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1.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900781

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Detailed data on the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. OBJECTIVE: We determined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Uganda. MEASUREMENTS: As of the 16 May 2020, a total of 203 cases had been confirmed. We report on the first 56 patients; 29 received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 27 did not. Endpoints included admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation or death during hospitalisation. MAIN RESULTS: The median age was 34.2 years; 67.9% were male; and 14.6% were <18 years. Up 57.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever (21.4%), cough (19.6%), rhinorrhea (16.1%), headache (12.5%), muscle ache (7.1%) and fatigue (7.1%). Rates of comorbidities were 10.7% (pre-existing hypertension), 10.7% (diabetes) and 7.1% (HIV), Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥30 36.6%. 37.0% had a blood pressure (BP) of >130/90 mm Hg, and 27.8% had BP of >140/90 mm Hg. Laboratory derangements were leucopenia (10.6%), lymphopenia (11.1%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%). Abnormal chest X-ray was observed in 14.3%. No patients reached the primary endpoint. Time to clinical recovery was shorter among patients who received HCQ, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients with COVID-19 presented with mild disease and exhibited a clinical trajectory not similar to other countries. Outcomes did not differ by HCQ treatment status in line with other concluded studies on the benefit of using HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 18, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376892

RESUMO

Under-diagnosis of asthma in 'under-fives' may be alleviated by improved inquiry into disease history. We assessed a questionnaire-based screening tool for asthma among 614 'under-fives' with severe respiratory illness in Uganda. The questionnaire responses were compared to post hoc consensus diagnoses by three pediatricians who were guided by study definitions that were based on medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory and radiological tests, and response to bronchodilators. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were categorized as "asthma syndrome". Using this approach, 253 (41.2%) had asthma syndrome. History of and present breathing difficulties and present cough and wheezing was the best performing combination of four questionnaire items [sensitivity 80.8% (95% CI 77.6-84.0); specificity 84.7% (95% CI 81.8-87.6)]. The screening tool for asthma syndrome in 'under-fives' may provide a simple, cheap and quick method of identifying children with possible asthma. The validity and reliability of this tool in primary care settings should be tested.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 402, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Uganda, but there is little attention and capacity for management of chronic respiratory diseases in the health programmes. This survey assessed gaps in knowledge and skills among healthcare workers in managing respiratory illnesses. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among primary care health workers, specialist physicians and healthcare planners to assess gaps in knowledge and skills and, training needs in managing respiratory illnesses. The perspectives of patients with respiratory diseases were also sought. Data were collected using questionnaires, patient panel discussions and review of pre-service training curricula for clinicians and nurses. Survey Monkey was used to collect data and descriptive statistical analysis was undertaken for quantitative data, while thematic content analysis techniques were utilized to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: A total of 104 respondents participated in the survey and of these, 76.9% (80/104) were primary care health workers, 16.3% (17/104) specialist clinicians and 6.7% (7/104) healthcare planners. Over 90% of the respondents indicated that more than half of the patients in their clinics presented with respiratory symptoms. More than half (52%) of the primary care health workers were not comfortable in managing chronic respiratory diseases like asthma and COPD. Only 4% of them were comfortable performing procedures like pulse oximetry, nebulization, and interpreting x-rays. Majority (75%) of the primary care health workers had received in-service training but only 4% of the sessions focused on respiratory diseases. The pre-service training curricula included a wide scope of respiratory diseases, but the actual training had not sufficiently prepared health workers to manage respiratory diseases. The patients were unsatisfied with the care in primary care and reported that they were often treated for the wrong illnesses. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory illnesses contribute significantly to the burden of diseases in primary care facilities in Uganda. Management of patients with respiratory diseases remains a challenge partially because of inadequate knowledge and skills of the primary care health workers. A training programme to improve the competences of health workers in respiratory medicine is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Doenças Respiratórias , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e035885, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about asthma control in the rising number of African children who suffer from this condition. The Achieving Control of Asthma in Children in Africa (ACACIA) study is an observational study collecting evidence about paediatric asthma in urban areas of Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The primary objectives are: (1) to identify 3000 children aged between 12 years and 14 years with asthma symptoms; and (2) to assess their asthma control, current treatment, knowledge of and attitudes to asthma and barriers to achieving good control. Secondary objective is to develop interventions addressing identified barriers to good symptom control. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Each centre will undertake screening to identify 500 school children with asthma symptoms using questions from the Global Asthma Network's questionnaire. Children identified to have asthma symptoms will fill in a digital survey, including: Asthma Control Test, questions on medication usage and adherence, medical care, the Brief-Illness Perception questionnaire and environmental factors. Exhaled nitric oxide testing and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator spirometry will be performed. A subgroup of children will participate in focus group discussions. Results will be analysed using descriptive statistics and comparative analysis. Informed by these results, we will assess the feasibility of potential interventions, including the adaption of a UK-based theatre performance about asthma attitudes and digital solutions to improve asthma management. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ACACIA study has been reviewed by the Queen Mary University of London Ethics of Research Committee in the UK. All African centres have received local ethical approval for this study. Study results will be published in academic journals and at conferences. Study outputs will be communicated to the public via newsfeeds on the ACACIA website and Twitter, and through news media outlets and other local dissemination. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 269211.

