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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(9): 853-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399939

RESUMO

Intake of individual antioxidants has been related to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the overall diet may contain many antioxidants with additive or synergistic effects. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations between total dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and insulin resistance. We estimated the dietary antioxidant capacity for 5796 participants of the Rotterdam Study using a ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) score. Of these participants, 4957 had normoglycaemia and 839 had prediabetes at baseline. We used covariate-adjusted proportional hazards models to estimate associations between FRAP and risk of type 2 diabetes, risk of type 2 diabetes among participants with prediabetes, and risk of prediabetes. We used linear regression models to determine the association between FRAP score and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We observed 532 cases of incident type 2 diabetes, of which 259 among participants with prediabetes, and 794 cases of incident prediabetes during up to 15 years of follow-up. A higher FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among the total population (HR per SD FRAP 0.84, 95% CI 0.75; 0.95) and among participants with prediabetes (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73; 0.99), but was not associated with risk of prediabetes. Dietary FRAP was also inversely associated with HOMA-IR (ß - 0.04, 95% CI - 0.06; - 0.03). Effect estimates were generally similar between sexes. The findings of this population-based study emphasize the putative beneficial effects of a diet rich in antioxidants on insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Resistência à Insulina , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Hum Hypertens ; 33(10): 703-715, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346255

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and renal failure. We aimed to systematically review studies investigating the association between epigenetic marks (global, candidate-gene or genome-wide methylation of DNA, and histone modifications) and blood pressure or hypertension. Five bibliographic databases were searched until the 7th of December 2018. Of 2984 identified references, 26 articles based on 25 unique studies met our inclusion criteria, which involved a total of 28,382 participants. The five studies that assessed global DNA methylation generally found lower methylation levels with higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and/or presence of hypertension. Eighteen candidate-gene studies reported, in total, 16 differentially methylated genes, including renin-angiotensin-system-related genes (ACE promoter and AGTR1) and genes involved in sodium homeostasis and extracellular fluid volume maintenance system (NET promoter, SCNN1A, and ADD1). Between the three identified epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), lower methylation levels of SULF1, EHMT2, and SKOR2 were found in hypertensive patients as compared with normotensive subjects, and lower methylation levels of PHGDH, SLC7A11, and TSPAN2 were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In summary, the most convincing evidence has been reported from candidate-gene studies, which show reproducible epigenetic changes in the interconnected renin-angiotensin and inflammatory systems. Our study highlights gaps in the literature on the role of histone modifications in blood pressure and the need to conduct high-quality studies, in particular, hypothesis-generating studies that may help to elucidate new molecular mechanisms.

4.
Diabetes ; 68(5): 1073-1083, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936141

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to identify the peripheral blood DNA methylation signature of hepatic fat. We conducted epigenome-wide association studies of hepatic fat in 3,400 European ancestry (EA) participants and in 401 Hispanic ancestry and 724 African ancestry participants from four population-based cohort studies. Hepatic fat was measured using computed tomography or ultrasound imaging and DNA methylation was assessed at >400,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood or CD14+ monocytes using a commercial array. We identified 22 CpGs associated with hepatic fat in EA participants at a false discovery rate <0.05 (corresponding P = 6.9 × 10-6) with replication at Bonferroni-corrected P < 8.6 × 10-4 Mendelian randomization analyses supported the association of hypomethylation of cg08309687 (LINC00649) with NAFLD (P = 2.5 × 10-4). Hypomethylation of the same CpG was also associated with risk for new-onset T2D (P = 0.005). Our study demonstrates that a peripheral blood-derived DNA methylation signature is robustly associated with hepatic fat accumulation. The hepatic fat-associated CpGs may represent attractive biomarkers for T2D. Future studies are warranted to explore mechanisms and to examine DNA methylation signatures of NAFLD across racial/ethnic groups.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(12): 4569-4579, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113659

