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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 29, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal mortality worldwide. We sought to explore the experiences of health care workers in managing foetal distress and birth asphyxia to gain an understanding of the challenges in a low-income setting. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 12 midwives and 4 doctors working in maternity units from different health facilities in Northern Uganda in 2018. We used a semi-structured interview guide which included questions related to; health care workers' experiences of maternity care, care for foetal distress and birth asphyxia, views on possible preventive actions and perspectives of the community. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: Four categories emerged: (i) Understanding of and actions for foetal distress and birth asphyxia including knowledge, misconception and interventions; (ii) Challenges of managing foetal distress and birth asphyxia such as complexities of the referral system, refusal of referral, lack of equipment, and human resource problems, (iii) Expectations and blame from the community, and finally (iv) Health care worker' insights into prevention of foetal distress and birth asphyxia. CONCLUSION: Health care workers described management of foetal distress and birth asphyxia as complex and challenging. Thus, guidelines to manage foetal distress and birth asphyxia that are specifically tailored to the different levels of health facilities to ensure high quality of care and reduction of need for referral are called for. Innovative ways to operationalise transportation for referral and community dialogues could lead to improved birth experiences and outcomes.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 383(22): 2138-2147, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Face-mask ventilation is the most common resuscitation method for birth asphyxia. Ventilation with a cuffless laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has potential advantages over face-mask ventilation during neonatal resuscitation in low-income countries, but whether the use of an LMA reduces mortality and morbidity among neonates with asphyxia is unknown. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label, superiority trial in Uganda, we randomly assigned neonates who required positive-pressure ventilation to be treated by a midwife with an LMA or with face-mask ventilation. All the neonates had an estimated gestational age of at least 34 weeks, an estimated birth weight of at least 2000 g, or both. The primary outcome was a composite of death within 7 days or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at day 1 to 5 during hospitalization. RESULTS: Complete follow-up data were available for 99.2% of the neonates. A primary outcome event occurred in 154 of 563 neonates (27.4%) in the LMA group and 144 of 591 (24.4%) in the face-mask group (adjusted relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.51; P = 0.26). Death within 7 days occurred in 21.7% of the neonates in the LMA group and 18.4% of those in the face-mask group (adjusted relative risk, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.63), and admission to the NICU with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at day 1 to 5 during hospitalization occurred in 11.2% and 10.1%, respectively (adjusted relative risk, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.93). Findings were materially unchanged in a sensitivity analysis in which neonates with missing data were counted as having had a primary outcome event in the LMA group and as not having had such an event in the face-mask group. The frequency of predefined intervention-related adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In neonates with asphyxia, the LMA was safe in the hands of midwives but was not superior to face-mask ventilation with respect to early neonatal death and moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. (Funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Center for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health; NeoSupra ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03133572.).

3.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 4(1): e000688, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760813

RESUMO

Background: Heart rate (HR) assessment is crucial in neonatal resuscitation, but pulse oximetry (PO) and electrocardiography (ECG) are rarely accessible in low-resource to middle-resource settings. This study evaluated a free-of-charge smartphone application, NeoTap, which records HR with a screen-tapping method bypassing mental arithmetic calculations. Methods: This observational study was carried out during three time periods between May 2015 and January 2019 in Uganda in three phases. In phase 1, a metronome rate (n=180) was recorded by low-end users (midwives) using NeoTap. In phase 2, HR (n=69) in breathing neonates was recorded by high-end users (paediatricians) using NeoTap versus PO. In phase 3, HR (n=235) in non-breathing neonates was recorded by low-end users using NeoTap versus ECG. Results: In high-end users the mean difference was 3 beats per minute (bpm) higher with NeoTap versus PO (95% agreement limits -14 to 19 bpm), with acquisition time of 5 seconds. In low-end users, the mean difference was 6 bpm lower with NeoTap versus metronome (95% agreement limits -26 to 14 bpm) and 3 bpm higher with NeoTap versus ECG in non-breathing neonates (95% agreement limits -48 to 53 bpm), with acquisition time of 2.7 seconds. The agreement between NeoTap and ECG was good in the HR categories of 60-99 bpm and ≥100 bpm; HR <60 bpm had few measurements (kappa index 0.71, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.79). Conclusion: HR could be accurately and rapidly assessed using a smartphone application in breathing neonates in a low-resource setting. Clinical assessment by low-end users was less accurate with wider CI but still adds clinically important information in non-breathing neonates. The authors suggest low-end users may benefit from auscultation-focused training. More research is needed to evaluate its feasibility in clinical use.

