 2.76 × 10-4 ) modified the association of BMI on CRC risk for women; and PTPN2 modified the association between diabetes and CRC risk in both sexes (P = 2.31 × 10-5 ). CONCLUSIONS: Aggregating G × E interactions and incorporating functional information, we discovered novel genes that may interact with BMI and diabetes on CRC risk.

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