RESUMO

Objective: We studied whether blood metabolomic measures in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with insufficient glycemic control and whether this association is influenced differentially by various diabetes drugs. We then tested whether the same metabolomic profiles were associated with the initiation of insulin therapy. Methods: A total of 162 metabolomic measures were analyzed using a nuclear magnetic resonance-based method in people with T2D from four cohort studies (n = 2641) and one replication cohort (n = 395). Linear and logistic regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounders, followed by meta-analyses, were performed to analyze associations with hemoglobin A1c levels, six glucose-lowering drug categories, and insulin initiation during a 7-year follow-up period (n = 698). Results: After Bonferroni correction, 26 measures were associated with insufficient glycemic control (HbA1c >53 mmol/mol). The strongest association was with glutamine (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.73; P = 7.6 × 10-19). In addition, compared with treatment-naive patients, 31 metabolomic measures were associated with glucose-lowering drug use (representing various metabolite categories; P ≤ 3.1 × 10-4 for all). In drug-stratified analyses, associations with insufficient glycemic control were only mildly affected by different glucose-lowering drugs. Five of the 26 metabolomic measures (apolipoprotein A1 and medium high-density lipoprotein subclasses) were also associated with insulin initiation during follow-up in both discovery and replication. The strongest association was observed for medium high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl ester (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.71; P = 4.5 × 10-6). Conclusion: Blood metabolomic measures were associated with present and future glycemic control and might thus provide relevant cues to identify those at increased risk of treatment failure.

8.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 94: 17-30, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067938

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes have been suggested as key mechanisms in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. This systematic review summarizes the current evidence for an association between epigenetics and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Six databases were searched until the 24th of October 2017. Of the 2169 retrieved articles, 29 met our inclusion criteria. While generally associations between epigenetics and neurodevelopmental disorders were reported, only a few findings were consistent across independent analyses. Differential epigenetic markers were repeatedly identified in OR2L13, C11orf21/TSPAN32, PRRT1 and H3K27 for autism, and in VIPR2 for ADHD. Overall, evidence of an association between epigenetic modifications and ASD or ADHD should be considered preliminary and based on studies suffering from numerous caveats. We highlight the need for carefully designed investigations and for greater homogeneity and provide specific recommendations for future research. Despite the current limited understanding, the suggestive findings and rapid advances in the field hold the promise of a forthcoming elucidation of the role of epigenetic modifications in neurodevelopmental disorders.

9.
Maturitas ; 115: 74-83, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049351

RESUMO

Phytoestrogen-based medications are commonly used by menopausal women, and especially by obese postmenopausal women, to relieve menopausal symptoms. Substitution of animal with soy protein is often used in weight loss regimens, yet the effect of phytoestrogens, the main constituent of soy foods, on body composition is not completely understood. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the associations between phytoestrogen supplementation and body weight and the main parameters of body composition in postmenopausal women. A literature search was done using 5 electronic databases from inception to April 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with postmenopausal women comparing phytoestrogen supplementation followed by usual diet and placebo were included in the present meta-analysis. From 5932 references, we identified 23 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria, with a total of 1880 postmenopausal women. No association was observed between phytoestrogen supplementation and body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, total fat mass or percentage of body fat. However, the use of phytoestrogens supplementation was associated with a slight decrease in waist-hip ratio; the pooled mean difference was -0.01 cm (95%CI: -0.01 to -0.006). In subgroup analysis, we found a modest decrease in body weight with phytoestrogens supplementation compared with placebo in healthy postmenopausal women [pooled mean difference of changes -0.28 kg (95%CI: -0.52 to -0.04)] and in RCTs with a median number of participants of 66 or less [pooled mean difference of changes -0.49 kg (95%CI: -0.87 to -0.11)]. In contrast, phytoestrogen supplementation was associated with increased body weight in postmenopausal women with preexisting metabolic disorders (prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, prehypertension and hyperlipidemia) [pooled mean difference of changes: 0.78 kg (95%CI: 0.53-1.03)]. In addition, there were some indications that some types of phytoestrogens, such as daidzein, but not soy products or isoflavone mix, could lead to modest adverse changes in body composition in menopausal women. Therefore, future studies should investigate the potential adverse effects of phytoestrogen supplementation on body composition among postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Pós-Menopausa , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 33(9): 883-893, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948369