4.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1711618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955672

RESUMO

Background: In Uganda, perinatal mortality is 38 per 1000 pregnancies. One-third of these deaths are due to birth asphyxia. Adequate fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor may detect birth asphyxia but little is known about monitoring practices in low resource settings.Objective: To explore FHR monitoring practices among health workers at a public hospital in Northern Uganda.Methods: A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted by reviewing 251 maternal records and conducting 11 interviews and two focus group discussions with health workers complemented by observations of 42 women in labor until delivery. Quantitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Content analysis was used for qualitative data.Results: FHR was assessed in 235/251 (93.6%) of records at admission. Health workers documented the FHR at least once in 175/228 (76.8%) of cases during the first stage of labor compared to observed 17/25 (68.0%) cases. Median intervals between FHR monitoring were 30 (IQR 30-120) minutes in patients' records versus 139 (IQR 87-662) minutes according to observations. Observations suggested no monitoring of FHR during the second stage of labor but records indicated monitoring in 3.2% of cases. Reported barriers to adequate FHR monitoring were inadequate number of staff and monitoring devices, institutional challenges such as few beds, documentation problems and perceived non-compliant women not reporting for repeated checks during the first stage of labor. Health workers demonstrated knowledge of national FHR monitoring guidelines and acknowledged that practice was different.Conclusions: When compared to national and international guidelines, FHR monitoring is sub-optimal in the studied setting. Approximately one in four women was not monitored during the first stage of labor. Barriers to appropriate FHR monitoring included shortage of staff and devices, institutional challenges and mother's negative attitudes. These barriers need to be addressed in order to reduce neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fetal/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/fisiologia , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Uganda
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 372, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2010, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution calling upon countries to prevent birth defects where possible. Though birth defects surveillance programs are an important source of information to guide implementation and evaluation of preventive interventions, many countries that shoulder the largest burden of birth defects do not have surveillance programs. This paper shares the results of a hospital-based birth defects surveillance program in Uganda which, can be adopted by similar resource-limited countries. METHODS: All informative births, including live births, stillbirths and spontaneous abortions; regardless of gestational age, delivered at four selected hospitals in Kampala from August 2015 to December 2017 were examined for birth defects. Demographic data were obtained by midwives through maternal interviews and review of hospital patient notes and entered in an electronic data collection tool. Identified birth defects were confirmed through bedside examination by a physician and review of photographs and a narrative description by a birth defects expert. Informative births (live, still and spontaneous abortions) with a confirmed birth defect were included in the numerator, while the total informative births (live, still and spontaneous abortions) were included in the denominator to estimate the prevalence of birth defects per 10,000 births. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of birth defects was 66.2/10,000 births (95% CI 60.5-72.5). The most prevalent birth defects (per 10,000 births) were: Hypospadias, 23.4/10,000 (95% CI 18.9-28.9); Talipes equinovarus, 14.0/10,000 (95% CI 11.5-17.1) and Neural tube defects, 10.3/10,000 (95% CI 8.2-13.0). The least prevalent were: Microcephaly, 1.6/10,000 (95% CI 0.9-2.8); Microtia and Anotia, 1.6/10,000 (95% CI 0.9-2.8) and Imperforate anus, 2.0/10,000 (95% CI 1.2-3.4). CONCLUSION: A hospital-based surveillance project with active case ascertainment can generate reliable epidemiologic data about birth defects prevalence and can inform prevention policies and service provision needs in low and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Registros Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618943