6.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 40(2): 92-104, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290375

RESUMO

Introduction: Accurate documentation of neonatal morbidity and mortality is limited in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This project aimed to establish a surveillance system for neonatal conditions as an approach to improving the quality of neonatal care.Methods: A systematic data capture and surveillance system was established at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda using a standardised neonatal medical record form which collected detailed individual patient level data. Additionally, training and mentorship were conducted and basic equipment was provided.Results: A total of 4178 neonates were hospitalised from July 2014 to December 2016. Median (IQR) age on admission was one day (1-3) and 48.0% (1851/3859) were male. Median (IQR) duration of hospitalisation was 17 days (IQR 10-40) and the longest duration of hospitalisation was 47 days (IQR 41-58). The majority were referrals from government health facilities (54.4%, 2012/3699), though 30.6% (1123/3669) presented as self-referrals. Septicaemia (44.9%, 1962/4371), prematurity (21.0%, 917/4371) and birth asphyxia (19.1%, 833/4371) were the most common diagnoses. The overall mortality was 13.8% (577/4178) and the commonest causes of death included septicaemia (26.9%, 155/577), prematurity (24.3%, 140/577), birth asphyxia (21.0%, 121/577), hypothermia (9.9%, 57/577) and respiratory distress (8.0%, 46/577). The majority of deaths (51.5%, 297/577) occurred within the first 24 h of hospitalisation although a significant proportion of deaths also occurred after 7 days of hospitalisation (24.1%, 139/577). A modest decrease in mortality and improvement in clinical outcome were observed.Conclusion: Improvement in neonatal data capture and quality of care was observed following establishment of an enhanced surveillance system, training and mentorship.Abbreviations: aOR: adjusted odds ratio; CHRP: Centre for Health research and Programmes; HC: health centre; HMIS: Health Management Information System; JRRH: Jinja Regional Referral Hospital; NMRF: neonatal medical record form; PMTCT: prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; UPA: Uganda Paediatric Association.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0221389, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory disease and, specifically, pneumonia, is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in young children. Diagnosis of both pneumonia and asthma in primary care rests principally on clinical signs, history taking, and bronchodilator responsiveness. This study aimed to describe clinical practices in diverse global primary care settings concerning differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in young children, especially between pneumonia and asthma. METHODS: Health professionals in Greece, Kyrgyzstan, Vietnam, and Uganda were observed during consultations with children aged 2-59 months, presenting with cough and/or difficult breathing. Data were analyzed descriptively and included consultation duration, practices, diagnoses and availability/use of medications and equipment. The study is part of the European Horizon 2020 FRESH AIR project. RESULTS: In total, 771 consultations by 127 health professionals at 74 facilities in the four countries were observed. Consultations were shorter in Vietnam and Uganda (3 to 4 minutes) compared to Greece and Kyrgyzstan (15 to 20 minutes). History taking was most comprehensive in Greece. Clinical examination was more comprehensive in Vietnam and Kyrgyzstan and less in Uganda. Viral upper respiratory tract infections were the most common diagnoses (41.7% to 67%). Pneumonia was diagnosed frequently in Uganda (16.3% of children), and rarely in other countries (0.8% to 2.9%). Asthma diagnosis was rare (0% to 2.8%). Antibiotics were prescribed frequently in all countries (32% to 69%). Short acting ß-agonist trials were seldom available and used during consultations in Kyrgyzstan (0%) and Uganda (1.8%), and often in Greece (38.9%) and Vietnam (12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Duration and comprehensiveness of clinical consultations observed in this study seemed insufficient to guide respiratory diagnosis in young children. Appropriate treatment options may further not be available in certain studied settings. Actions aiming at educating and raising professional awareness, along with developing easy-to-use tools to support diagnosis and a general strengthening of health systems are important goals.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Asma/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Lactente , Quirguistão , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pobreza , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda , Vietnã
8.
Glob Public Health ; 14(12): 1770-1783, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345124