RESUMO

Vegan or vegetarian diets have been suggested to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, not much is known on whether variation in the degree of having a plant-based versus animal-based diet may be beneficial for prevention of T2D. We aimed to investigate whether level of adherence to a diet high in plant-based foods and low in animal-based foods is associated with insulin resistance, prediabetes, and T2D. Our analysis included 6798 participants (62.7 ± 7.8 years) from the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary intake data were collected with food-frequency questionnaires at baseline of three sub-cohorts of RS (RS-I-1: 1989-1993, RS-II-1: 2000-2001, RS-III-1: 2006-2008). We constructed a continuous plant-based dietary index (range 0-92) assessing adherence to a plant-based versus animal-based diet. Insulin resistance at baseline and follow-up was assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prediabetes and T2D were collected from general practitioners' records, pharmacies' databases, and follow-up examinations in our research center until 2012. We used multivariable linear mixed models to examine association of the index with longitudinal HOMA-IR, and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression models to examine associations of the index with risk of prediabetes and T2D. During median 5.7, and 7.3 years of follow-up, we documented 928 prediabetes cases and 642 T2D cases. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, a higher score on the plant-based dietary index was associated with lower insulin resistance (per 10 units higher score: ß = -0.09; 95% CI: - 0.10; - 0.08), lower prediabetes risk (HR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81; 0.98), and lower T2D risk [HR = 0.82 (0.73; 0.92)]. After additional adjustment for BMI, associations attenuated and remained statistically significant for longitudinal insulin resistance [ß = -0.05 (- 0.06; - 0.04)] and T2D risk [HR = 0.87 (0.79; 0.99)], but no longer for prediabetes risk [HR = 0.93 (0.85; 1.03)]. In conclusion, a more plant-based and less animal-based diet may lower risk of insulin resistance, prediabetes and T2D. These findings strengthen recent dietary recommendations to adopt a more plant-based diet.Clinical Trial Registry number and website NTR6831, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6831 .


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta Vegetariana , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Carne , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762635

RESUMO

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on obesity-related traits. We used data from two prospective, population-based cohort studies: the Rotterdam Study (RS) (2006-2013) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1990-1992). We used RS (n = 1,454) as the discovery panel and ARIC (n = 2,097) as replication panel. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the cross-sectional association between genome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusting for sex, age, smoking, leukocyte proportions, array number and position on array. The two latter were modelled as random effects. Fourteen CpGs were associated with BMI and 26 CpGs with WC in RS after Bonferroni-correction (P < 1.07 × 10-7), of which 12 and 13 CpGs replicated in ARIC Study, respectively. The most significant novel CpGs were located at MSI2 (cg21139312) and LARS2 (cg18030453) and were associated both with BMI and WC. CpGs at BRDT, PSMD1, IFI44L, MAP1A, and MAP3K5 were associated with BMI. CpGs at LGALS3BP, MAP2K3, DHCR24, CPSF4L, and TMEM49 were associated with WC. We report novel associations of methylation at MSI2 and LARS2 with obesity-related traits. These results provide further insight in mechanisms underlying obesity-related traits, which can enable identification of new biomarkers in obesity-related chronic diseases.

12.
Gastroenterology ; 153(4): 1096-1106.e2, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of liver enzyme level. We aimed to identify CpG sites at which DNA methylation levels are associated with blood levels of liver enzymes and hepatic steatosis. METHODS: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study in whole blood for liver enzyme levels, including gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), among a discovery set of 731 participants of the Rotterdam Study and sought replication in a non-overlapping sample of 719 individuals. Significant DNA methylation changes were further analyzed to evaluate their relation with hepatic steatosis. Expression levels of the top identified gene were measured in 9 human liver cell lines and compared with expression profiles of its potential targets associated with lipid traits. The candidate gene was subsequently knocked down in human hepatoma cells using lentiviral vectors expressing small hairpin RNAs. RESULTS: Eight probes annotated to SLC7A11, SLC1A5, SLC43A1, PHGDH, PSORS1C1, SREBF1, ANKS3 were associated with GGT and 1 probe annotated to SLC7A11 was associated with ALT after Bonferroni correction (1.0 × 10-7). No probe was identified for AST levels. Four probes for GGT levels including cg06690548 (SLC7A11), cg11376147 (SLC43A1), cg22304262 (SLC1A5), and cg14476101 (PHGDH), and 1 for ALT cg06690548 (SLC7A11) were replicated. DNA methylation at SLC7A11 was associated with reduced risk of hepatic steatosis in participants (odds ratio, 0.69; 95% CI= 0.55-0.93; P value: 2.7 × 10-3). In functional experiments, SLC7A11 was highly expressed in human liver cells; its expression is positively correlated with expression of a panel of lipid-associated genes, indicating a role of SLC7A11 in lipid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new insights into epigenetic mechanisms associated with markers of liver function and hepatic steatosis, laying the groundwork for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema y+L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistema y+L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ilhas de CpG , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/enzimologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Países Baixos , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fatores de Proteção , Interferência de RNA , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transfecção
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1400-1409, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338987