RESUMO

Globally, suboptimal breastfeeding contributes to more than 800,000 child deaths annually. In South Sudan, few women breastfeed early. We assessed the effect of a Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative training on early initiation of breastfeeding at Juba Teaching Hospital in South Sudan. We carried out the training for health workers after a baseline survey. We recruited 806 mothers both before and four to six months after training. We used a modified Poisson model to assess the effect of training. The prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding increased from 48% (388/806) before to 91% (732/806) after training. Similarly, early initiation of breastfeeding increased from 3% (3/97) before to 60% (12/20) after training among women who delivered by caesarean section. About 8% (67/806) of mothers discarded colostrum before compared to 3% (24/806) after training. Further, 17% (134/806) of mothers used pre-lacteal feeds before compared to only 2% (15/806) after training. Regardless of the mode of birth, the intervention was effective in increasing early initiation of breastfeeding [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval CI (1.57-1.82)]. These findings suggest an urgent need to roll out the training to other hospitals in South Sudan. This will result in improved breastfeeding practices, maternal, and infant health.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Sudão do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Trials ; 20(1): 444, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrapartum-related death is the third leading cause of under-5 mortality. Effective ventilation during neonatal resuscitation has the potential to reduce 40% of these deaths. Face-mask ventilation performed by midwives is globally the most common method of resuscitating neonates. It requires considerable operator skills and continuous training because of its complexity. The i-gel® is a cuffless supraglottic airway which is easy to insert and provides an efficient seal that prevents air leakage; it has the potential to enhance performance in neonatal resuscitation. A pilot study in Uganda demonstrated that midwives could safely resuscitate newborns with the i-gel® after a short training session. The aim of the present trial is to investigate whether the use of a cuffless supraglottic airway device compared with face-mask ventilation during neonatal resuscitation can reduce mortality and morbidity in asphyxiated neonates. METHODS: A randomized phase III open-label superiority controlled clinical trial will be conducted at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, in asphyxiated neonates in the delivery units. Prior to the intervention, health staff performing resuscitation will receive training in accordance with the Helping Babies Breathe curriculum with a special module for training on supraglottic airway insertion. A total of 1150 to 1240 babies (depending on cluster size) that need positive pressure ventilation and that have an expected gestational age of more than 34 weeks and an expected birth weight of more than 2000 g will be ventilated by daily unmasked randomization with a supraglottic airway device (i-gel®) (intervention group) or with a face mask (control group). The primary outcome will be a composite outcome of 7-day mortality and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with neonatal encephalopathy. DISCUSSION: Although indications for the beneficial effect of a supraglottic airway device in the context of neonatal resuscitation exist, so far no large studies powered to assess mortality and morbidity have been carried out. We hypothesize that effective ventilation will be easier to achieve with a supraglottic airway device than with a face mask, decreasing early neonatal mortality and brain injury from neonatal encephalopathy. The findings of this trial will be important for low and middle-resource settings where the majority of intrapartum-related events occur. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT03133572 . Registered April 28, 2017.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Máscaras Laríngeas , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
8.
