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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125445, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499288

RESUMO

This research compared the distribution and mobility of water in the longissimus thoracis muscle of 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbred pigs differing in growth performances. The Apulo-Calabrese and crossbreed pigs were fed the same diet and slaughtered at 135 and 155 kg live weight, respectively. Besides meat quality measurement, water status was assessed from transverse relaxation time (T2) weighted signals registered by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). A mixed model indicated that Apulo-Calabrese pigs had higher a* (P-value < 0.0001), chroma (P-value < 0.0001) and total intensity (P-value = 0.011) values. A Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples from Apulo-Calabrese had higher scores along Principal Component (PC) 2 (P-value = 4.07 × 10-5) and lower scores along PC3 (P-value = 1.50 × 10-7). However PC2 and PC3 explained a low fraction of the total variance, suggesting that few differences characterize meat quality traits of the two genetic types.

2.
Meat Sci ; 162: 108012, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816517

RESUMO

Ham weight loss at first salting (HWLFS) is a meat quality parameter used to assess the suitability of the hams for salting and seasoning. The relationships between HWLFS and 17 performance, carcass and raw ham quality parameters were investigated in 260 performance tested Italian Large White heavy pigs. HWLFS was affected by slaughter day and visible intermuscular fat of trimmed hams whereas sex did not affect its variability. Residual correlations of HWLFS with backfat thickness (BFT; r = -0.51) and lean cuts (LC; r = +0.51) were stronger than with ham weight at trimming (r = +0.40) and after first salting (r = +0.37). Significant correlations of HWLFS with fresh ham quality traits ranged from +0.16 to -0.25. BFT, LC and pH24h were the main predictors of HWLFS in the regression model. Results from this study indicated that higher ham fat coverage and pH24h and lower LC could reduce HWLFS of green hams for Protected Designation of Origin products.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 8(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308950

RESUMO

Despite the increasing interest in the welfare of animals during transport, very little is known on the response of local pig breeds to the transport procedures. This study aims to compare the effect of short journey on behaviour, blood parameters, and meat quality traits in 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbreed [Duroc × (Landrace × Large White)] pigs. All the animals were blood sampled five days before delivery (basal condition) and at exsanguination for the analysis of creatine kinase, cortisol, glucose, lactate, albumin, albumin/globulin, total protein, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphate, sodium, and potassium. Post mortem pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force were measured at different times in longissimus thoracis samples. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that glucose, albumin/globulin, urea, and AST at exsanguination were influenced by the genetic type. Apulo-Calabrese showed the highest increase in blood values of lactate, creatinine, sodium and potassium after the short distance transport. Behavioural occurrences were similar in both genetic types during unloading and lairage. Small differences were observed for meat quality although significantly higher a* and lower L* were found in Apulo-Calabrese pigs, showing meat with a deeper red colour than crossbreeds.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527304

RESUMO

Background: Colostrum is the first secretion produced by mammary glands during the hours immediately preceding and succeeding parturition. This secretion differs from milk and represents an essential vehicle of passive immunity, prebiotic compounds and growth factors involved in intestinal development. Most of the literature concerning colostrum composition refers mainly to human and cow; and little is known about pig colostrum metabolome and how it varies between pig breeds and different farrowing parity. Thus, the aim of the present research is to provide new information about pig colostrum composition and the associations between metabolites, the sows' breed and the survival and growth rates of their litters. Results: Colostrum samples were gathered from 58 parturitions of sows belonging to three different breeds chosen for their importance in Italian heavy pig production: 31 Large White, 15 Landrace and 12 Duroc respectively. The defatted and ultrafiltered colostrum samples were analysed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was assessed on the obtained spectra. In addition, using a Stepwise Regression and a Linear Regression analyses the metabolites named after the signals assignment were tested for their associations with piglets' performances. Twenty-five metabolites were identified, comprehending monosaccharides, disaccharides (such as lactose), organic acids (lactate, citrate, acetate and formate), nitrogenous organic acids (such as creatine) and other compounds, including nucleotides. PCA results evidence a clustering due to breed and season effects. Lactose was the main compound determining the assignment of the samples into different clusters according to the sow breed. Furthermore, some metabolites showed to be associated with piglets' performance and survival traits: acetate and taurine were positively related to litter weight gain and piglets' survival rate, respectively, while dimethylamine and cis-aconitate were linked to new-borns' impaired ability to survive. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that colostrum composition is affected by breed, which, together with environmental conditions, may cause changes in colostrum metabolites content with possible consequences on piglets' performances. Among the identified metabolites, acetate, taurine, dimethylamine and cis-aconitate showed consistent associations with piglets' survival rate and litter weight gain, implying that these compounds may affect new-borns' ability to survive.