RESUMO

Biomass smoke exposure is a threat to child and maternal health in many resource-limited countries and is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and serious lung diseases in the offspring. We aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability and impact of a midwife-led education programme on biomass risks and prevention for women attending maternity clinics in Uganda. Education materials were co-developed through an iterative process by midwives and other stakeholders. The materials were serially tested and approved by the Ministry of Health and used by midwives and village health teams (VHTs). The district health team, 12 midwives and 40 VHTs were sensitised on biomass smoke. Two hundred and forty-four women were educated about biomass smoke by midwives; pre- and post-session questionnaires showed major improvements in knowledge of biomass smoke risks. Qualitative interviews with women three months after the sessions showed that they made behavioural changes such as avoiding smoke while cooking, using dry wood, solar power for lighting and improved ventilation. The major barrier to behavioural changes was poverty, but some improvements cost no money. The programme delivered by midwives was feasible and acceptable; implementing this programme has the potential to reduce exposure to smoke with major benefits to mother, foetus, and children throughout their lives.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biomassa , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Tocologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Uganda
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899279

RESUMO

Background: Early accurate diagnosis and sustainable availability of affordable medicines and diagnostic tests is fundamental in optimal management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We systematically reviewed original research articles about availability and affordability of medicines and diagnostic tests recommended for management of asthma and COPD in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus and African Journal Online for original research articles conducted in SSA between 2000 and March 2018 containing information about availability and affordability of any recommended medicine and diagnostic test for asthma and COPD. Results: The search yielded 9 eligible research articles. Availability of short-acting beta agonists (SABA), inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and short acting anti-muscarinic agents (SAMA) ranged between 19.9-100%, 0-45.5% and 0-14.3% respectively. Combination of ICS-long acting beta agonists (LABA) were available in 0-14.3% of facilities surveyed. There was absence of inhaled long acting anti-muscarinic agents (LAMA) and LAMA/LABA combinations. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow devices were available in 24.4-29.4% and 6.7-53.6% respectively. Affordability of SABA and ICS varied greatly, ranging from < 2 to 107 days' wages while ICS-LABA combinations, SAMA and oral theophylline plus leukotriene receptor antagonists cost 6.4-17.1, 13.7 and 6.9 days' wages respectively. Conclusion: Availability and affordability of medicines and diagnostics recommended for the management of asthma and COPD is a big challenge in SSA. Research about this subject in this region is still limited. More robustly performed studies are required to further understand the magnitude of inequity in access to these medicines and diagnostic tests in SSA and also to formulate simple pragmatic solutions to address this challenge.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486291