World J Surg ; 43(6): 1435-1449, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a significant unmet need for children's surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Multidisciplinary collaboration is required to advance the surgical and anesthesia care of children's surgical conditions such as congenital conditions, cancer and injuries. Nonetheless, there are limited examples of this process from LMICs. We describe the development and 3-year outcomes following a 2015 stakeholders' meeting in Uganda to catalyze multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration. METHODS: The stakeholders' meeting was a daylong conference held in Kampala with local, regional and international collaborators in attendance. Multiple clinical specialties including surgical subspecialists, pediatric anesthesia, perioperative nursing, pediatric oncology and neonatology were represented. Key thematic areas including infrastructure, training and workforce retention, service delivery, and research and advocacy were addressed, and short-term objectives were agreed upon. We reported the 3-year outcomes following the meeting by thematic area. RESULTS: The Pediatric Surgical Foundation was developed following the meeting to formalize coordination between institutions. Through international collaborations, operating room capacity has increased. A pediatric general surgery fellowship has expanded at Mulago and Mbarara hospitals supplemented by an international fellowship in multiple disciplines. Coordinated outreach camps have continued to assist with training and service delivery in rural regional hospitals. CONCLUSION: Collaborations between disciplines, both within LMICs and with international partners, are required to advance children's surgery. The unification of stakeholders across clinical disciplines and institutional partnerships can facilitate increased children's surgical capacity. Such a process may prove useful in other LMICs with a wide range of children's surgery stakeholders.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Especialidades Cirúrgicas , Anestesiologia/educação , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Uganda
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 239, 2018 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early discharge of very low birth weight infant (VLBW) in low resource settings is inevitable but to minimize mortality of these infants after discharge we need to identify the death attributes. METHOD: A prospective cohort was conducted among 190 VLBW infants discharged from Mulago Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) with discharge weight of < 1500 g over an 8 months period. These infants were followed up with the aims of determining the proportion dead 3 months after discharge, identifying factors associated and possible causes of death. Relevant data were captured, transferred in to STATA and imported to SPSS 12.0.1 for analysis. To determine factors associated with mortality bi-variable and multivariable regressions were conducted. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% confidence interval was used. RESULTS: Of the enrolled infants 164 (86.3%) completed follow up. The median gestational age of study participants was 32 weeks (range 26-35 weeks), the mean discharge weight was 1119 g (range 760-1470 g), and 59.8% were small for gestational age (SGA). During follow up 32 (19.5%) infants died. Infants discharged with weight of < 1200 g accounted for 81.2% of the deaths. Majority of the deaths (68.7%) occurred in the first month after discharge. Factors independently associated with mortality were discharge weight < 1000 g (OR 3.10, p 0.015) and not being SGA (OR 3.54, p 0.019). The main causes of death were presumed sepsis 50.0% and suspected cot death (25.0%). CONCLUSION: Mortality after hospital discharge among VLBW infants is high. Discharge at weight < 1200 g may not be a safe practice. Measures to prevent sepsis and suspected cot death should be addressed prior to considering early discharge of these infants.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/mortalidade , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Uganda/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
10.
Arch Dis Child ; 103(3): 255-260, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mortality rates from birth asphyxia in low-income countries remain high. Face mask ventilation (FMV) performed by midwives is the usual method of resuscitating neonates in such settings but may not always be effective. The i-gel is a cuffless laryngeal mask airway (LMA) that could enhance neonatal resuscitation performance. We aimed to compare LMA and face mask (FM) during neonatal resuscitation in a low-resource setting. SETTING: Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. DESIGN: This prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted at the labour ward operating theatre. After a brief training on LMA and FM use, infants with a birth weight >2000 g and requiring positive pressure ventilation at birth were randomised to resuscitation by LMA or FM. Resuscitations were video recorded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to spontaneous breathing. RESULTS: Forty-nine (24 in the LMA and 25 in the FM arm) out of 50 enrolled patients were analysed. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two arms. Time to spontaneous breathing was shorter in LMA arm than in FM arm (mean 153 s (SD±59) vs 216 s (SD±92)). All resuscitations were effective in LMA arm, whereas 11 patients receiving FM were converted to LMA because response to FMV was unsatisfactory. There were no adverse effects. CONCLUSION: A cuffless LMA was more effective than FM in reducing time to spontaneous breathing. LMA seems to be safe and effective in clinical practice after a short training programme. Its potential benefits on long-term outcomes need to be assessed in a larger trial. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: This trial was registered in https://clinicaltrials.gov, with registration number NCT02042118.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Máscaras Laríngeas , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Asfixia Neonatal/mortalidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
11.