5.
Animals (Basel) ; 7(2)2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28208592

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the relationships between deck level, body surface temperature and carcass damages after a short journey (30 min), 10 deliveries of Italian heavy pigs, including a total of 1400 animals from one farm, were examined. Within 5 min after the arrival at the abattoir, the vehicles were unloaded. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were recorded and a Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was calculated. After unloading, maximum temperatures of dorsal and ocular regions were measured by a thermal camera on groups of pigs from each of the unloaded decks. After dehairing, quarters and whole carcasses were evaluated subjectively by a trained operator for skin damage using a four-point scale. On the basis of THI at unloading, deliveries were grouped into three classes. Data of body surface temperature and skin damage score were analysed in a model including THI class, deck level and their interaction. Regardless of pig location in the truck, the maximum temperature of the dorsal and ocular regions increased with increasing THI class. Within each THI class, the highest and lowest body surface temperatures were found in pigs located on the middle and upper decks, respectively. Only THI class was found to affect the skin damage score (p < 0.05), which increased on quarters and whole carcasses with increasing THI class. The results of this study on short-distance transport of Italian heavy pigs highlighted the need to control and ameliorate the environmental conditions in the trucks, even at relatively low temperature and THI, in order to improve welfare and reduce loss of carcass value.

6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 172: 9-13, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032497

RESUMO

Animal welfare during transportation has been investigated in several studies, as opposed to post-transportation phases. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a novel environment after transportation on 26 Friesian bulls, 242 ± 42 day-old, from ten different dairy farms. Animals were shipped to a breeding center in different seasons, and selected parameters of innate immunity (serum bactericidal activity, hemolytic complement, serum albumin, α, ß, and γ-globulins, interleukin-6, TNF-α) were monitored before and after the arrival at days--4/0/4/15/30. Our results showed significant differences of IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels at destination in December (94 ± 1.3 pg/ml) and June (+788 pg/ml), respectively. Moreover, the serum levels of these cytokines increased between days 0 and 15 after the arrival, the modulation of IL-6 being in agreement with established models of physical and/or psychological stress. Concerning the modulation of albumin, alpha and beta-globulins, the highest levels were detected in April, whereas a significant decrease was observed between day 15 and 30 after arrival; on the contrary, γ-globulin levels significantly increased after day 15. The results of this study highlight the occurrence of innate immune responses of young bulls to the combined effects of climate (season) and novel farming conditions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Clima , Citocinas/análise , Masculino , Temperatura Ambiente , Transportes
7.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 50(2): 147-52, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24968913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The authors describe the thermography technique in animal production and in veterinary medicine applications. The thermographic technique lends itself to countless applications in biology, thanks to its characteristics of versatility, lack of invasiveness and high sensitivity. Probably the major limitation to most important aspects for its application in the animal lies in the ease of use and in its extreme sensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review provides an overview of the possible applications of the technique of thermo visual inspection, but it is clear that every phenomenon connected to temperature variations can be identified with this technique. Then the operator has to identify the best experimental context to obtain as much information as possible, concerning the physiopathological problems considered. Furthermore, we reported an experimental study about the thermography (IRT) as a noninvasive technique to assess the state of wellbeing in working dogs. RESULTS: The first results showed the relationship between superficial temperatures and scores obtained by the animal during the behavioral test. This result suggests an interesting application of infrared thermography (IRT) to measure the state of wellbeing of animals in a noninvasive way.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Cães/fisiologia , Termografia/métodos , Medicina Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Coelhos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20706663

RESUMO

Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif) were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed). The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Miostatina/genética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Haplótipos , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alinhamento de Sequência , Somatotipos , Especificidade da Espécie
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