RESUMO

Background: High levels of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are associated with increased risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in observational studies. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding or is a consequence of reverse causation. Methods: We used data from a prospective population-based cohort study, compromising 8611 individuals without diabetes at baseline. Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the association between serum GGT levels and incident prediabetes and diabetes. A Mendelian randomization (MR) study was performed using a genetic risk score consisting of 26 GGT-related variants, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on liver enzymes. Association with diabetes and glycaemic traits were investigated within the Rotterdam Study and large-scale GWAS. Results: During follow-up, 1125 cases of prediabetes (mean follow-up 5.7 years) and 811 cases of type 2 diabetes (6.9 years) were ascertained. The predicted hazard ratios per standard deviation (SD) change in GGT levels in the multivariable model were 1.10 for prediabetes [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19] and 1.19 for type 2 diabetes (95% CI: 1.10-1.30). The genetic risk score associated with increased GGT levels (beta per SD log GGT = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.35-0.47), explaining 3.5% of the observed variation in GGT. MR analysis did not provide evidence for a causal role of GGT, with a causal relative risk for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes per SD of log GGT of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.04) and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89-1.04), respectively. Multiple instrumental analysis using genetic associations with type 2 diabetes and glycaemic traits from previous GWA studies detected no causal effect of GGT. Conclusions: MR analyses did not support a causal role of GGT on the risk of prediabetes or diabetes. The association of GGT with diabetes in observational studies is likely to be driven by reverse causation or confounding bias. As such, therapeutics targeted at lowering GGT levels are unlikely to be effective in preventing diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Diabetes ; 66(3): 577-586, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223343

RESUMO

It remains unclear whether endogenous sex hormones (ESH) are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women. Data of 3,117 postmenopausal women participants of the Rotterdam Study were analyzed to examine whether ESH and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were associated with the risk of incident T2D. Additionally, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the prospective association of ESH and SHBG with T2D in women. During a median follow-up of 11.1 years, we identified 384 incident cases of T2D in the Rotterdam Study. No association was observed between total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) with T2D. SHBG was inversely associated with the risk of T2D, whereas total estradiol (TE) was associated with increased risk of T2D. Similarly, in the meta-analysis of 13 population-based prospective studies involving more than 1,912 incident T2D cases, low levels of SHBG and high levels of TE were associated with increased risk of T2D, whereas no associations were found for other hormones. The association of SHBG with T2D did not change by menopause status, whereas the associations of ESH and T2D were based only in postmenopausal women. SHBG and TE are independent risk factors for the development of T2D in women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Análise Multivariada , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167201, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973581