Afr Health Sci ; 16(2): 347-55, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27605949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify reasons for neonatal admission and death with the aim of determining areas needing improvement. METHOD: A retrospective chart review was conducted on records for neonates admitted to Mulago National Referral Hospital Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) from 1(st) November 2013 to 31(st) January 2014. Final diagnosis was generated after analyzing sequence of clinical course by 2 paediatricians. RESULTS: A total of 1192 neonates were admitted. Majority 83.3% were in-born. Main reasons for admissions were prematurity (37.7%) and low APGAR (27.9%).Overall mortality was 22.1% (Out-born 33.6%; in born 19.8%). Half (52%) of these deaths occurred in the first 24 hours of admission. Major contributors to mortality were prematurity with hypothermia and respiratory distress (33.7%) followed by birth asphyxia with HIE grade III (24.6%) and presumed sepsis (8.7%). Majority of stable at risk neonates 318/330 (i.e. low APGAR or prematurity without comorbidity) survived. Factors independently associated with death included gestational age <30 weeks (p 0.002), birth weight <1500g (p 0.007) and a 5 minute APGAR score of < 7 (p 0.001). Neither place of birth nor delayed and after hour admissions were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Mortality rate in SCBU is high. Prematurity and its complications were major contributors to mortality. The management of hypothermia and respiratory distress needs scaling up. A step down unit for monitoring stable at risk neonates is needed in order to decongest SCBU.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/economia , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Uganda
12.
Acta Paediatr ; 105(12): 1440-1443, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27582031

RESUMO

AIM: We compared the performance of personnel in a low-resource setting when they used the I-gel cuffless neonatal laryngeal mask or a face mask on a neonatal airway management manikin. METHODS: At Mulago Hospital, Uganda, 25 doctors, nurses and midwives involved in neonatal resuscitation were given brief training with the I-gel and face mask. Then, every participant was observed positioning both devices on three consecutive occasions. The success rate and insertion times leading to effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV) were recorded. Participants rated the perceived efficiency of the devices using a five-point Likert scale. RESULTS: The I-gel achieved a 100% success rate on all three occasions, but the face mask was significantly less effective in achieving effective PPV and the failure rates at the first, second and third attempts were 28%, 8% and 20%, respectively. The perceived efficiency of the devices was significantly superior for the I-gel (4.7 ± 0.4) than the face mask (3.3 ± 0.8). CONCLUSION: The I-gel was more effective than the face mask in establishing PPV in the manikin, and user satisfaction was higher. These encouraging manikin data could be a stepping stone for clinical research on the use of the I-gel for neonatal resuscitation in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/instrumentação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Manequins , Projetos Piloto
13.
Afr Health Sci ; 15(1): 197-205, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25834549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida species is the third commonest cause of sepsis among neonates. Colonization by Candida is a predictor for candidemia among preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence of early Candida colonization and early outcome among colonized preterm neonates admitted to Mulago hospital Special Care Unit. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort was conducted between December 2008 and April 2009. Preterm neonates aged >72 hours and less than one week were screened for Candida colonization of the groin, oral pharynx and rectum using CHROMagar. Colonized neonates were followed up for 14 days. Blood cultures were done for those with signs of septicaemia. The Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were conducted for factors associated with colonization and mortality among colonized neonates. P values of < 0.05 were considered significant and confidence interval of 95% was used. RESULTS: Candida colonization occurred in 50/213 (23.5%) neonates. Gestational age ≤ 30 weeks was the only factor independently associated with colonization (p = 0.005). Of the colonized 14/46 (30.4%) died and 13/46 (28.3%) developed mucocutaneous candidiasis. No candidemia was identified. Multiple site colonization was independently associated with mortality (p=0.035). CONCLUSION: The consequence of high colonization observed in this study needs to be further elucidated in Uganda.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/transmissão , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/microbiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
Afr Health Sci ; 15(4): 1130-5, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26958013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding as a determinant of infant health and nutrition saves up to 1.5 million infant lives annually. Though breastfeeding is mostly universal in sub-Saharan Africa, early initiation of breastfeeding is rarely practiced. OBJECTIVE: To determine magnitude and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding among mother-infant pairs who deliver in Mulago hospital. METHODS: We carried out a descriptive cross sectional study, where 665 mother-infant pairs were interviewed within 24 hours following delivery; with additional qualitative data collected using focus group discussions to understand reasons for delaying initiation. The data was analysed by identification and coding of themes. RESULTS: In this study, 31.4% mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding. This was associated with maternal HIV positive status (AOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.3-4.2), inadequate prenatal guidance, (AOR 3.6; 95% CI 1.9-6.8), inadequate professional assistance to initiate breastfeeding (AOR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.8) and caesarean section delivery (AOR 8.6; 95% CI 4.7-16.0). Other reasons were perceived lack of breast milk, need of rest for both mother and baby after labor, and negative cultural beliefs. CONCLUSION: In Mulago Hospital 1:3 mothers delayed initiation of breastfeeding. The reasons for delayed initiation include; inadequate information during ANC, HIV positive serostatus, caesarian section delivery and negative cultural ideas.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Paridade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