RESUMO

Air pollution is a major cause of sub-optimal lung function and lung diseases in childhood and adulthood. In this study we compared the lung function (measured by spirometry) of 537 Ugandan children, mean age 11.1 years in sites with high (Kampala and Jinja) and low (Buwenge) ambient air pollution levels, based on the concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5). Factors associated with lung function were explored in a multiple linear regression model. PM2.5 level in Kampala, Jinja and Buwenge were 177.5 µg/m³, 96.3 µg/m³ and 31.4 µg/m³ respectively (p = 0.0000). Respectively mean forced vital capacity as % of predicted (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in one second as % of predicted (FEV1%) and forced expiratory flow 25⁻75% as % of predicted (FEF25⁻75%) of children in high ambient air pollution sites (Kampala and Jinja) vs. those in the low ambient air pollution site (Buwenge subcounty) were: FVC% (101.4%, vs. 104.0%, p = 0.043), FEV1% (93.9% vs. 98.0, p = 0.001) and FEF25⁻75% (87.8 vs. 94.0, p = 0.002). The proportions of children whose %predicted parameters were less than 80% predicted (abnormal) were higher among children living in high ambient air pollution than those living in lower low ambient air pollutions areas with the exception of FVC%; high vs. low: FEV1 < 80%, %predicted (12.0% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.021) and FEF25⁻75 < 80%, %predicted (37.7% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.052) Factors associated with lung function were (coefficient, p-value): FVC% urban residence (-3.87, p = 0.004), current cough (-2.65, p = 0.048), underweight (-6.62, p = 0.000), and overweight (11.15, p = 0.000); FEV1% underweight (-6.54, p = 0.000) and FEF25⁻75% urban residence (-8.67, p = 0.030) and exposure to biomass smoke (-7.48, p = 0.027). Children in study sites with high ambient air pollution had lower lung function than those in sites with low ambient air pollution. Urban residence, underweight, exposure to biomass smoke and cough were associated with lower lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco/métodos , Espirometria , Uganda , Urbanização
11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 179, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equitable access to affordable medicines and diagnostic tests is an integral component of optimal clinical care of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In Uganda, we lack contemporary data about the availability, cost and affordability of medicines and diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management. METHODS: Data on the availability, cost and affordability of 17 medicines and 2 diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD management were collected from 22 public hospitals, 23 private and 85 private pharmacies. The percentage of the available medicines and diagnostic tests, the median retail price of the lowest priced generic brand and affordability in terms of the number of days' wages it would cost the least paid public servant were analysed. RESULTS: The availability of inhaled short acting beta agonists (SABA), oral leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), inhaled LABA-ICS combinations and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in all the study sites was 75%, 60.8%, 46.9% and 45.4% respectively. None of the study sites had inhaled long acting anti muscarinic agents (LAMA) and inhaled long acting beta agonist (LABA)-LAMA combinations. Spirometry and peak flow-metry as diagnostic tests were available in 24.4% and 6.7% of the study sites respectively. Affordability ranged from 2.2 days' wages for inhaled salbutamol to 17.1 days' wages for formoterol/budesonide inhalers and 27.8 days' wages for spirometry. CONCLUSION: Medicines and diagnostic tests essential in asthma and COPD care are not widely available in Uganda and remain largely unaffordable. Strategies to improve access to affordable asthma and COPD medicines and diagnostic tests should be implemented in Uganda.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/provisão & distribução , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/provisão & distribução , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Respiratório/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/provisão & distribução , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/provisão & distribução , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/economia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/economia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Albuterol/economia , Albuterol/provisão & distribução , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/provisão & distribução , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/diagnóstico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/economia , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/provisão & distribução , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Custos de Medicamentos , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/economia , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/provisão & distribução , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/economia , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/economia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Uganda
12.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 27(1): 19, 2017 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28303014