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, have been reported to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases (ND) such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies investigating epigenetic marks in AD or PD. METHODS: Eleven bibliographic databases (Embase.com, Medline (Ovid), Web-of-Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cinahl (EBSCOhost), Cochrane Central, ProQuest, Lilacs, Scielo and Google Scholar) were searched until July 11th 2016 to identify relevant articles. We included all randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies in humans that examined associations between epigenetic marks and ND. Two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer available for disagreements, performed the abstract and full text selection. Data was extracted using a pre-designed data collection form. RESULTS: Of 6,927 searched references, 73 unique case-control studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 11,453 individuals were included in this systematic review (2,640 AD and 2,368 PD outcomes). There was no consistent association between global DNA methylation pattern and any ND. Studies reported epigenetic regulation of 31 genes (including cell communication, apoptosis, and neurogenesis genes in blood and brain tissue) in relation to AD and PD. Methylation at the BDNF, SORBS3 and APP genes in AD were the most consistently reported associations. Methylation of α-synuclein gene (SNCA) was also found to be associated with PD. Seven studies reported histone protein alterations in AD and PD. CONCLUSION: Many studies have investigated epigenetics and ND. Further research should include larger cohort or longitudinal studies, in order to identify clinically significant epigenetic changes. Identifying relevant epigenetic changes could lead to interventional strategies in ND.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Histonas/química , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Viés , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Inflamação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
PLoS Med ; 13(7): e1002086, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27433939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Limited evidence exists regarding the effect of excess weight on years lived with and without diabetes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with the number of years lived with and without diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study included 6,499 individuals (3,656 women) aged 55 y and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We developed a multistate life table to calculate life expectancy for individuals who were normal weight, overweight, and obese and the difference in years lived with and without diabetes. For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rate, and hazard ratios (HRs) for three transitions (healthy to diabetes, healthy to death, and diabetes to death), stratifying by body mass index (BMI) at baseline and adjusting for confounders. During a median follow-up of 11.1 y, we observed 697 incident diabetes events and 2,192 overall deaths. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes (HR: 2.13 [p < 0.001] for men and 3.54 [p < 0.001] for women). Overweight and obesity were not associated with mortality in men and women with or without diabetes. Total life expectancy remained unaffected by overweight and obesity. Nevertheless, men with obesity aged 55 y and older lived 2.8 (95% CI -6.1 to -0.1) fewer y without diabetes than normal weight individuals, whereas, for women, the difference between obese and normal weight counterparts was 4.7 (95% CI -9.0 to -0.6) y. Men and women with obesity lived 2.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 6.2) and 5.3 (95% CI 1.6 to 9.3) y longer with diabetes, respectively, compared to their normal weight counterparts. Since the implications of these findings could be limited to middle-aged and older white European populations, our results need confirmation in other populations. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in the middle aged and elderly is associated with a reduction in the number of years lived free of diabetes and an increase in the number of years lived with diabetes. Those extra years lived with morbidity might place a high toll on individuals and health care systems.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida , Obesidade/mortalidade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Maturitas ; 93: 41-57, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27338976

RESUMO

Females have unique and additional risk factors for neurological disorders. Among classical estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor beta (ERß) has been suggested as a therapeutic target. However, little is known about the role of ERß in the female brain. Six electronic databases were searched for articles evaluating the role of ERß in the female brain and the influence of age and menopause on ERß function. After screening 3186 titles and abstracts, 49 articles were included in the review, all of which were animal studies. Of these, 19 focused on cellular signaling, 7 on neuroendocrine pathways, 8 on neurological disorders, 4 on neuroprotection and 19 on psychological and psychiatric outcomes (6 studies evaluated two or more outcomes). Our findings showed that ERß phosphorylated and activated intracellular second messenger proteins and regulated protein expression of genes involved in neurological functions. It also promoted neurogenesis, modulated the neuroendocrine regulation of stress response, conferred neuroprotection against ischemia and inflammation, and reduced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Targeting ERß may constitute a novel treatment for menopausal symptoms, including anxiety, depression, and neurological diseases. However, to establish potential therapeutic and preventive strategies targeting ERß, future studies should be conducted in humans to further our understanding of the importance of ERß in women's mental and cognitive health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa/metabolismo , Menopausa/psicologia , Fosforilação
18.
Maturitas ; 86: 28-43, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26921926

RESUMO

Five medical databases were searched for studies that assessed the role of ERß in the female cardiovascular system and the influence of age and menopause on ERß functioning. Of 9472 references, 88 studies met our inclusion criteria (71 animal model experimental studies, 15 human model experimental studies and 2 population based studies). ERß signaling was shown to possess vasodilator and antiangiogenic properties by regulating the activity of nitric oxide, altering membrane ionic permeability in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and by regulating adrenergic control of the arteries. Also, a possible protective effect of ERß signaling against left ventricular hypertrophy and ischemia/reperfusion injury via genomic and non-genomic pathways was suggested in 27 studies. Moreover, 5 studies reported that the vascular effects of ERß may be vessel specific and may differ by age and menopause status. ERß seems to possess multiple functions in the female cardiovascular system. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether isoform-selective ERß-ligands might contribute to cardiovascular disease prevention.


Assuntos
Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Menopausa/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Artérias/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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