15.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 127(2): 201-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25270824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for early neonatal death among newborns with severe perinatal morbidity. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed of 341 newborns with severe perinatal morbidity admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. All newborns were followed up for 7 days or until time of death. Information surrounding the mother's obstetric history and pregnancy, the birth, and the neonatal history was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and by review of relevant records. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with early neonatal death. RESULTS: A total of 37 (10.9%) neonates died within 7 days, giving an incidence of early neonatal death of 109 deaths per 1000 live births (3 per 100 person-days). In multivariate analysis, respiratory distress (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 31.29; 95% CI, 4.17-234.20; P=0.001) and inadequate fetal heart monitoring during labor (aRR 6.0; 95% CI 1.40-25.67; P=0.016) were significantly associated with an increased risk of early neonatal death. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in 10 neonates with severe perinatal morbidity died within 7 days of birth. Respiratory distress and poor monitoring of labor were risk factors for early neonatal death.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 633, 2014 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24950759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this multi-country cluster-randomized behavioural intervention trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Africa, we compared growth of infants up to 6 months of age living in communities where peer counsellors promoted EBF with growth in those infants living in control communities. METHODS: A total of 82 clusters in Burkina Faso, Uganda and South Africa were randomised to either the intervention or the control arm. Feeding data and anthropometric measurements were collected at visits scheduled 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-partum. We calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z-scores. Country specific adjusted Least Squares Means with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on a longitudinal analysis are reported. Prevalence ratios (PR) for the association between peer counselling for EBF and wasting (WLZ < -2), stunting (LAZ < -2) and underweight (WAZ < -2) were calculated at each data collection point. RESULTS: The study included a total of 2,579 children. Adjusting for socio-economic status, the mean WLZ at 24 weeks were in Burkina Faso -0.20 (95% CI -0.39 to -0.01) and in Uganda -0.23 (95% CI -0.43 to -0.03) lower in the intervention than in the control arm. In South Africa the mean WLZ at 24 weeks was 0.23 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.43) greater in the intervention than in the control arm. Differences in LAZ between the study arms were small and not statistically significant. In Uganda, infants in the intervention arm were more likely to be wasted compared to those in the control arm at 24 weeks (PR 2.36; 95% CI 1.11 to 5.00). Differences in wasting in South Africa and Burkina Faso and stunting and underweight in all three countries were small and not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: There were small differences in mean anthropometric indicators between the intervention and control arms in the study, but in Uganda and Burkina Faso, a tendency to slightly lower ponderal growth (weight-for-length z-scores) was found in the intervention arms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Crescimento , Promoção da Saúde , Grupo Associado , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto , Prevalência , Características de Residência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int Breastfeed J ; 9: 19, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25784955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immediate and exclusive initiation of breastfeeding after delivery has been associated with better neonatal survival and child health and are recommended by the WHO. We report its impact on early infant feeding practices from the PROMISE-EBF trial. METHODS: PROMISE-EBF was a cluster randomised behaviour change intervention trial of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion by peer counsellors in Burkina Faso, Uganda and South Africa implemented during 2006-2008 among 2579 mother-infant pairs. Counselling started in the last pregnancy trimester and mothers were offered at least five postnatal visits. Early infant feeding practices: use of prelacteal feeds (any foods or drinks other than breast milk given within the first 3 days), expressing and discarding colostrum, and timing of initiation of breastfeeding are presented by trial arm in each country. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) are given. RESULTS: The proportion of women who gave prelacteal feeds in the intervention and control arms were, respectively: 11% and 36%, PR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2, 0.6) in Burkina Faso, 13% and 44%, PR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2, 0.5) in Uganda and 30% and 33%, PR 0.9 (95% CI 0.6, 1.3) in South Africa. While the majority gave colostrum, the proportion of those who expressed and discarded it in the intervention and control arms were: 8% and 12%, PR 0.7 (95% CI 0.3, 1.6) in Burkina Faso, 3% and 10%, PR 0.3 (95% CI 0.1, 0.6) in Uganda and 17% and 16%, PR 1.1 (95% CI 0.6, 2.1) in South Africa. Only a minority in Burkina Faso (<4%) and roughly half in South Africa initiated breastfeeding within the first hour with no large or statistically significant differences between the trial arms, whilst in Uganda the proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding in the intervention and control arms were: 55% and 41%, PR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7, 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: The PROMISE-EBF trial showed that the intervention led to less prelacteal feeding in Burkina Faso and Uganda. More children received colostrum and started breastfeeding early in the intervention arm in Uganda. Late breastfeeding initiation continues to be a challenge. No clear behaviour change was seen in South Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00397150.