RESUMO

The parents of a 3-year old boy are anxious about their son who has recurring episodes of wheezing. They are frustrated that no one seems to be able to give them answers to their questions and would like a referral to a specialist. Does their son have asthma and what is the prognosis; how can the recurrent wheezing be managed and can the risk of asthma be reduced; are there lifestyle changes that could improve the environment and avoid triggers? Communication and support from the family practice team were essential. Listening to the parents' concerns, explaining the diagnostic uncertainty, being realistic about what drug treatments could achieve, and providing practical advice on inhaler use and trigger avoidance reassured the parents that there was a strategy for managing their son's wheeze. The specialist referral was postponed.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Comunicação , Pais , Médicos de Família , Relações Profissional-Família , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Asma/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
13.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 8(1): 2, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25815197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the 'make medicines child size' (MMCS) campaign by urging countries to prioritize procurement of medicines with appropriate strengths for children's age and weight and, in child-friendly formulations of rectal and flexible oral solid formulations. This study examined policy provisions for MMCS recommendations in Uganda. METHODS: This was an in-depth case study of the Ugandan health policy documents to assess provisions for MMCS recommendations in respect to oral and rectal medicine formulations for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea, the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in Uganda- diseases that were also emphasized in the MMCS campaign. Asthma and epilepsy were included as conditions that require long term care. Schistomiasis was included as a neglected tropical disease. Content analysis was used to assess evidence of policy provisions for the MMCS recommendations. RESULTS: For most medicines for the selected diseases, appropriate strength for children's age and weight was addressed especially in the EMHSLU 2012. However, policy documents neither referred to 'child size medicines' concept nor provided for flexible oral solid dosage formulations like dispersible tablets, pellets and granules- indicating limited adherence to MMCS recommendations. Some of the medicines recommended in the clinical guidelines as first line treatment for malaria and pneumonia among children were not evidence-based. CONCLUSION: The Ugandan health policy documents reflected limited adherence to the MMCS recommendations. This and failure to use evidence based medicines may result into treatment failure and or death. A revision of the current policies and guidelines to better reflect 'child size', child appropriate and evidence based medicines for children is recommended.

14.
BMC Pediatr ; 14: 285, 2014 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25431036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to asthma in 'under-fives' in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 'under-fives', acute asthma and pneumonia have similar clinical presentation and most children with acute respiratory symptoms are diagnosed with pneumonia according to the WHO criteria. The mortality associated with acute respiratory diseases in Uganda is high but improving, dropping from 24% in 2004 to 11.9% in 2012. We describe the immediate clinical outcomes of children with acute asthma and pneumonia and document the factors associated with prolonged hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: We enrolled 614 children aged 2 to 59 months with acute respiratory symptoms presenting at the emergency paediatric unit of Mulago hospital. Clinical histories, physical examination, blood and radiological tests were done. Children with asthma and bronchiolitis were collectively referred to as 'Asthma syndrome'. Hospitalized children were monitored every 12 hours for a maximum of 7 days. Survival analysis was done to compare outcome of children with asthma and pneumonia. Cox regression analysis was done to determine factors associated with prolonged hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 3.6%. The highest case fatality was due to pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (2/4) and pulmonary tuberculosis (2/7). None of the children with asthma syndrome died. Children with 'asthma syndrome' had a significantly shorter hospital stay compared to those with pneumonia (p<0.001). Factors independently associated with mortality included hypoxemia (HR = 10.7, 95% CI 1.4- 81.1) and severe malnutrition (HR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.1- 15.8). Factors independently associated with prolonged hospitalization among children with asthma syndrome included age less than 12 months (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), hypoxemia (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), and severe malnutrition (RR = 1.5 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Similar factors were associated with long duration of hospital stay among children with pneumonia. CONCLUSION: This study identified a sharp decline in acute respiratory mortality compared to the previous studies in Mulago hospital. This may be related to focus on and treatment of asthma in this study, and will be analysed in a later study. Bacterial pneumonia is still associated with high case fatality. Hypoxemia, severe malnutrition, and being an infant were associated with poor prognosis among children with acute asthma and pneumonia and need to be addressed in the management protocols.