18.
BMJ Open ; 3(5)2013 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23645924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nodding syndrome is a devastating neurological disorder of uncertain aetiology affecting children in Africa. There is no diagnostic test, and risk factors and symptoms that would allow early diagnosis are poorly documented. This study aimed to describe the clinical, electrophysiological and brain imaging (MRI) features and complications of nodding syndrome in Ugandan children. DESIGN: Case series. PARTICIPANTS: 22 children with nodding syndrome brought to Mulago National Referral Hospital for assessment. OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical features, physical and functional disabilities, EEG and brain MRI findings and a staging system with a progressive development of symptoms and complications. RESULTS: The median age of symptom onset was 6 (range 4-10) years and median duration of symptoms was 8.5 (range 2-11) years. 16 of 22 families reported multiple affected children. Physical manifestations and complications included stunting, wasting, lip changes and gross physical deformities. The bone age was delayed by 2 (range 1-6) years. There was peripheral muscle wasting and progressive generalised wasting. Four children had nodding as the only seizure type; 18 in addition had myoclonic, absence and/or generalised tonic-clonic seizures developing 1-3 years after the onset of illness. Psychiatric manifestations included wandering, aggression, depression and disordered perception. Cognitive assessment in three children demonstrated profound impairment. The EEG was abnormal in all, suggesting symptomatic generalised epilepsy in the majority. There were different degrees of cortical and cerebellar atrophy on brain MRI, but no hippocampal changes. Five stages with worsening physical, EEG and brain imaging features were identified: a prodrome, the development of head nodding and cognitive decline, other seizure types, multiple complications and severe disability. CONCLUSIONS: Nodding syndrome is a neurological disorder that may be characterised as probably symptomatic generalised epilepsy. Clinical manifestations and complications develop in stages which might be useful in defining treatment and rehabilitation. Studies of risk factors, pathogenesis, management and outcome are urgently needed.

19.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 9(1): 11, 2011 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21714877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months is the recommended form of infant feeding. Support of mothers through individual peer counselling has been proved to be effective in increasing exclusive breastfeeding prevalence. We present a costing study of an individual peer support intervention in Uganda, whose objective was to raise exclusive breastfeeding rates at 3 months of age. METHODS: We costed the peer support intervention, which was offered to 406 breastfeeding mothers in Uganda. The average number of counselling visits was about 6 per woman. Annual financial and economic costs were collected in 2005-2008. Estimates were made of total project costs, average costs per mother counselled and average costs per peer counselling visit. Alternative intervention packages were explored in the sensitivity analysis. We also estimated the resources required to fund the scale up to district level, of a breastfeeding intervention programme within a public health sector model. RESULTS: Annual project costs were estimated to be US$56,308. The largest cost component was peer supporter supervision, which accounted for over 50% of total project costs. The cost per mother counselled was US$139 and the cost per visit was US$26. The cost per week of EBF was estimated to be US$15 at 12 weeks post partum. We estimated that implementing an alternative package modelled on routine public health sector programmes can potentially reduce costs by over 60%. Based on the calculated average costs and annual births, scaling up modelled costs to district level would cost the public sector an additional US$1,813,000. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breastfeeding promotion in sub-Saharan Africa is feasible and can be implemented at a sustainable cost. The results of this study can be incorporated in cost effectiveness analyses of exclusive breastfeeding promotion programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.

20.
Lancet ; 378(9789): 420-7, 2011 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21752462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is reported to be a life-saving intervention in low-income settings. The effect of breastfeeding counselling by peer counsellors was assessed in Africa. METHODS: 24 communities in Burkina Faso, 24 in Uganda, and 34 in South Africa were assigned in a 1:1 ratio, by use of a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to the control or intervention clusters. In the intervention group, we scheduled one antenatal breastfeeding peer counselling visit and four post-delivery visits by trained peers. The data gathering team were masked to the intervention allocation. The primary outcomes were prevalance of EBF and diarrhoea reported by mothers for infants aged 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Country-specific prevalence ratios were adjusted for cluster effects and sites. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00397150. FINDINGS: 2579 mother-infant pairs were assigned to the intervention or control clusters in Burkina Faso (n=392 and n=402, respectively), Uganda (n=396 and n=369, respectively), and South Africa (n=535 and 485, respectively). The EBF prevalences based on 24-h recall at 12 weeks in the intervention and control clusters were 310 (79%) of 392 and 139 (35%) of 402, respectively, in Burkina Faso (prevalence ratio 2·29, 95% CI 1·33-3·92); 323 (82%) of 396 and 161 (44%) of 369, respectively, in Uganda (1·89, 1·70-2·11); and 56 (10%) of 535 and 30 (6%) of 485, respectively, in South Africa (1·72, 1·12-2·63). The EBF prevalences based on 7-day recall in the intervention and control clusters were 300 (77%) and 94 (23%), respectively, in Burkina Faso (3·27, 2·13-5·03); 305 (77%) and 125 (34%), respectively, in Uganda (2·30, 2·00-2·65); and 41 (8%) and 19 (4%), respectively, in South Africa (1·98, 1·30-3·02). At 24 weeks, the prevalences based on 24-h recall were 286 (73%) in the intervention cluster and 88 (22%) in the control cluster in Burkina Faso (3·33, 1·74-6·38); 232 (59%) and 57 (15%), respectively, in Uganda (3·83, 2·97-4·95); and 12 (2%) and two (<1%), respectively, in South Africa (5·70, 1·33-24·26). The prevalences based on 7-day recall were 279 (71%) in the intervention cluster and 38 (9%) in the control cluster in Burkina Faso (7·53, 4·42-12·82); 203 (51%) and 41 (11%), respectively, in Uganda (4·66, 3·35-6·49); and ten (2%) and one (<1%), respectively, in South Africa (9·83, 1·40-69·14). Diarrhoea prevalence at age 12 weeks in the intervention and control clusters was 20 (5%) and 36 (9%), respectively, in Burkina Faso (0·57, 0·27-1·22); 39 (10%) and 32 (9%), respectively, in Uganda (1·13, 0·81-1·59); and 45 (8%) and 33 (7%), respectively, in South Africa (1·16, 0·78-1·75). The prevalence at age 24 weeks in the intervention and control clusters was 26 (7%) and 32 (8%), respectively, in Burkina Faso (0·83, 0·45-1·54); 52 (13%) and 59 (16%), respectively, in Uganda (0·82, 0·58-1·15); and 54 (10%) and 33 (7%), respectively, in South Africa (1·31, 0·89-1·93). INTERPRETATION: Low-intensity individual breastfeeding peer counselling is achievable and, although it does not affect the diarrhoea prevalence, can be used to effectively increase EBF prevalence in many sub-Saharan African settings. FUNDING: European Union Sixth Framework International Cooperation-Developing Countries, Research Council of Norway, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education, South African National Research Foundation, and Rockefeller Brothers Foundation.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Países em Desenvolvimento , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Promoção da Saúde , Grupo Associado , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
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