Assuntos
Asma/mortalidade , Bronquiolite/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Asma/complicações , Asma/terapia , Bronquiolite/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Malária/complicações , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Pneumonia/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e81562, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24312321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among "under-fives" with cough and difficulty breathing, based on stringent clinical criteria. We also describe the treatment for children with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital. METHODS: We enrolled 614 children aged 2-59 months with cough and difficulty breathing. Interviews, physical examination, blood and radiological investigations were done. We defined asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Pneumonia was defined according to World Health Organization guidelines, which were modified by including fever and white cell count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and chest x-ray. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were collectively referred to as "asthma syndrome" due to challenges of differentiating the two conditions in young children. Three pediatricians reviewed each participant's case report post hoc and made a diagnosis according to the study criteria. RESULTS: Of the 614 children, 41.2% (95% CI: 37.3-45.2) had asthma syndrome, 27.2% (95% CI: 23.7-30.9) had bacterial pneumonia, 26.5% (95% CI: 23.1-30.2) had viral pneumonia, while 5.1% (95% CI: 3.5-7.1) had other diagnoses including tuberculosis. Only 9.5% of the children with asthma syndrome had been previously diagnosed as asthma. Of the 253 children with asthma syndrome, 95.3% (95% CI: 91.9-97.5) had a prescription for antibiotics, 87.7% (95% CI: 83.1-91.5) for bronchodilators and 43.1% (95% CI: 36.9-49.4) for steroids. CONCLUSION: Although reports indicate that acute respiratory symptoms in children are predominantly due to pneumonia, asthma syndrome contributes a significant proportion. Antibiotics are used irrationally due to misdiagnosis of asthma as pneumonia. There is need for better diagnostic tools for childhood asthma and pneumonia in Uganda.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Tosse/complicações , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 13: 141, 2013 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness, with rapidly increasing prevalence in low-income countries. Among young children, asthma is often under-diagnosed.We investigated the factors associated with asthma among under-fives presenting with acute respiratory symptoms at Mulago hospital, Uganda. METHODS: A hospital-based cross sectional study of 614 children with cough and/or difficult breathing, and fast breathing, was conducted between August 2011 and June 2012. A questionnaire focusing on clinical history of the child was administered to the caretakers. A physical examination and, laboratory and radiological investigations were done. Asthma was defined according to GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines which were modified by excluding the symptom of "chest tightness", spirometry/peak expiratory flow measurements and by adding chest x-ray findings to distinguish asthma from pneumonia. A panel of three paediatricians reviewed the participants' case reports and, guided by the study definitions, made a diagnosis of asthma or other. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to determine factors independently associated with asthma. RESULTS: Of the 614 children, 128 (20.8%) had asthma, 125 (20.4%) bronchiolitis, 167 (27.2%) bacterial pneumonia only, 163 (26.5%) viral pneumonia while 31 (5.1%) had other diagnoses including pulmonary tuberculosis. The majority (71.1%) of children with asthma were aged ≥ 12 months. Factors associated with asthma included maternal asthma (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 4.6), a history of allergy in the patient (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2, 5.4,), use of gas for cooking (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2, 13.3), prematurity (AOR 9.3, 95% CI 1.2, 83.3) and high level of education of caretaker (AOR 9.1, 95% CI 1.1, 72.8). CONCLUSION: Maternal asthma, a history of allergy in the patient, use of gas for cooking, prematurity and high level of education of caretaker were significantly associated with asthma. There is need for studies to explore the role of the above factors in development and exacerbation of childhood asthma to provide information that can be used to design strategies for asthma prevention and control.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Asma/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Radiografia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
17.
Prim Care Respir J ; 21(2): 214-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22623048

RESUMO

Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts of pneumonia and asthma/wheezing/bronchiolitis and examines whether asthma in under-5s may be confused with pneumonia. Over-diagnosing of bacterial pneumonia can be suspected from the limited association between clinical pneumonia and confirmatory test results such as chest x-ray and microbiological findings and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing remain undiagnosed. New studies demonstrate that approximately 50% of acutely admitted under-5s diagnosed with pneumonia according to Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses could be re-diagnosed with asthma or wheezing when using re-defined diagnostic criteria and treatment. It is hypothesised that untreated asthma may contribute to respiratory mortality since respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of respiratory death in childhood, and asthma in under-5s is often exacerbated by viral infections, including RSV. Furthermore, acute respiratory treatment failures were predominantly seen in under-5s without fever, which suggests the diagnosis of asthma/wheezing rather than bacterial pneumonia. Ultimately, underlying asthma may have contributed to malnutrition and fatal bacterial pneumonia. In conclusion, preschool asthma in low-income countries may be significantly under-diagnosed and misdiagnosed as pneumonia, and may be the cause of much morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Asma/mortalidade , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/mortalidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia
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